Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an
opportunity to study the behavior of olive
genotypes with respect to climate chang...
The olive groves are a part of global biodiversity occupying the
wider Mediterranean region for thousands years. It play i...
Diversity unknown and not studied
Homonomies and synonymies
Polyclonal varieties or name inclusing
many varieties ?
Ca...
Study of diversity of
« Picholine
marocaine » in South
of Morocco
Fractales
Morphological
Coefficient
0.17 0.56 0.95 1.34 ...
Identification, characterization, collection, conservation and use
of genetic ressources of olive
Projet RESGEN
COI, CFC,U...
Morphological descriptors
DescriptorsOrgan
DiscriminantsTotal
4tree
14leaves
2flower
411Fruit
1011endocarp
1532TOTAL
World collection Marrakech (600 cultivars)
World Collection
Cordoba ‘Spain)
500
World Collection Izmir
– Turkey 60
Results...
In Morocco, there is little diversity in comparison with other olive-growing
countries
Interests of diversification: polli...
OWGB Marrakech
The international Olive Collection
Marrakech is installed in the experimental
Field INRA Tassaout located 6...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
72/73
73/74
74/75
75/76
76/77
77/78
78/79
79/80
80/81
81/82
82/83
83/84
84/85
85/...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
t max
t min
Minima absolu: -4C
Maxima absolu: +45C
Moyenne des minima : 10,9c
Moyenne des ...
Collection Mondiale de l’Olivier de
Marrakech: composition variétale
ORIGINE
Année de plantation
TOTAL2003 2004 2005 2006 ...
DIFFICULTIES
Transportation of rooted cutting:
Mortality : 14 % accessions lost
Space 20 HA
Collecting of data
No data...
Using 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and three chloroplast
DNA markers, this collection was characterized to examine th...
A set of 67 accessions was sufficient to capture
the allelic diversity The purpose of core collections is to
facilitate th...
10 (4 %)
96 (36 %)
102 (38 %)
50 (19 %)
8 (3 %)
2(1 %)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Nombre
de variétés
0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-...
32
26
6
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Nombre de
variétés
0-5 5-10 10-15
Classes des productions (Kg /arbre)
Production cumulée (20...
19%
47%
28%
6%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Réduit (<2) Moyen (2-4) Elevé (4-6) Très élevé (> 6)
Classes de poids
Poids moye...
Scaling of flowering stages of 8 groups of accessions World Olive
Collection Marrakech.
Group1 07-
avr
21-avr 29-avr CHOCK...
51 ACCESSIONS 2013
51 ACCESSIONS 2013
51 ACCESSIONS 2013
51 ACCESSIONS 2013
THE GATHERING OF 600 ACCESSIOSN IN OWGB.
OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS
Drought tolerance ?
Heat tolerance ...
THE GATHERING OF 600 ACCESSIOSN IN OWGB.
OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS
OIL QUALITY
OIL QUALITY: example
C18...
COLLABORATION WITH CC
COLLABORATING PROGRAM BETWEEN THE
THREE COLLECTIONS
DATABASES
COMPARISON BETWEEN BEHAVIOR IN
MAR...
ARBEQUINA
ZARZA
PICUAL
Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole
ESPAGNE
ROYAL DE CAZORLA
Gros fruit
Petit fruit
Fruit mo...
SANTA CATERINA
AMERICANO ITAFIR
GROSSA DI SPAGNA
ABUNARA
Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole
Petit fruit
Fruit moye...
CAYET ROUX
BOUTEILLAN
AGLANDAUSALONENQUE 3,16
Gros
fruit
Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole
Petit
fruit
Fruit
moye...
Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole
Gros
fruit
ANALIONTAS 1
KORAKOU 6,6 g
Fruit
moyen
Petit fruit
CHYPRE
LYTHRODONT...
Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole
GRECE
KORONEIKI
Petit
fruit
KOLYBADA
MASTOIDIS
AMPHISIS
Fruit
moyen
Gros fruit
THEME – 5  Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an opportunity to study the behavior of olive genotypes with respect to cl...
THEME – 5  Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an opportunity to study the behavior of olive genotypes with respect to cl...
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THEME – 5 Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an opportunity to study the behavior of olive genotypes with respect to climate change

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THEME – 5 Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an opportunity to study the behavior of olive genotypes with respect to climate change

  1. 1. Olive World Collection of Marrakech: an opportunity to study the behavior of olive genotypes with respect to climate change International workshop:Applied Mathematics ans Omic Technologies for Discovering Biodiversity andGenetic for Ressources forClimate change Mitigation and Adaptation for Sustainable Agriculture in Drylands RABAT, 24-27 June 2014 LHASSANE SIKAOUI, ABDELMAJID MOUKHLI AND ABDALLAH BARI
  2. 2. The olive groves are a part of global biodiversity occupying the wider Mediterranean region for thousands years. It play in this region a significant socio-economic and ecological role. More than 11 millions Ha 3 millions Tons of olive oil 2 millions tons of table olive For its extensive geographical area, its ancient cultivation, the cultivation of the olive tree has accumulated a large genetic variability that is an asset to significant potential for exploitation This plant material was exposed and still more to genetic erosion favored by the abandonment of old varieties that no longer meet the socio-economic demands and the increasing modernization of the olive sector. However, this erosion can inevitably lead to loss of valuable genes for ever. Only almost 40 varieties are spread in large scale INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. Diversity unknown and not studied Homonomies and synonymies Polyclonal varieties or name inclusing many varieties ? Case of « Picholine marocaine » Problem
  4. 4. Study of diversity of « Picholine marocaine » in South of Morocco Fractales Morphological Coefficient 0.17 0.56 0.95 1.34 1.73 S1 S3 S15 S5 S6 S8 S9 S4 S13 S14 S2 S11 S12 S7 S10 AFLP
  5. 5. Identification, characterization, collection, conservation and use of genetic ressources of olive Projet RESGEN COI, CFC,UE,… Considering the importance of these resources, the International Olive Oil Council decided in 1995 with the support of Genetic Resources Program of the European Union, to collect, conserve and use the genetic resources of the olive tree. With the support of the Common Fund for Commodities, other countries of the Southern Mediterranean have been associated.
  6. 6. Morphological descriptors DescriptorsOrgan DiscriminantsTotal 4tree 14leaves 2flower 411Fruit 1011endocarp 1532TOTAL
  7. 7. World collection Marrakech (600 cultivars) World Collection Cordoba ‘Spain) 500 World Collection Izmir – Turkey 60 Results: 1200 Accessions identified The conservation of cultivated plants in ex-situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources National Collections ONLY OLD VARIETIES
  8. 8. In Morocco, there is little diversity in comparison with other olive-growing countries Interests of diversification: pollination, product diversification, relative avoid some climate events (Hot waves in spring) , timing of harvest.
  9. 9. OWGB Marrakech The international Olive Collection Marrakech is installed in the experimental Field INRA Tassaout located 60 km from Marrakech.  Altitude : 465 m  Longitude 724 N  Latitude : 32 03 W Location
  10. 10. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 72/73 73/74 74/75 75/76 76/77 77/78 78/79 79/80 80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84 84/85 85/86 86/87 87/88 88/89 89/90 90/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 precipitation (mm) Average: 266 mm  minimale :145 mm  maximale :424 mm
  11. 11. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 t max t min Minima absolu: -4C Maxima absolu: +45C Moyenne des minima : 10,9c Moyenne des maxima : 25,8c
  12. 12. Collection Mondiale de l’Olivier de Marrakech: composition variétale ORIGINE Année de plantation TOTAL2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Italie 158 9 167 Espagne 65 24 89 Chypre 31 31 Grèce 17 17 Portugal 15 15 France 13 13 Tunisie 15 12 4 13 44 Maroc 8 33 41 Algérie 44 44 Croatie 16 16 Egypte 19 19 Slovénie 10 10 Liban 15 15 Syrie 70 70 TOTAL 268 64 15 0 8 134 85 0 4 13 591 4 plants / accession
  13. 13. DIFFICULTIES Transportation of rooted cutting: Mortality : 14 % accessions lost Space 20 HA Collecting of data No data passport Authenticity ? Reception of material; different dates
  14. 14. Using 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and three chloroplast DNA markers, this collection was characterized to examine the structure of the genetic diversity and propose a set of olive accessions encompassing the whole Mediterranean allelic diversity range. We identified 505 SSR profiles based on a total of 210 alleles. Based on these markers, the genetic diversity was similar to that of cultivars and wild olives which were previously characterized in another study indicating that OWGB Marrakech is representative of Mediterranean olive germplasm. Using a model-based Bayesian clustering method and principal components analysis, this OWGB was structured into three main gene pools corresponding to eastern, central and western parts of the Mediterranean Basin. Genetic structure and core collection of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Marrakech: towards the optimised management and use of Mediterranean olive genetic resources Hawane et al., 2011 INRA (MOROCCO) UCA – INRA (FRANCE) –
  15. 15. A set of 67 accessions was sufficient to capture the allelic diversity The purpose of core collections is to facilitate the use of germplasm by providing a set of accessions displaying the genetic diversity available in the larger collection These investigations indicated the need to include complementary criteria such as phenotypic, agronomic and adaptive traits, but also the cultivar value and their importance at historical, economic and sociocultural levels to ensure optimal management. Beyond this variability, it is also essential to assess genetic structures and pedigree relationships within the core collection used for genetic association studies and for identifying QTLs related to phenotypic traits .
  16. 16. 10 (4 %) 96 (36 %) 102 (38 %) 50 (19 %) 8 (3 %) 2(1 %) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Nombre de variétés 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-30 Classes de production (Kg / arbre) Production cumulée (2007 et 2008) des 268 variétés plantées en 2003
  17. 17. 32 26 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Nombre de variétés 0-5 5-10 10-15 Classes des productions (Kg /arbre) Production cumulée (2007 et 2008) des 64 variétés plantées en 2004 50 % 41% 9%
  18. 18. 19% 47% 28% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Réduit (<2) Moyen (2-4) Elevé (4-6) Très élevé (> 6) Classes de poids Poids moyen (en grammes) du fruit de 191 cultivars 37 90 53 11
  19. 19. Scaling of flowering stages of 8 groups of accessions World Olive Collection Marrakech. Group1 07- avr 21-avr 29-avr CHOCK HEAT Group2 17-avr 28-avr02-mai Group3 21-avr 27-avr 03-mai Group 4 24-avr 28-avr 04- mai Group 5 26-avr 30-avr 03- mai Group 6 29-avr 01- mai 05-mai Group 7 02- mai 04-mai 08-mai Group 8 04-mai 06-mai 12mai Start of Flowering FULL Flowering 1 7 135 274 74 45 3 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 gr1 gr2 gr3 gr4 gr5 gr6 gr7 gr8 End of flowering 2014
  20. 20. 51 ACCESSIONS 2013
  21. 21. 51 ACCESSIONS 2013
  22. 22. 51 ACCESSIONS 2013
  23. 23. 51 ACCESSIONS 2013
  24. 24. THE GATHERING OF 600 ACCESSIOSN IN OWGB. OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS Drought tolerance ? Heat tolerance ? Cold ? WHY SOME ACCESSIONS DIDN’T produce ? Heat chocks ? TENDERS OF TEMPERATURE ? CLIMATIC DATA : 40 YEARS FLOWERING, FRUIT SET , YIELD
  25. 25. THE GATHERING OF 600 ACCESSIOSN IN OWGB. OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS OIL QUALITY OIL QUALITY: example C18:3 N/S Gradient ? NORTH PLATEFORM ASSET NORMS ORGANOLEOTIC QUALITY FLAVOR, BITTERNESS SOUTH
  26. 26. COLLABORATION WITH CC COLLABORATING PROGRAM BETWEEN THE THREE COLLECTIONS DATABASES COMPARISON BETWEEN BEHAVIOR IN MARRAKECH AND ORIGIN AREA
  27. 27. ARBEQUINA ZARZA PICUAL Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole ESPAGNE ROYAL DE CAZORLA Gros fruit Petit fruit Fruit moyen Fruit côtelé
  28. 28. SANTA CATERINA AMERICANO ITAFIR GROSSA DI SPAGNA ABUNARA Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole Petit fruit Fruit moyen Gros fruit ITALIE
  29. 29. CAYET ROUX BOUTEILLAN AGLANDAUSALONENQUE 3,16 Gros fruit Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole Petit fruit Fruit moyen FRANCE
  30. 30. Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole Gros fruit ANALIONTAS 1 KORAKOU 6,6 g Fruit moyen Petit fruit CHYPRE LYTHRODONTAS LEFKOSIA
  31. 31. Quelques exemples de la diversité oléicole GRECE KORONEIKI Petit fruit KOLYBADA MASTOIDIS AMPHISIS Fruit moyen Gros fruit

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