Pathotypic Evolution of Yellow (Stripe) rust in CWANA (1998-2008)

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Amor Yahyaoui,
Senior Cereal Pathologist, ICARDA
Coordinator, ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program

Safiq Hakim,
University of Aleppo, Syria

Mogens Hovmoller
AARHUS University (DIAS), Denmark

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Pathotypic Evolution of Yellow (Stripe) rust in CWANA (1998-2008)

  1. 1. Pathotypic Evolution of Yellow (Stripe) rust in CWANA (1998-2008). Amor Yahyaoui, Senior Cereal Pathologist, ICARDACoordinator, ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program Safiq Hakim, University of Aleppo, Syria Mogens Hovmoller AARHUS University (DIAS), Denmark
  2. 2. Yellow (Stripe) Rust: Clear & Present DangerThe potential impact of wheat yellow (stripe) rust isparticularly serious in Central West Asia and East Africa(CWANA) and could become a serious problem in NorthAfrica and even in EuropeWheat Yellow (Stripe) RustPuccinia striiformis fsp tritici (Pst)Most common and widespreadrust disease of wheat in CWANA Stripe rust highly destructive but not well understood disease. Pst could threaten food security in many countries in CWANA
  3. 3. M.Hovmoller et al. , DIAS, DK
  4. 4. 2010 Yellow rust epidemicIn Syria: 20-70 % yield loss;Iraq: >40% yield loss;Turkey: >20% yield loss + 2-3 fungicide appl;Important losses recorded in Algeria, Azerbaijan, Ethiopia, Morocco, Uzbekistan, …
  5. 5. 2010 Yellow Rust Epidemic in SyriaFavourableClimate Agro.Practice (high seeding, Fertilizer Rates) Irrigation... Susceptible mega.Variety.”Cham 8” “New” Race-Vir Yr27 + High Inoculum load
  6. 6. Where did the stripe rust (Pst) inoculum came from? Why was it so severe?Epidemics caused by many changes:Changes in cultivars-large areas grown to susceptible varietiesCrop management Climate Change in pathotypes (new & virulent races)
  7. 7. Green Bridge & Rust Spore MigrationFactors attributed to the host, the pathogen, and theenvironment affect the development of Pst rustepidemics in CWANA Trans-boundary pest Changing World Desert Locust vs. Rusts
  8. 8. ICWIP Green Bridge Gate for West-East rust spore Movement Green Bridge: Wheat crop all Year  Important overlap periods in East Africa, Yemen, CWA What if no wheat in Yemen Nov-June? Off season wheat cropping Irrigated wheat (small areas +/- 20,000ha) Regulated fungicide use
  9. 9. Green Bridge & Rust Spore MigrationA source of Pst inoculum is necessary to initiate an epidemic;Pst fungus must successfully over summer in the area to provide a continuous supply of spores, or goes through an alternate host;Large quantities of spores must blow in from another area soon enough for an epidemic to get an early start. D. Hodson-AGPP/FAO ; BGRI
  10. 10. Evolution/changes in Pst pathotypes (races) in SyriaYear Country Pathotypes (Physiological races)2001 Syria 6 E 16 6 E 36 38 E 150 70 E 130 230 E 1502002 Syria 0 E 16 2 E 18 102 E 150 238 E 134 166 E 1582002 Syria 166 E 150 230 E 150 238 E 150 119E602003 Syria 0E0 0E2 0E8 2E0 0 E 162003 Syria 0 E 18 32 E 0 0 E 28 4 E 12 12 E 62003 Syria 4 E 16 46 E 46 65 E 6 15 E 166 14 E 1342003 Syria 14 E 190 247 E 16 32 E 130 78 E 130 255 E 1122003 Syria 128 E 148 199 E 132 134 E 134 230 E 222 175 E 1502004 Syria 206 E 22 84 E 2 68 E 982006 Syria 4E0 10 E 32 182 E 16 191 E 1632007 Syria 0E0 3E0 0E3 4E0 32 E 02007 Syria 98 E 3 64 E 49 103 E 5 140 E 5 32 E 1352007 Syria 79 E 124 229 E 26 111 E 215 64 E 159 189 E 482007 Syria 101 E 128 129 E 52 54 E 248 204E 76 Highly Effective YRG: (5); (15); (3b,4b); (SP) Effective YRG: (CV); (10); (1)
  11. 11. Evolution/changes in Pst pathotypes (races) in Lebanon and Yemen, Yea Country Pathotypes (Physiological races ) 2002 Lebanon 238 E 134 166 E 158 238 E 190 0E8 2003 Lebanon 0 E 14 31 E 150 173 E 206 166E158 2005 Lebanon 204 E 76Yr*: SO, “3b,4b”, CV, 5, 15, SP 2001 Yemen 230 E 12 4 E 40 38 E 4 119 E 60 2005 Yemen 22 E 245 137 E 158 128 E 143 0 E 128 4 E 190 2001 Iraq 230 E 44 2007 Tunisia 38 E 18 Yr*: Effective Resistance Genes
  12. 12. Common Virulence patterns M.Hovmoller et al. , ARHUS, DK
  13. 13. Effective/ineffective Resistance Genes: Avocet-Isogenic Lines Virulent Avirulent Race 6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,27,A / 1,5,10,15,SP 422 E 158 6,7,8,9,11,18,27,A / 1,5,10,12,15,17,SP 7 E 150 7,8,9,11,18,27,A / 1,5,6,10,12,15,17,SP 7 E 150 6,7,8,9,12,17,18,27,A / 1,5,10,11,SP 110 E 182 6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,A / 1,5,10,15,SP,27 129 E 52 1,6,8,9,10,11,15,17,18,27,A / 5,7,12,SP 101 E 128 Virulent Avirulent Race 6,7,8,9,10,11,17,18,27,A / 1,5,12,15,SP 22 E 245 6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,27,A / 1,5,10,15,SP 137 E 158 6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,27,A / 1,5,10,SP,27 128 E 143 6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,27,A / 1,5,10,15,SP 4 E 190
  14. 14. Effective Yellow Rust Resistance Genes Yr-RGImportant resistance genes widely used in breedingprograms have lost their effectiveness (Yr1, Yr 6,Yr7, Yr9, Yr17, Yr18, Yr27)Other are breaking down in parts of the region(Yr15, Yr10, …)Few Yr. RG still effective in CWANA Yr 5, Yr “3b,4a” (Hybrid 46) , Yr Sp
  15. 15. Effectiveness of Yr-RG at seedling and adult growth stages Seedling Gr.Stg Adult Gr. Stg Genotypes R-Genes R S %R %S R S %R %SYr 5/ 6* Avocet S 5 63 0 100 0.0 108 5 96 4 Hybrid 46 3b,4b 63 0 100 0.0 84 5 94 6Yr Sp / 6* Avocet S SP 63 0 100 0.0 91 7 93 7
  16. 16. Effectiveness of Yr-RG at seedling and adult growth stages R- Seedling Gr.Stg Adult Gr.StgGenotypes Genes R S %R %S R S %R %SYr 15/ 6* Avocet S 15 62 1 98.4 1.6 82 7 92 8Cham 1 DW 63 0 100 0.0 72 6 92 8Yr1/ 6*Avocet S 1 61 2 96.8 3.2 59 24 71 29Yr 10/6* AvocetS 10 58 5 92.1 7.9 49 29 63 37Yr Sp/6* AvocetS SP 63 0 100 0.0 91 7 93 7
  17. 17. Effectiveness of Yr-RG at seedling and adult growth stages Seedling Gr.Stg Adult Gr.StgGenotypes R- Genes R S %R %S R S %R %SReichersberg 42 7+ 29 34 46.0 54.0 57 9 86 14Vilmorin 23 3a,4a+ 48 15 76.2 23.8 25 0 100 0Nord Despres 3a,4a 47 16 74.6 25.4 24 1 96 4Yr 8/ 6* Avocet S 8 22 41 34.9 65.1 40 23 63 37Carstens V CV 52 11 82.5 17.5 97 2 98 2
  18. 18. Effectiveness of Yr-RG at seedling and adult growth stages Seedling Stage Adult Stage R-Genotypes Genes R S %R %S R S %R %SYr 18/ 3* Avocet S 18 28 35 44.4 55.6 9 60 13 87Jupateco R 18+ 23 40 36.5 63.5 25 44 36 64YrSk / 3* Avocet S 27 50 13 79.4 20.6 12 41 23 77Yr 17/ 4* Avocet S 17 34 29 53.9 46.1 25 36 41 59
  19. 19. Recent Defeated Resistance Genes Broad spectrum Pst races Defeated Gene Year Combinations Races 2003 Yr9, Yr27 199 E 132 Yr18 2006 137 E 158 2007 101 E 128 Defeated GeneYear Combinations Races2003 31 E 1502004 Yr8, Yr18 110 E 1822005 Yr9, Yr27 54 E 2482006 22 E 245 4 E 190 128 E 248
  20. 20. Defeated Yr10 across the region Pst. Virulent on durum wheat Defeated Yr 10 Gene RacesYear (location)2003 Syria 255E112 247E162003 Lebanon 31E150 Pst. Isolates virulent on2005 Yemen, Azerbaijan durum wheat (seedling growth stage)2006 Syria 191E1632007 Syria 189E48
  21. 21. Under favourable weather conditions; Potential of wheat yellow rust epidemicsfrom new emerging virulent rust (Pst) races Remains a real threat to the wheat producing countries
  22. 22. WheatPartnerships & CommunicationsWheat Regional Yellow rust ConferencesIran 2001: SPII & R.Johnson (>200 P) $ Iran, ICARDA, CIMMYT”Pakistan 2004; PARK & O.Abdalla (>150 P) $ ACIAR, DANIDA, ICARDA, CIMMYTUzbekistan 2006: PFU & S.Rajaram (> 80 P) $ ACIAR, DANIDA, ICARDATurkey 2009: TAGEM & O.Mamluk (> 100 P) $ FAO, AFESD, ICARDA, CIMMYT Syria 2013: ICARDA &….
  23. 23. AcknowledgmentNARS Collaborators: Rust Networks Donors NVRS: Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan & Yemen, Eritrea IFAD (NVRS) West Asia: Turkey, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Pakistan DANIDA (IDM) ACIAR Central Asia & Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Georgia, AFESD (Rust Mgt) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan FAO (LoA’s) North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, TunisiaAdvanced Research Institutions & Universities DIAS, & KVL-Denmark PBI, Australia Contributors WSU, MSU- USA Univ. Aleppo & Damascus, Syria ICARDA Research Support CIMMYT ICARDA-Maha,Munzer, Shafiq SPII DIAS: Ellen, AnneMarie-DK DIAS, Flak SPII: Torabi et al- Iran CREFCI; Lutfi et al..- Turkey EIAR: Ayele et al--Ethiopia ARC: Sherif et al---Egypt IAV: Ezzahiri et al-- Morocco
  24. 24. Thank You

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