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Sharing Knowledge on Sustainable land management in Central Asia – the wider context.


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Sharing Knowledge on Sustainable land management in Central Asia – the wider context.

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Sharing Knowledge on Sustainable land management in Central Asia – the wider context.

  1. 1. Sharing knowledge on sustainable land management in Central Asia – the wider context Jozef Turok CGIAR Program Facilitation Unit for Central Asia and the Caucasus International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Tashkent
  2. 2. Land and water degradation (E. De Pauw et al., ICARDA, 2009)
  3. 3. Land use patterns in Central Asia (E. De Pauw ,2008)
  4. 4. Precipitation change projections in Central Asia and Xinjiang Province in 2080/2099, according to the average of 21 GCM models under greenhouse gas emission scenario A1b (IPCC, 2007)
  5. 5. Precipitation in Turkmenistan, 1979-2010 -17% (А.Г Костяной, С.А. Лебедев, Д.М. Соловьев, 2011)
  6. 6. Andervash Glacier melting in Tajikistan (Photo S. Christmann)
  7. 7. The Aral Sea Basin – socio-economic factors • Independence from Soviet Union in 1991 and adoption of different models of socio-economic development • Disruption of trade arrangements, liberalization, new trade barriers • Land reforms with varying scope, depth • Agriculture employs between 20-50% of the population, primary source of income • Farm privatization and land reform created a generation of small-scale farmers with limited access to technology, capital, modern inputs • Subsidies on irrigation water • High labor migration
  8. 8. Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM)
  9. 9. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) • SLM Interventions can prevent and halt land degradation, and rehabilitate already degraded land • Strengthening of resilience in rural areas to climate change • Many good SLM practices are available, some have been documented in widely recognized tools (WOCAT) • Assessment and monitoring of impact, especially in view of climate change • Promotion, adoption – enabling policy environment • Involves policy makers, farmers and other land users, natural resource managers, practitioners, rural advisory services, research • Assessment of extent and distribution of land degradation
  10. 10. Existing partnership • CGIAR Regional Program for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus, hosted and led by ICARDA • Food security, poverty alleviation, environment • Each Center has own mandate and expertise – transfer, testing and development of technologies • Strong partnerships with national research organizations, policy makers, universities, farmers’ associations • Operational since 1998 • Financing and governance by the participating Centers • CGIAR Research Programs
  11. 11. Germplasm enhancement and crop improvement • Introduction and testing of improved germplasm to address production constraints • High yield, quality traits and tolerance to drought, heat, salinity, pests and diseases (yellow rust in wheat) • About 65 varieties released Salinity tolerant and susceptible varieties in winter wheat, Khorezm, Uzbekistan (R.C. Sharma, ICARDA, 2011)
  12. 12. Improving water management • Effects of agronomic and water management practices on water productivity • Defining water management practices under water deficit conditions • Research on saline and marginal quality water • Trans-boundary water allocation research • Modeling of groundwater quality and quantity Demonstration and dissemination of technologies for more efficient use of irrigation water (WPI-PL Project, IWMI, 2011)
  13. 13. Promoting conservation agriculture • First conservation tillage practices in Kazakhstan in the 1960s • Now more than 1,600,000 ha under conservation agriculture mostly in rainfed North Kazakhstan • Recognized in state policy with subsidies • Research and demonstration efforts ongoing in irrigated areas in South Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan Wheat yield response to planting method, two different farms in Azerbaijan (2011) Residue retention Planting method Wheat grain yield, t/ha Saved water, % Jumshudov Babaev Jumshudov Babaev Bed planted 5.37 4.53 36% 36% Broadcasted 3.52 3.25 (A. Nurbekov et al., ICARDA, 2012)
  14. 14. SLM Research: Soil management practices Laser leveling Residue retention Raised-bed planting Irrigation techniques
  15. 15. Z Z D C B A -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 X Data Y Data 100 80 60 40 20 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 M M A D C B Z M M Z -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 X Data Y Data 80 60 40 20 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 D C B A Laser leveling • Water saving up to 25-35% (500- 600 m3ha-1 per irrigation) • Even crop germination and moisture distribution • Expensive, training requirements Raised-bed seeding EM-38 device • Seeding rate up to 40% reduced • Yield increased 7-22% • Irrigation savings 15-20% • Net profit doubled due to reduced fuel costs • Intercropping and direct seeding possible • Not available locally Residue retention • Reduced evapotranspiration • Organic matter input • Erosion control • New paradigm • Availability (K. Kienzler, T. Yuldashev, ICARDA, unpublished data)
  16. 16. SLM Research: Crop management practices Food legumes Cropping geometry Crop-livestock integration 16 Fodder crops
  17. 17. Dryland Systems CRP • Study and provide options for reducing vulnerability and managing risk in production systems characterized by land degradation, severe socio-economic conditions, health risks and no viable development alternatives • Two Action Sites selected for two distinct landscapes: • Aral Sea Region (KZ, TK, UZ) • Rasht and Kyzyl-Suu Valley (TJ, KG)
  18. 18. Outlook • Pilot project laying groundwork for a second phase of CACILM • Sharing knowledge on Sustainable Land Management is a multi-stakeholder issue • Existing partnerships and openness for collaboration • Enabling policy environment • Capacity building and training of young generation