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Pulses for Harvesting ‘More from Less’ in Dry Areas

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11-14 February 2019. Jodhpur, India. The 13th International Conference on Dryland Development
Presentation at the session 12 February: TU - ICARDA Satellite
Pulses for Harvesting ‘More from Less’ in Dry Areas
Shiv Kumar Agrawal, Maalouf F, Biradar C, Nangia V, Saharawat Y, Sarker A, and Baum M

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Pulses for Harvesting ‘More from Less’ in Dry Areas

  1. 1. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas icarda.org cgiar.org A CGIAR Research Center Pulses for Harvesting ‘More from Less’ in Dry Areas Shiv Kumar Agrawal, Maalouf F, Biradar C, Nangia V, Saharawat Y, Sarker A, and Baum M International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) 13th ICDD Jodhpur, India Feb 12, 2019
  2. 2. Feeding the Growing Population • By 2050... World population will grow to 9.2 billion = growth of 37% • Food production must increase by more than 60% ... • Triple burden of malnutrition (Food insecurity, undernutrition and obesity) Demand for Agricultural products
  3. 3. Current Production vs Ideal Consumption
  4. 4. icarda.org 4 Narrow Crop Diversity After the Green Revolution, agricultural intensification has led to cereal based monoculture. MENA region 2.2 m ha legumes 85 m ha cereals
  5. 5. The strategy is to produce more crops: • from less land, • per drop of water, • per unit input of fertilizers and pesticides, • per unit of energy, and • per unit of C emission. Produce more from less Meeting Food Demand by 2050
  6. 6. Wide Spectrum of Pulses for Crop Diversity
  7. 7. Soil Health Benefits of Legumes to Agriculture  Legumes can fix 70-210 kg/ha N  BNF is 20-22 million tons N/year  Residue of pulses has a lower C:N ratio (17) compared with oilseed (41) and wheat (32)
  8. 8. icarda.org 8 Development of Short Duration Varieties Laird ILL6005 ILL2601 SD 12h
  9. 9. Yield Advantage of Elite Lines in Lentil (Marchouche, 2016-17)
  10. 10. icarda.org 10 Extra Early LentilsSummer2018 Winter2018 Cross D50F DMAT D50F DMAT LIRN22-107xILWL 245 36 61 106 140 ILL6002xILWL 245 39 69 107 142 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 39 69 109 142 ILL10140xILWL 90 39 71 105 140 ILL10140xILWL 90 36 71 103 142 ILL7978xILWL371 39 71 104 140 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 41 75 103 146 DPL62xILWL368 41 75 106 142 DPL62xILWL368 43 75 109 146 ILL2585xILWl 76 41 75 107 146 ILL 8091xILWL 11 45 75 105 146 ILL 10081xILWL 11 43 75 93 144 ILL10140xILWL 90 39 75 90 140 ILL 10081xILWL 11 41 75 92 135 DPL62xILWL368 58 75 101 137.5 ILL2585xILWL 90 39 75 108 147 ILL6002xILWL 245 41 75 107 142 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 41 75 106 142 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 39 75 107 142 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 41 75 106 141 ILL6002xILWL 245 41 75 104 142 ILL2585xILWl 76 41 77 106 145 ILL7978xILWL371 41 77 105 146 LIRN22-107xILWL 245 41 77 99.5 146 ILL 8091xILWL 11 41 77 106 150 ILL7978xILWL371 43 77 105 146 ILL 8091xILWL 11 43 77 106 144 ILL8091xILWL 11 43 77 105 140 ILL6002xILWL 245 65 77 119 150 ILL8091xILWL 11 65 77 109 142
  11. 11. icarda.org 11 Biofortified Lentils Trial Zn (mg Kg-1 ) Fe (mg Kg-1 ) Se (mg Kg-1 ) Min Max Av Min Max Av Min Max Av PYT 38.7 73.3 54.5 58.4 116.1 85.7 0.02 0.17 0.08 AYT 39.6 79.5 56.3 60.0 118.8 87.2 0.02 0.17 0.08 GCP 26.6 60.0 39.1 45.7 103.5 74.1 0.05 0.36 0.23
  12. 12. Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Aman rice Boro rice Diversification of rice-rice system 12 <90 days Window
  13. 13. 1 : 1 line Includes 20 data points from Lars Ohlander, SLU Sweden Source: Angus et al (2008) Australian Agronomy Conf, Adelaide , Australia. www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2008/concurrent/rotations/5786_angusjf.htm Rotational benefits of pulses on cereal crops
  14. 14. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Wheat Barley Yield increase of wheat and barley after faba bean % • Wheat, barley or cotton crop grown after faba bean may recover between 11 and 17% of the plant N remaining after faba bean (NRAFB) • NRAFB represent 2-19% of the total N requirement of those following crops Jensen et al. 2010 Impact of faba bean on N dynamics of following wheat crop
  15. 15. Grain yield of wheat and legumes under rainfed vs irrigation 1.36 3.82 5.18 5.7 1.57 2.35 2.86 3.54 1.36 2.63 3.36 3.74 0.64 1.16 1.42 1.58 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rainfed 1/3FSI 2/3FSI FSI Wheat Faba bean Chickpea Lentil Tel Hadya, 2007-2010 Grainyield(ton/ha) Substitution of cereals in rainfed areas
  16. 16. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 Waterused(kgpl-1) Days after sowing Sensitive Tolerant Tolerant: less WU at vegetative stage, more water left for reproduction and grain filling Adaptation to drought Zaman-Allah et al. 2011 JXB Vegetative Reprod/ Grain fill CHICKPEA
  17. 17.  147 lentil genotypes Genetic diversity for limited transpiration rate under elevated midday VPD in lentil (Guiguitant et al., 2017) Breakpoint for VPD ranged from 1.38 to 3.47 KPa, with an average of 2.61 KPa
  18. 18. icarda.org 18 Identification of water-saving lentils Drought tolerant ILL7833 Transpiration rate (TR in mg H2O m-2 s-1) in response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD in Kpa) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 V P D (K P a ) Transpiration(mg/m2/s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 V P D (K P a ) Transpiration(mg/m2/s) Drought susceptible ILL7813
  19. 19. For straw and grain yield ZT > CT Early > late planting Zero tillage for low production cost Farmer practice: CT, late sowing 670kg/ha Improved practice: ZT, early sowing 1285kg/ha Zero till lentil on wheat stubble 2007-08
  20. 20. Chickpea genotypes CT NT Lentil genotypes CT NT FLIP09-253C 0.91 0.81 ILL6994 0.78 1.01 FLIP09-235C 0.49 0.57 L24 0.49 0.73 FLIP09-227C 0.60 0.52 LSI88 0.72 1.03 FLIP08-84C 0.88 0.81 ILL8068 0.62 0.83 FLIP09-222C 0.49 0.48 ILL8110 0.78 1.26 FLIP07-211C 0.83 0.79 ILL6002 1.17 1.30 FLIP09-226C 0.27 0.29 Zaaria 0.84 1.35 FLIP09-308C 0.48 0.52 ILL6001 1.33 1.17 FLIP09-221C 0.25 0.61 2010S96130-1 1.05 1.11 FLIP09-234C 0.81 0.74 ILL7947 0.59 0.95 FLIP09-111C 0.68 0.82 ILL7010 1.04 1.12 FLIP09-304C 0.52 0.45 ILL5883 0.92 1.08 Moubarak 0.44 0.46 Bakria 1.26 1.39 Evaluation of elite germplasm under CA Evaluation of chickpea and lentil under conventional and no-till systems
  21. 21. icarda.org 21 Intercropping Pulses Diversify crop-livestock systems through more legumes
  22. 22. • Allelopathy • Enhanced productivity, nodulation and N2 fixation of faba bean through interspecific root interactions. • Faba bean biomass and grain yield increased by 35% and 61%. • Root exudates from maize increase • root hair deformation and nodulation in faba bean, • double exudation of flavonoids • up-regulate the expression of a chalcone–flavanone isomerase gene involved in flavonoid synthesis, and genes mediating nodulation and auxin response Benefits of faba bean/maize intercropping Source: Lee et al., 2016 (PNAS)
  23. 23. icarda.org 23 Summary of Diversified Cropping Systems Diversified cropping systems Nutrient cycling Biodiversity conservation Natural disease break Productivity Carbon sequestration Soil and water conservation
  24. 24. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas icarda.org cgiar.org A CGIAR Research Center Sk.Agrawal@cgiar.org www.icarda.org Thank you

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