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Pulses suitability assessment for
sustainable productivity of
drylands of Morocco
Rachid Mrabet & Rachid Moussadek
INRA - ...
Agriculture MattersAgriculture Matters in Morocco
Population growth
• As population grows and puts more pressure on soils, so it
is expected that food insecurity will also ...
Soils of Morocco
7,4
7,6
7,8
8
8,2
8,4
8,6
8,8
9
9,2
9,4
1971
1982
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2001
2003
Year
...
Evolution Agricultural Land In
Morocco (ha/inhabitant)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1960 2004 2014 2030
Level of organic matter (OM) in Moroccan soils
Chaouia Zaers
Khémissat El hajeb
Meknès
Saiss
Convention OCP-INRA-MAPM
SOM ...
- About 50% of cultivated land in dry land is used for
cereal systems. In which, only 6 % is used for rotation
with pulses...
New Paradigm
To Shift from unsustainble
intensive degraded cereal
cropping system to Climate
Resilient agriculture system
...
1,6 Million ha
1,5 Million ha
Pulses surface in Morocco could be
increased from 6% (0.4 Mha) of cultivated
land to 24% (1.6 Mha).
…. But under the Chall...
Aptitude forte (S1) 1.1 %
Aptitude moyenne (S2) 9.4%
Aptitude faible (S3) 17.7%
Inapte (N) 71.8%
Aptitude forte (S1) 2.9 %...
Impact of climate change on crop productivity
(pulses and cereals)
Giannakopoulos et al., 2009
Does Conservation Agri.
mitigate the negative effects
of land degradation and
climatic change on pulse-
cereal system vs C...
BA C
NO-TILL SYSTEM
A = Absence/Reduced of soil tillage
B = Biodiversity: Crop Rotation / Cover Crops;
Integrating Livesto...
100
Dustbowl
1930 20001950
USSoilConservationService
conservationtillage
dustbowl
Siberia/USSR
Faulkner(US)–Fukuoka(Japan)...
Using data of many INRA-ICARDA CA projects
CA
EU-IFAD
(R&D)
IMFLI
(CA)
CANA
(Model..)
CRP1,
CRP3.6
(CA)
INRM
Fig 6: Effects of NT and CA on grain and straw yield of lentil at 3 sites in Zaer , (*) means significant
difference (t-st...
Climate resilience (pulse-cereal system)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Soilorganiccarbon(g/m2)
0-5 cm 5--10 cm 10-20 cm 20-3...
After 7 years under Cereal-pulse system
2Mg/ha
Climate resilience (pulse-cereal system)
Carbon sequestration
Moussadek et ...
Increase Soil Fertility
Depth (mm) No-tillage Conventional tillage Difference
Extractable P (mg/kg)
0 – 25 29.9a 18.0b 11....
Socio-economic / energy benefits
with CA shifting
Tillage systems Power
(Horse
power/m)
Time
(Hours/ha)
Fuel use
(Liter/hr...
This map shows that, basing on biophysical properties, 63% are highly to moderately
suitable to NT for cereal based system...
Pulses-cereal system under CA: benefits to soil,
farmer and community
• cropping under CA is multi-functional within
lands...
• You cannot solve the problem
with the same kind of thinking
that created the problem!!!!
• Albert Einstein
Thank you
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Pulses suitability assessment for sustainable productivity of drylands of Morocco

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Oral Presentation 22 by Rachid Mrabit & Rachid Moussadek at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

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Pulses suitability assessment for sustainable productivity of drylands of Morocco

  1. 1. Pulses suitability assessment for sustainable productivity of drylands of Morocco Rachid Mrabet & Rachid Moussadek INRA - Morocco Marrakech, 19 April 2016
  2. 2. Agriculture MattersAgriculture Matters in Morocco
  3. 3. Population growth • As population grows and puts more pressure on soils, so it is expected that food insecurity will also grow. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Populationinmillions 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 Years Algeria Egypt Morocco
  4. 4. Soils of Morocco 7,4 7,6 7,8 8 8,2 8,4 8,6 8,8 9 9,2 9,4 1971 1982 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001 2003 Year AgriculturalArea(MillionsHa) No more suitable agricultural lands
  5. 5. Evolution Agricultural Land In Morocco (ha/inhabitant) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1960 2004 2014 2030
  6. 6. Level of organic matter (OM) in Moroccan soils Chaouia Zaers Khémissat El hajeb Meknès Saiss Convention OCP-INRA-MAPM SOM very low (less than 2%)
  7. 7. - About 50% of cultivated land in dry land is used for cereal systems. In which, only 6 % is used for rotation with pulses + inappropriate soil management; Ag. Land under unsustainble system
  8. 8. New Paradigm To Shift from unsustainble intensive degraded cereal cropping system to Climate Resilient agriculture system based on cereal-pulses rotation.
  9. 9. 1,6 Million ha
  10. 10. 1,5 Million ha
  11. 11. Pulses surface in Morocco could be increased from 6% (0.4 Mha) of cultivated land to 24% (1.6 Mha). …. But under the Challenges of Climate Change
  12. 12. Aptitude forte (S1) 1.1 % Aptitude moyenne (S2) 9.4% Aptitude faible (S3) 17.7% Inapte (N) 71.8% Aptitude forte (S1) 2.9 % Aptitude moyenne (S2) 11.2% Aptitude faible (S3) 18.7% Inapte (N) 67.2% Aptitude forte (S1) 4.3 % Aptitude moyenne (S2) 12.1% Aptitude faible (S3) 24.8% Inapte (N) 58.8% 2000 2050 2100 30% Land suitability lost due to climate change (Climatic scenario A1B, balance across all sources of energy) Climate change impact on land suitability Duce et al. 2008 High suitability (S1) Average suitability (S2) Low suitabiliy (S3) Unsuitable (N)
  13. 13. Impact of climate change on crop productivity (pulses and cereals) Giannakopoulos et al., 2009
  14. 14. Does Conservation Agri. mitigate the negative effects of land degradation and climatic change on pulse- cereal system vs Conventional Agri.? 14
  15. 15. BA C NO-TILL SYSTEM A = Absence/Reduced of soil tillage B = Biodiversity: Crop Rotation / Cover Crops; Integrating Livestock & Farming C = Cover of the soil: Permanent Cover with Crop Residues CA is like a three legged stool Pillars that Sustain the No-tillage System
  16. 16. 100 Dustbowl 1930 20001950 USSoilConservationService conservationtillage dustbowl Siberia/USSR Faulkner(US)–Fukuoka(Japan) commercialno-till/US firstno-tilldemonstrationinBrazil Oldrieve/Zimbabwe adoptionBrazil plantiodiretonapalha experimentsinChina,IndogangeticPlains Newboost:Canada,Australia,Kazakhstan, Russia,China,Finland...;Africa Argentina,Paraguay; 1980 1990 Firstno-tillintheUS IITAno-tillresearch 50 Mill.ha Time evolution of CA 1970 2014 Kassam et al., 2009
  17. 17. Using data of many INRA-ICARDA CA projects CA EU-IFAD (R&D) IMFLI (CA) CANA (Model..) CRP1, CRP3.6 (CA) INRM
  18. 18. Fig 6: Effects of NT and CA on grain and straw yield of lentil at 3 sites in Zaer , (*) means significant difference (t-student test) 0,0 2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 10,0 12,0 14,0 Farm 1 Farm 2 Farm 3 Grain Yield… * g 6: Effects of NT and CA on grain and straw yield of lentil at 3 sites in Zaer Yield (CA vs CT) Lentil Chickpea 4 to 8 qx/ha more under CA
  19. 19. Climate resilience (pulse-cereal system) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Soilorganiccarbon(g/m2) 0-5 cm 5--10 cm 10-20 cm 20-30 cm NT CT Soil organic Carbon in NT vs CT (after 5 years-INRM project) Zear area Vertisol 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Soilorganiccarbon(g/m2) 0-5 cm 5--10 cm 10-20 cm 20-30 cm NT CT Soil organic Carbon in NT vs CT (after 5 years-INRM project) Zear area Vertisol
  20. 20. After 7 years under Cereal-pulse system 2Mg/ha Climate resilience (pulse-cereal system) Carbon sequestration Moussadek et al. 2014
  21. 21. Increase Soil Fertility Depth (mm) No-tillage Conventional tillage Difference Extractable P (mg/kg) 0 – 25 29.9a 18.0b 11.9 25 – 70 19.3a 16.5b 2.8 70 – 200 8.7b 10.9a –2.2 Exchangeable K (mg/kg) 0 – 25 476.4a 284.1b 192.3 25 – 70 291.7a 256.9b 34.8 70 – 200 148.6b 177.9a -–29.3 pH water 0 – 25 7.8b 8.0a –0.2 25 – 70 8.1a 8.0a 0.1 70 – 200 8.2a 8.2a 0 1 Mrabet et al., 2001b
  22. 22. Socio-economic / energy benefits with CA shifting Tillage systems Power (Horse power/m) Time (Hours/ha) Fuel use (Liter/hr) Number of passes Conventional tillage system 1. Deep disking 2. Stubble plow 3. Seedbed preparation 4. Seeding 100-140 50-70 20-30 15-25 15 6.5-8.5 3-4 2-2.5 1-1.5 0.5 31-45 10-15 10-12 6-8 5 4 Simplified tillage system 1. Stubble plow 2. Seedbed preparation 3. Seeding 50-70 20-30 15-25 15 3.5-5 2-3 1-1.5 0.5 21-25 10-12 6-8 5 3 Traditional tillage system 1. Off-set disking 2. Seeding 30-40 15-25 15 2-2.5 1-1.5 0.5 11-13 5-8 5 2 No-tillage: Seeding with no-till drill 25-35 0.6-1 5-7 1 1 El Gharras et al., 2004
  23. 23. This map shows that, basing on biophysical properties, 63% are highly to moderately suitable to NT for cereal based system. For pulses 1.2 Mha are suitable to CA CA Suitability
  24. 24. Pulses-cereal system under CA: benefits to soil, farmer and community • cropping under CA is multi-functional within landscapes and economies. • It produces food and other goods for farm famillies and markets, but it also contributes to a range of public goods, such as carbon sequestration in soils and land quality. • Yield gap to be achieved using more technologies under CA (IPM, improved varieties..) • In contrast with Conventional Agriculture is a one- dimensional issue: productivity (which lead to land degardation )
  25. 25. • You cannot solve the problem with the same kind of thinking that created the problem!!!! • Albert Einstein Thank you

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