Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Drylands - seminar japan 1 feb 2017

858 views

Published on

DG's presentation: The dry lands for Japan's seminar (1 february 2017)

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

The Drylands - seminar japan 1 feb 2017

  1. 1. International Platform for Dryland Research and Education (IPDRE) Commemorative Special Seminar for the Tokyo International Symposium The Drylands: The challenge for the 21st Century Aly Abousabaa, Director General ICARDA 9th February, 2017 Japan
  2. 2. I. Introduction to ICARDA II. The challenges of the drylands III.Our work IV.Concluding remarks Outline
  3. 3. 3 ICARDA Our focus is on creating vibrant and prosperous rural communities in the drylands where men and women enjoy increased job opportunities and incomes in agriculture, better access to nutritious food and good health, and increased capacity to innovate, use and manage natural resources in an equitable and sustainable way.
  4. 4. 4 Global Drylands and CGIAR tropical and non- tropical drylands 29.33 million 95.52 million Area (km2) 1.89 billion 2.68 billion Population CIMMYT Texcoco Mexico CIAT Cali Colombia CIP Lima Peru IFPRI Washington D.C. USA WARDA Africa Rice Bouake Ivory Coast IITA Ibadan Nigeria World Agroforestry Nairobi Kenya ILRI Nairobi Kenya IWMI Colombo Sri Lanka World Fish Penang Malaysia CIFOR Bogor Indonesia IRRI Los Banos Philippines Bioversity International Rome Italy ICARDA Aleppo, Syria Beirut, Lebanon ICRISAT Hyderabad India
  5. 5. Where we work countries
  6. 6. 6 Globally there are challenges
  7. 7. The Challenges facing the Drylands  Physical water scarcity  Rapid natural resource degradation and desertification  Groundwater depletion  Drought  Salinity  Climate change  Poverty high levels of unemployment. -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 m Decrease of the Souss aquifer level in Morocco
  8. 8. (compiled by GIS Unit ICARDA, based on partial maps in Christensen et al., 2007) Relative change in mean annual precipitation 1980/1999 to 2080/2099
  9. 9. Decentralizing ICARDA’s GeneBank Activities Taxon Accessions held in Syria Morocco Lebanon Total unique accessions in 2016 Bread wheat 14,100 3487 5037 14639 Durum wheat 19,635 4312 3655 20496 Primitive wheat 912 459 124 954 Aegilops 4057 120 3953 4774 Wild Triticum 1584 116 2250 2079 Barley 28,465 6007 5136 29981 Wild Hordeum 1989 228 354 2324 Chickpea 14,214 3326 2893 15195 Wild Cicer 270 277 547 Lentil 10,496 4618 335 13907 Wild Lens 587 426 602 Faba bean 9542 3397 10034 Lathyrus 3996 1735 4277 Pisum 6106 149 8893 Medicago 8398 1321 5677 Trifolium 4536 5088 6366 Vicia 6144 637 6115 Range and pasture 5802 2130 7166 Others 219 211 225 Total 141,052 22,673 39,108 154,251 Syria: Active and base collections Second level Safety duplication at Svalbard Safety duplication Safety duplication Lebanon: Collections of faba bean, Lathyrus, forage and range species and crop wild relatives Morocco: Collections of cultivated species of barley, wheat, lentil and chickpea Reducing the risk associated with being based in fragile states.
  10. 10. 10 Managing the Germplasm – FIGS Approach • FIGS approach links traits, environments and associated selection pressures with genebank accessions • ‘Focuses in’ on those accessions most likely to possess trait specific genetic variation. 0 50 100 150 0102030405060 Longitude Latitude Trait (disease score)Environment FIGS subset www.icarda.org/ 10,000 accessions 200 accessions Lentil 11876 + 587 Chickpea 15046 + 270 Faba bean 9993 Lathyrus 4165
  11. 11. Link environmental data to collection sites Adapted from D T F Endresen (NGB) Choose accessions from environments where selection pressure exists for adaptive traits to stress e.g. drought, heat, salinity. For diseases and pests, select material from environments that favor high pest populations FIGS Application Focusing on the ‘Best Bet’ Accessions
  12. 12. 12 Our Work: A climate smart crop for the future
  13. 13. 13 Biofortified lentils – reducing micronutrient deficiencies • Five short duration varieties with high Fe, Zn and yield released in Bangladesh • BARI M8 is released this year with high Fe and Zn content • 186,000 ton micronutrient dense lentil produced from 145,600 ha
  14. 14. Parent Variety Yield t/ha % recurrent parent Cham 6*2/SW2 1.6 147 Cham 6*2/SW2 1.5 138 Cham-6 1.10 100 Attila-7 1.3 - Breeding Crops for Drought Tolerance and WUE Example: Synthetic Wheat, tolerance to excessive drought Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compared to parents under drought stress. (Tel Hadya -- 211 mm)
  15. 15. Indigenous breeds of small ruminants are highly adaptable to changes in the environment 15
  16. 16. Genetic diversity and structure of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations Chinese goats Ethiopian indigenous goats • 14 goat populations genotyped with 50K SNP Chip • High genetic diversity (Expected and observed heterozygosity > 0.3) • Ethiopian goats differ genetically from Chinese goats Most genetically distinct populations (Kaffa and Abergelle)Getinet et al (under preparation)
  17. 17. 17 Meat and milk depend on reproduction  Need to increase reproductive efficiency … but using Clean, Green and Non Invasive practices Ultrasound diagnosis as tool to manage sheep and goat reproduction Reproduction technologies to increase reproductive efficiency of sheep and goats
  18. 18. Ultrasound Pregnancy Diagnosis Screening for the number of fetuses Calculation of the age of the fetuses Culling of Sterile Animals Timely planning of conditions of birth and rational use of feed resources Reproduction technologies for higher reproductive efficiency have these advantages
  19. 19. 19 Raised bed combination planter and furrow maker  Reduce applied water by 30%  Increase yields by 25%  Reduce seed rate by 50%  Increase WUE by 72%  70,000 feddan adoption in Egypt (2yrs) Managing severe water scarcity at the farm
  20. 20. FP: furrows irrigation FlP: flat bed irrigation RBP: raised bed irrigation
  21. 21. Supplemental irrigation (SI): Water productive 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Rainfed Full irrigation Supp. Irrigation WPKgwheatgrain/m3H2O 3.1 5.3 5.9 6.2 4.4 2 0.8 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 rainfed Sowing SI Deficit SI Full SI Grain yield (t/ha) Water productivity (Kg/m3) • Limited water application to predominantly rain fed crops alleviates impact of drought spells • Achieve high yields and water productivity especially with deficit irrigation • Allow early sowing to avoid drought and frost and mitigate climate change impacts
  22. 22. The Vallerani for Rangelands (‘badia’) Rehabilitation  Rainwater harvesting using mechanized laser guided contouring to re- establish shrubs  Water stored in soils and aquifers  Improved grazing management Rehabilitating Rangelands in the MENA Region Improves productivity and combats desertification
  23. 23. Water Harvesting Techniques: improve significantly seedlings establishment and biomass and forage production 23
  24. 24. 2. Rehabilitation: Reseeding native species 24
  25. 25. Attribute Outside the Musawar Inside the Musawar (10 years) Inside the Musawar (2 years) Total plant cover 12.67 77.33 47 Contribution of perennials 5.26 15.09 78.72 Contribution of annuals 94.74 84.91 21.28 Total plant cover (%) and contribution of perennials and annuals species (%) inside and outside the musawar (fenced area) in Qatar. 25 Fences are key in rehabilitating degraded.
  26. 26. Scarification + Direct Seeding 26
  27. 27. 27 Potential collaborative areas: ICARDA and Tottori University  Germplasm: pre breading - evaluation  Ecosystems restoration: Experiences between Asia and the Middle east  Water management: Modernizing systems - scarcity management  Watershed management: Complementarities in Ethiopia  Capacity building: MSC & JICA programs  Joint appointments: Already implemented .. Expanding
  28. 28. • The challenges facing the drylands are significant and require an integrated approach in addressing them; • Climate change will be the driver of change – agriculture may not be possible in certain areas in the future; • We can no longer neglect the drylands; • There are clear opportunities where ICARDA and Tottori University can bring together their strengths to meet these challenges. Concluding Remarks
  29. 29. THANK YOU 29

×