Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Syria: Success story of whate self-sufficiency


Published on

Dr. A. Arslan, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Syria: Success story of whate self-sufficiency

  1. 1. Successful story of Syrianself-sufficiency in wheatInternational Conference on Policies for Water and FoodSecurity in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptDr. Haitham Al AshkarSyrianArabRepublic
  2. 2. contentsTheimportance ofagricultureFood securityand povertyin SyriaAgriculturalnaturalresourcesWheatimportance andagricultural policyLessonslearnedInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2
  3. 3. Over the lastdecade, thecontributionto thenational GDPrangedbetween16% and24%to the totallabor forceabout 20%,to the totaltrade about14%.Provides rawmaterials toagro-industrybusiness
  4. 4. 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Agriculture 24.1 19.7 17.5 18.7 16.2 19.7Building & Construction 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.3Finance & Insurance 4.7 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.6Government Services 10.6 12.9 12.5 13.2 14.0 15.0Mining & Manufacturing 23.7 23.3 23.2 22.6 24.5 22.4Transport & Communication 11.3 11.9 12.5 12.3 12.9 11.8Wholesale & Retail Trade 18.3 19.5 21.6 20.8 20.1 17.3other sectors 3.0 3.2 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.8InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt4Contribution of the economic sectors of the national economy to GrossDomestic Products at fixed prices between 2006 and 2011 (%)24.1 16.2
  5. 5. Land usecultivable,6.068 (33%)20% uncultivable44% pastures andsteppes3% forests•invested area 5.7 millionhectares, 94% of cultivableland, 24% irrigated, 56% rain-fed land, 20% fallow land.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt5Total Area18.5M.ha
  6. 6. Agro ecological zones in SyriaInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt6
  7. 7. Water resources• Syria is one of the water-poor countries , like some othercountries in the region,• Tenth 5-year plan showed that there is an average annualwater shortage of /1.727/ billion cubic meters and it reached3.125 billion cubic meters in 2009• That shortage is a result of:• frequent drought seasons,• irrational use of water, at farm level in particular,• lack of incentives to reduce water consumption,• high prices for intensive water-use crops, such as cotton andsugar beet.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7
  8. 8. Water resources cont.• These factors caused:• deeper water table of ground water,• drying-up of some springs,• Reducing the flaw of some rivers,• Exposing some water resources to various levels of pollution.• It is estimated that the water use is about 18 billion M3 , Andaverage water available is 15 billion M3InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8
  9. 9. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9Year irrigated from surface water irrigated from wells2005 560 8652006 551 8512007 583 8132008 595 7612009 583 6562010 614 7272011 647 752Table : evolution of irrigated areas distributed by irrigationsources between 2005 and 2011 (thousand hectares)
  10. 10. Food security in Syria• The UN/FAO World Food Summit (Rome 1996) definedfood security and its associated dimensions as follows:“all people, at all times, have physical, social, andeconomic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food tomeet their dietary needs and food preferences for anactive and healthy life”.Dimensions of food security: Availability, Access, Stability,Utilization.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt10
  11. 11. Food security Dimensions• Food Availability• self-sufficient in most of the agricultural products, and exportsmany of Agr. products• wheat, legumes, vegetables, fruits, olives and olive oil, and someanimal products.• BUT, deficit in sugar and maize, a relatively slight shortage insome dairy products, meat, vegetable oils, and barley.• Accessibility• quota of 1 kg sugar and 0.5 kg rice per capita per month atsubsidized prices.• Opened quantity of Bread is also offered at a very subsidizedprice that represents only 15-20% of production cost.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt11
  12. 12. • Stability• To avoid the risk of food shortage, especially wheat, the Governmentholds sufficient stocks that can feed the Syrian people for more thanone year, which guarantees avoiding chocks of wheat availability andprice volatility.• Food Utilization• Average per capita calorie intake increased from about 3000kcal/day in 2000 to more than 3200 kcal /day in recent years, morethan 85% from vegetal sources.• Per capita daily protein consumption increased from 74.8 to 86.7grams/day with a significant increase of vegetal protein share.• Per capita FAT consumption has declined from 104.5 grams /day in2000 to 96 g / day in 2004, while the share of fat of plant sourcesreached 76% .In 2010, The Syrian Government adopted a National Program for FoodSecurityInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt12Food security Dimensions cont.
  13. 13. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13ItemSelf-sufficiencyratioItem Self-sufficiency ratioWheat 98 Olive 558Lentils 173 Almonds 101Tomato 147 Eggs 122.7Potato 109 red meat 109Barley 62.5 Milk 295Maize 11.6Table: The average Self-Sufficiency Ratio between 2005 and 2010 (%)
  14. 14. Self Sufficiency in WheatInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt14
  15. 15. The challenge and coping strategy• Syria has experienced difficulties in providing sufficientflour to the Syrian citizens in the late 80s of the lastcentury.• To avoid that, a decision has been made at a high politicallevel, according to which the country must produce itsneeds from wheat and the Government should insure theavailability of all requirements at due time and reasonableprices to implement the decision.• Accordingly, all related ministries and interested partieshave prepared plans to implement the decision.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt15
  16. 16. The Importance of Wheat• The most important item of food basketIn 2011,• wheat made up 35% of the cropped area• 28% of the crop production• 20% of the value of crop production• 14% of the value of agricultural production•• To avoid the risk of drought, about 50% of wheatcultivated in irrigated area.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt16
  17. 17. Wheat areaFigure:evolutionofareaunderwheatfrom1990and2011byproductionsystem(thousandhectare)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt170200,000400,000600,000800,0001,000,0001,200,00019901992199419961998200020022004200620082010Irrigated Rainfed1066274857755
  18. 18. Figure:evolutionofwheatproductionfrom1990and2011 byproductionsystem(tones)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt18rain-fed irrigated44%92%
  19. 19. Figure:evolutionof wheatproductivityfrom1990and2011 byproductionsystem(ton/ha)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt1900.511.522.533.544.551990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011total irrigated rain-fed
  20. 20. Wheat policiesPlanning policyInput and credit policiesIrrigation policyPlant protection policyAgricultural research and extensionpoliciesMAAR investment budget policyMarketing and price policiesTrade policyInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20
  21. 21. Planning policy• Top bottom initiative of the Annual AgriculturalProduction Plan• Local discussion of the Plan• Bottom top process of formulation the Plan• Endorsement of the Plan• Agricultural licenseInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21
  22. 22. Input and credit policyCredit policy, Agricultural Cooperative Bank, ACB• Subsidized interest rate, 6% -8%Cash loans per hectare• SP15000 from wells,• 11000 from surface water,• 2500 rain-fed• In-kind• Seeds• 250 kg/ha for irrigated areas from wells and surface water resources,• 200 kg/ha in the rain-fed areas in zone1• 150 kg/ha in the rain-fed areas in zone 2.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22
  23. 23. FertilizersInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23Fertilizer irrigatedRain-fedZone1 Zone2N 141 70 51P2O5 65 30 30K2O 90 35 -Table: fertilizers offered by ACB according to the table of requirement(kg pure unit/ha)
  24. 24. Irrigation PoliciesThe Future vision indicates that “Water security is an essential tool toachieve sustainable development”.The Tenth Five-Year Plan adopted policies and methods related tomanagement and investment of water resources through:enhancing water use efficiency, and preservationTake all measures to control water pollution and find appropriate solutions.Provide efficient institutional and legal frameworks and adequate financialresources. Enable relevant institutions to manage water resources in an integratedmanner covering real needs of rural communities, especially in remote andpoor areas, through an effective, rational and sustainable way.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24
  25. 25. Water policies cont. Engage economic planning of resource management and planning ofavailable water resources, as well as rationalize the use and development ofnon-traditional sources of water to achieve the utmost possible use ofwater. Enhance awareness; disseminate information and education, support therole of the private sector, community institutions, and water users incontrolling and managing water resources.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt25
  26. 26. Irrigation PoliciesConversion from traditional irrigation to modern irrigationtechniques:establishing, in the Ministry of Agricultural and AgrarianReform, the National Fund for Conversion to ModernIrrigation,The capital of the fund is SP 52 Billion.It provides farmers with long term loans at 4% interestrate.Moreover, farmers are exempted from 50% of the totalloan.The converted area was about 23% of the total irrigatedarea.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26
  27. 27. Research and extension policiesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt27The research programs resulted in finding out:irrigated durum wheat variety, sham7, 7.445 T/ha,Rain-fed durum wheat, zon1, Bohoth 7, 4.843 T/haIrrigated soft wheat, sham8, 9 T/hRain-fed soft wheat, zone1, variety, Golan2, 4.576 T/h
  28. 28. Research and extension cont.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt28In order to transfer the findings of the researchto the farm field a specific extension program isdelivered to wheat farmers to get the best resultsof wheat in terms of quantity and quality.
  29. 29. Fertilizers 18%Crop management 23%Irrigation 27%Improved varieties 32%the impact of agricultural technologies on the increaseof wheat productivity
  30. 30. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt30Year soft wheat durum wheat10.8 11.810.8 11.810.8 11.810.8 11.810.8 11.810.8 11.816.5 1719.5 2020 20.521 21.5Table: Evolution of official wheat prices SP/kgMarketing and price policies
  31. 31. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt310501001502002503003504004502002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013US$/TLocal price world priceFigure:Evolution of local and internationalprices of soft wheat
  32. 32. The impact of Agricultural Policies was positive on the increaseof wheat production, due to the development of bothhorizontal and vertical dimensions,between 1990 and 2012:• The production increased by 74%.• 74% due to improving in productivity• 26% due to the expansion in area• Statistics shows that the average ration of cultivated area toplaned area of wheat between 1996 and 2013 is 104%,• the highest was 124%, in 2001, and the lowest was 82%, in2013.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt32Policy impacts analysis
  33. 33. Figure:Planedandexecutedareaof wheatbetween1996and2013 (ha)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt330200000400000600000800000100000012000001400000160000018000002000000199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013planned area executed area
  34. 34. PositiveImpactsofAgriculturalPolicies Increasing cultivated land in both systems, rain-fed andirrigated,Achieving self sufficiency in many agricultural productsIncreasing per capita calories intake.Increasing the aggregate value of the agricultural productionIncreasing the raw and processed agricultural exports share ofthe total exports.Developing rural infrastructure such as agriculturalroads, electricity, water, communication, storage, transport, etc.)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt34
  35. 35. NegativeImpacts of the AgriculturalPolicies Deteriorate soil fertility, and contamination of soil and waterdue to excessive use of water . Shortage of water supply, particularly underground water dueto random wells drilling and irrational water use. Holding fragmentation impeded agriculturalmechanization, due to heritage system and absence of jointstock investment systems. Marketing, export and processing activities do not go in linewith the agricultural production increaseInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt35
  36. 36. ChallengesFacingAgricultureLimitation of natural and agricultural resources and theimpacts of environmental and climatic conditions.High population growth and increased agricultural labor force.Holding fragmentation.Lack of financial resources and limited investments due to theuncertainty of the agricultural investment.Distribution of responsibility of agriculture managmentamongst different ministriesInternational economic changes (trade liberalization, tradeagreements, and tariff concessions).Agricultural subsidies of rich countries and strongcompetition.Macro policies problems such as fiscal and financialpolicies, interest and exchange rates, pricing, and subsidies.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt36
  37. 37. Lessons learned• Seeking to achieve a goal at national level entails a strong politicalwell, which is the case of achieving self-sufficiency in wheat.• Sharing the interest with all stakeholders and beneficiaries and makethem part of the process, which is the case in the preparation ofAnnual Agricultural Production Plan.• All requirements, including cash, should be made available at duetime and at reasonable price, which is the case when theGovernment gives the responsibility to Agricultural CooperativeBank to provide farmers with cash and in-kind loans at low interestrate.• Insure that the implementation of the plan goes well, where astrong technical team should be recruited to monitor and follow upthe implementation of the plan. Moreover, the team should beready to intervene at due time, this is the case when all technicalteams at the MAAR are ready to intervene when needed.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt37
  38. 38. • It is essential to assure farmers that the activity that youare encouraging them to perform is profitable; the casewhen the Government announces the price of wheatprior of the planting season;• In long term plans, adequate budget to fund researchand extension, protection plant should be secured; thecase when the Government allocates adequate money inthe current and investment budget to fund the Ministryof Agriculture and Agrarian Reform programs.• A clear vision and goals with executive matrix should beannounced, this is the case when the Governmentadopted National Program for Food Security.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt38Lessons learned cont.
  39. 39. Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome