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Plant-pollinator interplay in pulses in the
context of ecosystem health
María José Suso Llamas
Instituto de Agricultura So...
Crop Production systems are facing two major challenges
Food security
+
Nutritional security
Reducing global environmental...
 Hybrid breeding (hybrids and heterotic populations) is considered a
mayor breeding technology to increase crop
productio...
Paradigm shift
Environmental servicesProduction +
Ecological intensification
 How can agricultural systems
contribute to ...
Development of links between biodiversity conservation and
food production services
(IPBES)
Connecting nature and people i...
(IPBES) (http://www.ipbes.net/)
 Conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity.
 The aim is to optimize crop ...
 Farming practices that support biodiversity
Conserving or sowing field margins to
provide suitable food resources and
ne...
 What can pulses do to help pollinators?
 How pulses can contribute to protect
biodiversity while creating a win-win sit...
Non-food services
Foraging places for bees
Attractive Landscapes
Paradigm shift
Environmental
(supporting service)
Cultura...
How can farmers integrate multi-use pulses
into their local farming systems so as to
maximize synergies between bee pollin...
Bee-pollinator role
Self pollinationSeed set and
quality
Cross pollination
Cultivar (hybrid and heterotic population) deve...
Differences in floral design and floral display
Crop Design System (CDS) Approach
Why a bee forages on a particular flower?
Flower-level
Plant level
Crop-level
Opening force
Inflorescences
architecture
Number of
flowers
Flowering time
Patterning
...
Discovery
Attraction
Vector matching
Reward
CDS (Crop Design System)
Pulses may be suboptimal in attracting
and sustaining...
Insect-aided cross-
pollination
Win-Win
farmers - pollinators – crops
Discovery
Attractiveness,
Reward
 Yield + stability...
More in
Guidance on developing highly productive and
pollinator-friendly pulses via CDS
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Plant-pollinator interplay in pulses in the context of ecosystem health

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Oral Presentation 20 by María José Suso at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

Published in: Science
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Plant-pollinator interplay in pulses in the context of ecosystem health

  1. 1. Plant-pollinator interplay in pulses in the context of ecosystem health María José Suso Llamas Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC) mjsuso@ias.csic.es The International Conference on Pulses for Health, Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture in Drylands 2016 International Year of Pulses Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April, 2016
  2. 2. Crop Production systems are facing two major challenges Food security + Nutritional security Reducing global environmental impacts Ecological intensification Strengthen To provide high yields To achieve environmental goals +
  3. 3.  Hybrid breeding (hybrids and heterotic populations) is considered a mayor breeding technology to increase crop production in the context of Climate Change  Breaking yield barriers could be achieved by increasing yield potential by improvements in the efficiency of heterosis exploitation. ((Tester, M., and Langridge, P. 2010. Science 327, 818-822) In pulses, the development of hybrid technology is limited, primarily because of its higher seed cost due to low outcrossing.
  4. 4. Paradigm shift Environmental servicesProduction + Ecological intensification  How can agricultural systems contribute to conserve biodiversity while maintaining or increasing productivity? Is it possible to develop synergies between biodiversity conservation (fauna and flora) and food production? Key questions
  5. 5. Development of links between biodiversity conservation and food production services (IPBES) Connecting nature and people in IPBES
  6. 6. (IPBES) (http://www.ipbes.net/)  Conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.  The aim is to optimize crop production with ecosystem services.  Ecosystem services include pest control by natural enemies, soil fertility and crop pollination. Strengthening the scientific-policy interface on biodiversity and ecosystem services Assessment of pollination and pollinators associated with food production There have been dramatic declines in pollinator populations Conceptual Framework Management options to mitigate pollinator decline and deficit
  7. 7.  Farming practices that support biodiversity Conserving or sowing field margins to provide suitable food resources and nesting sites Presence of mass flowering crops that offer rewards in agricultural landscapes . Breeders are encouraged considering the floral attributes of interest to pollinators when selecting new cultivars. Bailes et al. (2015). Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 26, 72-79.
  8. 8.  What can pulses do to help pollinators?  How pulses can contribute to protect biodiversity while creating a win-win situation for Breeding should be linked to the development of non-food services + win win Bee- pollinators  Food production  Pollinator conservation  Farmers´ incomes ?
  9. 9. Non-food services Foraging places for bees Attractive Landscapes Paradigm shift Environmental (supporting service) Cultural Development of pollinator-friendly cultivars (artistic, intellectual spiritual or recreational) Improved value for the conservation of bee pollinators Non-marketed?
  10. 10. How can farmers integrate multi-use pulses into their local farming systems so as to maximize synergies between bee pollinator protection and food production? How might multi-use pulses be developed such that they do not compromise seed yield? Complex and Significant questions.
  11. 11. Bee-pollinator role Self pollinationSeed set and quality Cross pollination Cultivar (hybrid and heterotic population) development to support local agricultural systems Tools to facilitate Heterogeneity Heterozygosity Exploitation of heterosis –mediated yield and resistance to stresses (building more resilient crops) Agents of crossing Natural breeders insect-mediated outcrossing technology for hybrid seed production
  12. 12. Differences in floral design and floral display Crop Design System (CDS) Approach Why a bee forages on a particular flower?
  13. 13. Flower-level Plant level Crop-level Opening force Inflorescences architecture Number of flowers Flowering time Patterning Symmetry Nectar and pollen reward Volatiles Floral traits affecting pollinator visitation Useful targets for breeding
  14. 14. Discovery Attraction Vector matching Reward CDS (Crop Design System) Pulses may be suboptimal in attracting and sustaining their pollinator populations Functional floral traits, lost through extended breeding, need to be recovered Specific trait–focus breeding
  15. 15. Insect-aided cross- pollination Win-Win farmers - pollinators – crops Discovery Attractiveness, Reward  Yield + stability  Resilience Heterosis-mediated Co-designing cropping systems that match crop- diversity and pollinator conservation Plant –pollinator inter-play Plantpollinatorinter-play CDS Approach Synergies-based paradigm + Interpretation conceptual Beekeepers Farmers Greening economy
  16. 16. More in Guidance on developing highly productive and pollinator-friendly pulses via CDS

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