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Sources of Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat<br /> <br />Habte-Mariam Z., A.Badebo and  W. Denbel<br ...
Stripe/yellow rust <br /><ul><li>  Caused by Pucciniastriiformis
Major  wheat disease in the temperate regions as well as in the highlands of the tropics and subtropics</li></li></ul><li>...
Stripe rust in Ethiopia…<br />Major Epidemics<br /><ul><li>In 1970s, on variety, “Laketch”- (Kalyansona ‘S’)
  In 1988,  on  variety, “Dashen” (VEE’S’)
  In 2010, on major varieties,  including “ Kubsa”     (Attila’S’) and “Galema” (4777(2)//FKN/GB/3/PVN’S’)</li></li></ul><...
(6E16)<br /> Yr 6, 7, 8<br />(82E0)<br />Yr7, 9, 10, SU<br />(6E6)<br />Yr6,7, 6+,7+<br />(70E16)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU<br />...
Stripe rust races.. <br />Dominant races 1998-2003 in Ethiopia<br />All the commercial bread wheat succumbed to the ‘Kubsa...
Stripe rust Resistance<br /><ul><li>Most of the cultivated bread wheat varieties are susceptible to the prevailing races o...
Only a few Yr genes are effective: Yr 1 (Chinese 166), Yr4 (Hybrid 46), Yr5 (T.spelta album), Yr17 (Vpm), Yr15 (T. dicocco...
  Primitive cultivars - center of diversity
  Wild or semi-wild materials- Center of origin
  Related mostly wild species </li></li></ul><li>Objective<br />The objective of this study was to identify new sources of...
Materials and Method<br />Planting materials <br />A total of 764. synthetic hexaploid wheat derived from Aegilops tauschi...
Field test<br />The field test was conducted at two locations in Ethiopia and at Tel-Hadya, Syria in 2010<br /><ul><li>In ...
In Ethiopia, the nursery was planted at two locations (Meraro- ca. 2920 masl and Kulumsa-2200 masl) and evaluated under na...
Results and Discussion<br />There was high pressure of stripe rust both in Syria and Ethiopia in 2010<br />In Ethiopia, th...
Stripe rust epidemics<br />The epidemics covered almost all wheat growing regions except in Tigray<br />Most of the commer...
What are the possible causes?<br /><ul><li>Increased in aggressiveness of  the existing race (s) </li></ul>     reported e...
   Mono-cropping/buildup of spore load?
   Climate change ?</li></li></ul><li>Kulumsa, 2200masl<br />Monthly rainfall  (mm)distribution<br />
Kulumsa<br />Bekoji<br />Monthly Minimum Temperature (oC) <br />
Challenges and opportunities? <br />Screening of synthetic hexaploid wheat to stripe rust<br />
Field test<br />The highest disease scores were noted at Meraro followed by Tel-Hadya. <br />The reaction of check varieti...
Kulumsa , N= 764 <br />Tel-Hadya, N=749<br />Frequency (%) of SHWs under different stripe rust reaction classes at three l...
Ethiopia + Syria, N=651<br />Frequency (%) of SHWs under different resistance groups at adult plant growth stage across lo...
Seedling test<br />Out of 644 SHWs evaluated, 36.8 % exhibited resistance whereas the rest 63.2% were susceptible at seedl...
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Sources of Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat

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Habte-Mariam Z., A.Badebo and W. Denbel, EIAR
K. Nazari, O.Francis, ICARDA

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Sources of Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat

  1. 1. Sources of Resistance to Stripe Rust in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat<br /> <br />Habte-Mariam Z., A.Badebo and W. Denbel<br /> <br /> <br />K. Nazari, O.Francis<br /> <br />EIAR<br />
  2. 2. Stripe/yellow rust <br /><ul><li> Caused by Pucciniastriiformis
  3. 3. Major wheat disease in the temperate regions as well as in the highlands of the tropics and subtropics</li></li></ul><li>Stripe rust in Ethiopia<br />Importance<br />Reported in 1947 <br />Increased its importance since the late 1970s<br />Occurs regularly in the highlands >2400masl<br />Yield loss is severe (58%-96%) when spikes are infected<br />
  4. 4. Stripe rust in Ethiopia…<br />Major Epidemics<br /><ul><li>In 1970s, on variety, “Laketch”- (Kalyansona ‘S’)
  5. 5. In 1988, on variety, “Dashen” (VEE’S’)
  6. 6. In 2010, on major varieties, including “ Kubsa” (Attila’S’) and “Galema” (4777(2)//FKN/GB/3/PVN’S’)</li></li></ul><li>Stripe rust races<br />Monitored 1973-2003<br /><ul><li>1973-1992 in IPO, </li></ul> The Netherlands<br /><ul><li> 1998-2003</li></ul>Goettingen/Kulumsa<br />
  7. 7. (6E16)<br /> Yr 6, 7, 8<br />(82E0)<br />Yr7, 9, 10, SU<br />(6E6)<br />Yr6,7, 6+,7+<br />(70E16)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU<br />(82E16)<br />Yr7, 9,10, SU<br />8<br />(86E0)<br />Yr 7, 9,10, SU,<br />6<br />(38E16)<br /> Yr6, 7, 8, SD<br />(70E150)<br />Yr6,7,6+, 7+, 8, SU, 2+<br />(70E30)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU,<br />3N, 6+, 7+<br />(38E150)<br /> Yr6, 7, 8, SD,<br />6+,7+, 2+<br />(78E30)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU,<br />3N, 6+, 7+, 3V<br /> <br />(198E158)<br />Yr6,7,6+, 7+, 8, SU, 2+,3N, 9+<br /> <br />(166E150)<br />Yr6, 7, 8, SD,<br />6+, 7+,2+ ,9+<br />(78E158)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU,<br />3N, 6+, 7+ 3V,2+<br />(166E158)<br /> Yr6, 7, 8, SD, 6+, 7+,2 +, 9+ , 3N<br />(206E158)<br />Yr6,7, 8, SU,<br />3N, 6+, 7+, 3V,2+, 9+<br />Evolution of YR races in <br />Ethiopia, 1973-2003 <br />(Badebo et al., 2008)<br />(230E158)<br />Yr6, 7, 8, SD,<br />6+, 7+,2+ ,9+, 3N, SU<br /> <br />
  8. 8. Stripe rust races.. <br />Dominant races 1998-2003 in Ethiopia<br />All the commercial bread wheat succumbed to the ‘Kubsa’ race (230E158) at seedling tests in 1998 (Badebo et al., 2008)<br />
  9. 9. Stripe rust Resistance<br /><ul><li>Most of the cultivated bread wheat varieties are susceptible to the prevailing races of stripe rust
  10. 10. Only a few Yr genes are effective: Yr 1 (Chinese 166), Yr4 (Hybrid 46), Yr5 (T.spelta album), Yr17 (Vpm), Yr15 (T. dicoccoidesG-25), Yr SP and Yr32 (CV)</li></li></ul><li>Searching for new sources of resistance<br />Where to look for? <br /><ul><li>Landraces
  11. 11. Primitive cultivars - center of diversity
  12. 12. Wild or semi-wild materials- Center of origin
  13. 13. Related mostly wild species </li></li></ul><li>Objective<br />The objective of this study was to identify new sources of stripe rust resistance in synthetic hexaploid wheat derived from Triticum durum and Aegilops tauschii<br />
  14. 14. Materials and Method<br />Planting materials <br />A total of 764. synthetic hexaploid wheat derived from Aegilops tauschii and Triticum durum and developed in CIMMYT, Australia and ICARDA<br />Seedling test<br />Seedling test was carried out in the greenhouse at ICARDA using a local race of P. striiformis virulent on Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrA, Yr25 and Yr27 genes, 2010<br />
  15. 15. Field test<br />The field test was conducted at two locations in Ethiopia and at Tel-Hadya, Syria in 2010<br /><ul><li>In Syria, the nursery was planted at Tel-Hadya, ICARDA pathology plot, and evaluated under artificial inoculation
  16. 16. In Ethiopia, the nursery was planted at two locations (Meraro- ca. 2920 masl and Kulumsa-2200 masl) and evaluated under natural epidemics </li></li></ul><li>Disease assessment<br />In seedling test, a 0 to 4 scale was used (McIntosh et al., 1995), and IT, 0-2 was considered as resistant and 3-4 as susceptible <br />In adult plant test, a modified Cobb’s scale was used for severity (%), for infection types (R, MR, MS and S) according Roelfs et al. (1992)<br />The field severity data were converted to CI by multiplying with constant numbers (R=0.2, MR=0.4, M=0.6, MS=0.8 and S=1) (Stubbs et al., 1986). <br />The SHWs were categorized into different resistance classes based on the CI values of the check cultivars<br />
  17. 17. Results and Discussion<br />There was high pressure of stripe rust both in Syria and Ethiopia in 2010<br />In Ethiopia, the disease appeared unusually early in the season in Arsi zone<br />
  18. 18. Stripe rust epidemics<br />The epidemics covered almost all wheat growing regions except in Tigray<br />Most of the commercial bread wheat cultivars were susceptible<br />Durum wheat varieties were resistant<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. What are the possible causes?<br /><ul><li>Increased in aggressiveness of the existing race (s) </li></ul> reported elsewhere (Milus et al., 2009) ?<br /><ul><li> New race (s) ?
  21. 21. Mono-cropping/buildup of spore load?
  22. 22. Climate change ?</li></li></ul><li>Kulumsa, 2200masl<br />Monthly rainfall (mm)distribution<br />
  23. 23. Kulumsa<br />Bekoji<br />Monthly Minimum Temperature (oC) <br />
  24. 24. Challenges and opportunities? <br />Screening of synthetic hexaploid wheat to stripe rust<br />
  25. 25. Field test<br />The highest disease scores were noted at Meraro followed by Tel-Hadya. <br />The reaction of check varieties to stripe rust at Meraro, 2010<br />
  26. 26. Kulumsa , N= 764 <br />Tel-Hadya, N=749<br />Frequency (%) of SHWs under different stripe rust reaction classes at three locations in Ethiopia and Syria, 2010<br />
  27. 27. Ethiopia + Syria, N=651<br />Frequency (%) of SHWs under different resistance groups at adult plant growth stage across locations <br />
  28. 28. Seedling test<br />Out of 644 SHWs evaluated, 36.8 % exhibited resistance whereas the rest 63.2% were susceptible at seedling stage<br />
  29. 29. Frequency (%) of SHWs under different reaction classes after being tested both at seedling and adult plant growth stage at Tel-Hadya, 2010 <br />
  30. 30. Summary and Conclusion<br /><ul><li> A total of 173 SHWs were identified as Resistant (78), </li></ul> Moderately Resistant (30), and Moderately susceptible (65) <br /><ul><li> Out of these, about 20 % exhibited stem rust resistance (R- </li></ul> MS) including to Ug99 race at DebreZeit, Ethiopia (Data not <br /> included).<br /><ul><li> In addition, some of the resistant SHWs in this study has been reported to be resistant to the Ethiopian and European (Badebo and Fehrman, 2005)</li></li></ul><li>Summary and Conclusion…<br /><ul><li>Based on the results, the SHWs are potential sources of resistance to stripe rust which should be exploited in wheat breeding program.
  31. 31. EIAR in collaboration with ICARDA, have initiated crosses to introgress resistance into adapted cultivars. </li></li></ul><li>

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