Ramdani izmir 2014

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Ramdani izmir 2014

  1. 1. Wheat rusts in Morocco : Status and update on control strategies Dr. RAMDANI Abdelhamid INRA Meknès Morocco
  2. 2. Rural; 44 Urban; 56 Total population in Morocco 34.4 millions (2008) Source : CIA World Factbook
  3. 3. The economy of Morocco is based to a large extend on agricultural production that contribute with 16 to 20% of GDP (Gross domestic product). Cereals (wheats and barley) are among the major crops cultivated. They are cultivated over more than 60% of the cropped land each year (around 6 millions hectares). However Yields of these crops remain low due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Crop losses caused by pests of cereals are estimated at 30% or more. Some of these key pests include: Rusts (Leaf & stripe), Septoria and Hessian fly on wheat.
  4. 4. Cereal production in Morocco during 2008-09 and 2009-10 cropping seasons Source: ONICL 32 16 26 74 43 20 38 101 29 14 19 62 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Bread wheat Durum wheat Barley Total Production(xMillionquintals) 2009-10 2008-09 Average 05-09
  5. 5. 45.1 144 25.1 3.6 217.8 52 121 3.5 0.5 177 0 50 100 150 200 250 Durum wheat Bread wheat Barley Maize Total kg/year/capita Rural Urban Consumption of cereals in Morocco during 2000-01 (average 197.4) (World average : 152 kg/year/capita) Source: Direction des statistiques Barley plays a major role in the drier areas, where it not only supports livestock production, but is also a major food source for the rural populations.
  6. 6. 19.33 4.53 2.93 11.59 38.38 1.36 3.94 1.18 9.03 15.51 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Bread wheat Durum wheat Barley Maize Total Import(xMillionquintals) 2007-08 2006-07 Moroccan imports of Cereal during 2006-07 and 2007-08 Source: ONICL
  7. 7. Importation par pays d'origine Argentine; 14,60% Canada; 11,60% France; 19,90%Ukraine; 1,70% USA; 30,10% Autres; 22,10%
  8. 8. To address these problems of biotic stresses and to boost the food security strategy, the development and implementation of a broad based diseases management strategy is required. This should be based on the increased use of resistant cultivars, and the enhancement of the durability of resistance through appropriate gene management systems, complemented by other control methods, such as selective use of fungicides and cultural practices
  9. 9. Status of wheat rust diseases in Morocco
  10. 10. 0 20 40 60 80 100 SLD LR YR SR PM CB Diseases Prevalence(%) Bread Wheat Durum Wheat 2007-08 Prevalence of wheat diseases in Morocco during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 cropping seasons 0 20 40 60 80 100 SLD LR YR Diseases Prevalence(%) Bread Wheat (80 fields) DurumWheat (44 fileds) 2008-09 0 20 40 60 80 100 SLD LR YR SR RR PM LS CB Diseases Prevalence(%) Bread Wheat (53 fields) DurumWheat (19 fileds) 2009-10
  11. 11. Prevalence of wheat diseases in Morocco during 2012-2013 growing season SLD: Septoria-like diseases, LR: Leaf rust, YR: Yellow rust, SR: Stem rust, RR: Root rot, PM: Powdery mildew, LS: Loose smut, CB: Common bunt; Ergot (Claviceps purpurea)
  12. 12. Prevalence of Bread wheat rust diseases in Morocco during 2012-2013 cropping season Bread Wheat (89 fields)
  13. 13. Area Total inspected fileds of Bread wheat Yellow rust severity (%) 0 Tr-5 10-20 30-40 50-60 >= 70 Abda 14 14 Doukkala 4 4 Gharb 9 4 1 3 1 M.Atlas 1 1 Pré-Rif 5 1 1 3 Saïs 26 2 4 3 2 5 10 Shaouia 2 1 1 Taza 9 1 3 1 4 Zaïr 14 3 4 2 5 Zemour 5 2 3 TOTAL 89 27 12 9 4 11 26 Range of Yellow rust severity on bread wheat in Morocco during 2012-2013 cropping season
  14. 14. Area Number of Bread wheat fileds Leaf rust severity Abda 2 20 Gharb 1 20 Saïs 1 30 1 20 Taza 1 50 2 15 The highest leaf rust severity scored on bread wheat in Morocco during 2012-2013 cropping season
  15. 15. Prevalence of Durum wheat rust diseases in Morocco during 2012-2013 cropping season Durum Wheat (39 fields)
  16. 16. Area Total inspected fileds Leaf rust severity (%) Yellow rust severity (%) 0 Tr 5 10 15 20 30 50 80 0 Tr 5 10 15 30 40 Abda 9 2 5 1 1 9 Doukkala 4 3 1 4 Gharb 1 1 1 Pré-Rif 1 1 1 Saïs 5 2 1 1 1 4 1 Taza 6 1 2 1 2 5 1 Zaïr 11 1 5 2 2 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 Zemour 2 1 1 1 1 TOTAL 39 8 11 9 2 2 3 1 2 1 27 7 1 1 1 1 1 Range of Leaf rust and Yellow rust severities on durum wheat in Morocco during 2012-2013 cropping season
  17. 17. Effectiveness of Yr genes
  18. 18. Effectiveness of Yr genes under Meknès conditions during four consecutive growing seasons 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 *M oroccoAvocetS AvocetR (Y rA ) *Jupateco S *Jupateco R (Yr18) Yr1 Yr5 Yr6 Yr7 Yr8 Yr9 Yr10 Yr15 Yr17 Yr18 *Y r24 *Y r26 Yr27 *Y r32 YrSp Severity(%) Mek05-06 Mek06-07 Mek07-08 Max 30% Mek08-09 * : Missing data for Morocco during 09 and for Jupateco, Yr24, Yr26 and Yr32 during 06, 07 and 08 The highly effective Yr genes were Yr 1, 5, 10, 15 and YrSp.
  19. 19. 0 20 40 60 80 100 M orocco AvocetSAvocetR (YrA) Yr1 Yr5 Yr6 Yr7 Yr8 Yr9 Yr10 Yr15 Yr17 Yr18 Yr27 YrSp Yellowrustseverity(%) Mek06-07 Mek07-08 Max 30% Douy06-07 YR (%) Douy 07-08 YR (%) Max 80% Annoceur06-07YR (%) Annoceur07-08YR (%) Effectiveness of Yr genes under Meknès, Douyet and Annoceur conditions during 2006-07 and 2007-08 growing seasons
  20. 20. Effectiveness of Yr genes under Marchouch and Annoceur conditions during 2009-10 growing season 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A vocet'S'A vocet'R'M orocco Y r1 Y r2 Y r5 Y r6 Y r7 Y r8 Y r9 Y r10 Y r15 Y r17 Y r18 Y r21 Y r25 Y r27 Y r28 Y r29 Y r31 Y rSp Severity(%) Marchouch 2010 Annoceur 2010 The highly effective Yr genes were Yr 1, 5, 10, 15 and YrSp.
  21. 21. Effectiveness of Yr genes under Marchouch, Douyet and Meknès conditions during 2011-12 and 2012-13 growing seasons The strongest Yr gene during 2012-13 season was Yr15
  22. 22. Les maladies cryptogamiques des blés Yellow (Stripe) rust (Puccinia striiformis)
  23. 23. What would be the effect of diseases on yield and its components mainly TKW Afourar INRA experimental station 2009-2010
  24. 24. Photo RAMDANI (Douyet 2008-09)
  25. 25. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) : A real threat
  26. 26. Fully aware of the magnitude of threat of the rust diseases to national cereal production and in order to raise awareness of decision makers and all stakeholders and to formulate and implement national strategies to prevent such threat, INRA- Morocco with the financial and technical support of FAO organized three workshops : “Importance of rusts of wheat in Morocco and strategies for controlling and preventing their losses” “Wheat Rust Diseases Awareness and Contingency Planning” “Contingency Plan for Management of Wheat Rust Diseases in Morocco” These workshops were attended by representatives of key national research, extension and production institutions involved in cereals, and of FAO and ICARDA.
  27. 27. Contingency plan Preventive Predictive Reactive
  28. 28. Idiotype breeding Biotic constraints Abiotic constraints Pests Diseases Genetic of resistance Epidemiology Host x Pathogen Intraspecific variability of the pathogen Agronomic traits Quality traits IPM Management practices Yield potential/stability Tolerance to Drought, heat, cold , …. Figure : Interdisciplinary approach for an ideotype breeding
  29. 29. Many thanks to : FAO

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