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Pulses in Global Human
Health Challenges
Dil Thavarajah
Pulse Quality and Nutrition
Clemson University, SC, USA
dthavar@Cl...
Clemson University Nutrition Research
Global Child Malnutrition
UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, 2015
Wasting Prevalence
World Fat, Sugar and Pulse Supply
Thavarajah, Thavarajah, Johnson, and Kumar, 2016, “Grain Legumes", ISBN 978-953-51-4659-9
Calories from major commodities in
developing countries, WHO 2013
Varadharajan et al (2013) Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 22:326-339
Per capita food consumption
India 1950-2010
energy
protein
vitam...
Lancet, Vol 387 April 2, 2016
 The world has transitioned from an era
when underweight prevalence was more than
obesity, ...
WHO Global Targets-2025
1. 40% reduction in stunting
2. 50% reduction in anemia
3. 30% reduction in low birth weight
4. no...
Green
Revolution
Greener
Revolution
http://www.theheartskitchen.com/vegetable-breeding/
www.HarvestPlus.com
Pulses as a Whole Food
Iron Bioavailability
Food
matrix
prebiotic
carbohydrates
Organic
acids
Phytic acid
Carotenoids
 Cell culture
 Molecular ...
Selenium Nutrition
 Will selenium increase lentil yield
and seed quality?
foliar application increased biomass
(5586 vs....
Lentil Prebiotic Carbohydrates
A prebiotic is a “selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes,
both in th...
linking prebiotic carbs to
human obesity
 Stimulate/activity of hind gut bacteria
 Increase short-chain fatty acid produ...
Recommended Prebiotic Intake
Market Class
Total
(g/100g)
Non-Starch
(g/100g)
Resistant starch
(g/100g)
Extra Small Red 13....
Prebiotics as a tool to
measure plant stress?
Thavarajah, Thavarajah, Johnson, and Kumar, 2016, “Grain Legumes", ISBN 978-...
How can pulses provide the nutrients human
populations need?
 Make human health as a clear goal in food system
 Continue...
Take home message……
Acknowledgements
 American Pulse Association
 USA Dry Pea Lentil Council
 The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
 Harve...
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Pulses in Global Human Health Challenges

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Keynote Presentation 05 by Dil Thavarajah at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

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Pulses in Global Human Health Challenges

  1. 1. Pulses in Global Human Health Challenges Dil Thavarajah Pulse Quality and Nutrition Clemson University, SC, USA dthavar@Clemson.edu
  2. 2. Clemson University Nutrition Research
  3. 3. Global Child Malnutrition UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, 2015
  4. 4. Wasting Prevalence
  5. 5. World Fat, Sugar and Pulse Supply Thavarajah, Thavarajah, Johnson, and Kumar, 2016, “Grain Legumes", ISBN 978-953-51-4659-9
  6. 6. Calories from major commodities in developing countries, WHO 2013
  7. 7. Varadharajan et al (2013) Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 22:326-339 Per capita food consumption India 1950-2010 energy protein vitamins minerals FAs fiber + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
  8. 8. Lancet, Vol 387 April 2, 2016  The world has transitioned from an era when underweight prevalence was more than obesity, to obesity prevalence is higher than underweight
  9. 9. WHO Global Targets-2025 1. 40% reduction in stunting 2. 50% reduction in anemia 3. 30% reduction in low birth weight 4. no increase in overweight 5. 50% increase in breastfeeding 6. Maintain wasting <5%
  10. 10. Green Revolution Greener Revolution http://www.theheartskitchen.com/vegetable-breeding/ www.HarvestPlus.com
  11. 11. Pulses as a Whole Food
  12. 12. Iron Bioavailability Food matrix prebiotic carbohydrates Organic acids Phytic acid Carotenoids  Cell culture  Molecular ratio  Animal models  Human models Fe, Zn deficiencies problems of bioavailability  non-heme Fe poorly absorbed  Fe and Zn poorly absorbed from grain- based diets R2 = 0.80 R2 = 0.19 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 20 40 60 80 %TotalFeAbsorbed Plasma ferritin, ug/L High Bioavailability Diet Low Bioavailability Diet Thavarajah and Johnson, 2013, Combs 2015
  13. 13. Selenium Nutrition  Will selenium increase lentil yield and seed quality? foliar application increased biomass (5586 vs. 7361 kg/ha), grain yield (1732 vs. 2468 kg /ha), and seed Se (0.8 vs. 2.4 µg/g) than soil application both application methods increased selenocysteine and selenomethionine Increased plant antioxidant levels Increased plant protection
  14. 14. Lentil Prebiotic Carbohydrates A prebiotic is a “selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-being and health” Low-digestible carbohydrates Dietary fiber Starch polysaccharide Resistant starch (RS) Non-starch polysaccharide Raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO) Fructo- oligosaccharides (FOS) Sugar alcohol Roberfroid, M. Prebiotics: 2007, 137 (3), 830S-837S
  15. 15. linking prebiotic carbs to human obesity  Stimulate/activity of hind gut bacteria  Increase short-chain fatty acid production  FA provide an energy source for colonocytes, strengthen the gut mucosal barrier, and suppress colonization of pathogens  Increase nutrient bioavailability  Control insulin resistance  Control appetite
  16. 16. Recommended Prebiotic Intake Market Class Total (g/100g) Non-Starch (g/100g) Resistant starch (g/100g) Extra Small Red 13.9 3.5 8.8 Small Red 12.3 3.9 6.9 Small Green 13.9 4.3 8.4 Medium Green 14.1 4.1 8.0 Large Green 13.3 4.4 7.4 Dark Green Speckled 13.5 4.0 8.2 Recommended Prebiotic Intake (g/day) 10 – 20g/daya 2 - 7g/dayb ≤ 20g/day
  17. 17. Prebiotics as a tool to measure plant stress? Thavarajah, Thavarajah, Johnson, and Kumar, 2016, “Grain Legumes", ISBN 978-953-51-4659-9
  18. 18. How can pulses provide the nutrients human populations need?  Make human health as a clear goal in food system  Continue to improve yields with nutritional quality  Promote practices that increase nutritional outputs in sustainable ways……  Increase access to healthy foods  Think about true nutrient bioavailability  Extension education on cooking, nutrition, and its link to family health Improved health can be addressed by changing the paradigm for Agriculture Agriculture as . . . an instrument of Public Health
  19. 19. Take home message……
  20. 20. Acknowledgements  American Pulse Association  USA Dry Pea Lentil Council  The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation  HarvestPlus  ICARDA, Morocco  USDA Speciality crop grant, USDA  Clemson University-Plant and Environmental Sciences  Clemson University- School of Health  Clemson University Research grant  Pulse Quality and Nutrition students 1. Alex Abare 2. Megan Migliozzi 3. Niroshan Siva 4. Indika Mapa 5. Suranga Basnagala Clemson University  Dr. Josh Elliot (sports medicine)  Dr. Richard Vincent (bioinformatics)  Dr. Susan Duckett (animal science)  Dr. Powel Smith (extension, horticulture)  Dr. Pushparajah Thavarajah (chemistry)  Dr. Stephan Kresovich (Genomics) Washington State University  Dr. Rebecca McGee (breeding)  Dr. Clare Coyne (Genetics) ICARDA  Dr. Shiv Kumar (lentil breeder)  Dr. Ashutosh Sarker (lentil breeder) Cornell University  Dr. Jerry Combs Jr.  Dr. Mike Gore Mayo Clinic  Casey Johnson

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