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Rajib Podder
Ph.D Candidate
University of Saskatchewan
Alleviating micronutrient deficiency through iron
fortification of ...
Iron (Fe)
Most abundant mineral on Earth and the most abundant
trace mineral in the body
Iron deficiency = most common nut...
Fe and its Deficiency
Anemia Thermoregulation
disorders
Fatigue
Altered cognitive
functions
Maternal and child
mortality I...
Causes of Fe Deficiency
 Nutritionally unbalanced food supply
 Food habits
 Socio-economics (poverty)
http://www.motley...
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) – a carrier of iron
 Lentil is eaten daily as dhal in many
countries
 Good source of prot...
Fortification
The practice of deliberately increasing the content of an
essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and mineral...
Hypothesis:
It is possible to fortify iron in de-hulled pulses in a biologically and
culturally meaningful way
Study I: Id...
Investigation of Fortification of Lentils
 Selection of dehulled lentil product type for fortification
Polished football ...
Samplebeforefortification
Selection of appropriate method for fortification
FortifiedLentilSamples
Rinsed, soaked, oven
dr...
Selected method for adding Fe solution
Unfortified Fortified
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Control PFSRDO S...
↑Dose of Fe solution ↑ Fe conc. in seed
pH decrease with the increase of doses↓
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2800 3200
pHofthesolution
Fe conc. (ppm) ...
↑ Doses of fortificants ↓ L*, a* and b* score
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2...
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
FeSO47H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO4H2O Control
Cookingtime(minute)
Fe fortificants used to fortify...
Outcome from this study
FeSO4 7H2O [2800 ppm ] FeSO4 H2O [2800 ppm] NaFeEDTA [2800 ppm]
NaFeEDTA fortified lentils have th...
“A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and
interpret those responses to products that are perceived by t...
© 2007 Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL, U.S.A
Purpose of sensory evaluation
 It reduces
 It ensures a cost-...
Scale: A 9 point hedonic scale :
[9=like extremely;
7=like moderately;
5=neither like nor dislike;
3=dislike moderately an...
10 uncooked samples (800, 1600, 2800 ppm Fe)
Sensory evaluation of uncooked fortified lentil
samples - Saskatoon
NaFeEDTA ...
FeSO4 7H2O FeSO4 H2OControlNaFeEDTA
4 cooked samples (fortified with 1600 ppm Fe)
Sensory evaluation for cooked
fortified ...
Sensory evaluation in for uncooked samples -
Bangladesh
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
Appearance Odor Overall ac...
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
Appearance Odor Taste Texture Overall
acceptability
Hedonicscore
Sensory attributes
Co...
Bioavailability test for fortified lentil samples
Bioavailability - is a post-absorption assessment of how much of a
nutri...
Fe absorbed from NaFeEDTA fortified lentil
Laboratory: Dr. Raymond Glahn, USDA-ARS, Ithaca, New York using an in vitro
dig...
Findings from the study
• Lentil can be used as a potential vehicle for Fe
fortification
• NaFeEDTA was the most suitable ...
Acknowledgements
Committee members:
Dr. Bunyamin Tar'an
Dr. Robert T. (Bob) Tyler
Dr. Carol J. Henry
Special Advisor: Chow...
http://www.wphna.org/htdocs/2013_mar_wn3_fortification.htm
Supplementary slides
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
ODSOD SS&D RODSOD SOD SROD CDC maxim yellow lentil
Feconcentration(ppm)
Different fortification m...
 1 kg NaFeEDTA cost $ 14 US
 1 kg lentil can be fortified by 1.282 g of NaFeEDTA
 The price of 1.282 g NaFeEDTA is appr...
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
7000000
8000000
9000000
Production(tonnes)
2013 2014
World production of...
Recommendation for consumers
• According to WHO/FAO RNIs (Recommended Nutrient
intakes), the Estimated average requirement...
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Alleviating micronutrient deficiency through iron fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) dal

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Oral Presentation 01 by Rajib Podder at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

Published in: Science
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Alleviating micronutrient deficiency through iron fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) dal

  1. 1. Rajib Podder Ph.D Candidate University of Saskatchewan Alleviating micronutrient deficiency through iron fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) dal http://couponshoebox.com/tips/13-ways-to-use- lentils-in-cooking-for-a-fast-frugal-and-fabulous- meal/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7445570.stm http://www.taste.com.au/recipes/14107/lentil+dhal
  2. 2. Iron (Fe) Most abundant mineral on Earth and the most abundant trace mineral in the body Iron deficiency = most common nutrient deficiency in world
  3. 3. Fe and its Deficiency Anemia Thermoregulation disorders Fatigue Altered cognitive functions Maternal and child mortality Immunes system alterations Decreased aerobic performance Major consequences of iron deficiency (Hope, et.al., 2008) http://hepatitiscnewdrugresearch.com/hcv-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-ldquobrain-fogrdquo.html
  4. 4. Causes of Fe Deficiency  Nutritionally unbalanced food supply  Food habits  Socio-economics (poverty) http://www.motleyhealth.com/diet-and-nutrition/basics-of-a-healthy-diet-what-to-eat
  5. 5. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) – a carrier of iron  Lentil is eaten daily as dhal in many countries  Good source of protein, fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants  Excellent source of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, and Se) [Thavarajah et al. 2011]  Canada is the world’s largest lentil producer and exporter
  6. 6. Fortification The practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals,“ (WHO and FAO, 2005) Lentil – a carrier of iron Study I: Identification of the optimum Fe fortificant for dehulled lentils Study II: Sensory evaluation Study III: Bioavailability test for fortified lentil samples
  7. 7. Hypothesis: It is possible to fortify iron in de-hulled pulses in a biologically and culturally meaningful way Study I: Identification of the optimum Fe fortificant for dehulled lentils Investigation of Fortification of Lentils Objectives: a) Determine the most suitable iron fortificant for de-hulled lentils based on cost, ease of fortification b) Determine the optimal processing technology to fortify iron in dehulled lentils based on current processing practices
  8. 8. Investigation of Fortification of Lentils  Selection of dehulled lentil product type for fortification Polished football Polished splitted Unpolished football Unpolished splitted  Small red lentil – CDC Maxim Materials and Methods: 0 50 100 150 200 250 Unpolished splitted Polished football Polished splitted Unpolished football Yellow lentil Feconcentration (ppm) Four lentil product types and yellow lentil (lab. check) A AB C B B
  9. 9. Samplebeforefortification Selection of appropriate method for fortification FortifiedLentilSamples Rinsed, soaked, oven dried Directly soaked in Fe solution Rinsed, oven dried, soaked and oven dried Oven dried, soaked and oven dried Sprayed followed by shaking and drying
  10. 10. Selected method for adding Fe solution Unfortified Fortified 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Control PFSRDO SS&D SOD RODSOD ODSOD Processingtime(min.) L,aandbscore Different fortification methods L a b processing time (min.) Control NaFeEDTA 1600 ppm
  11. 11. ↑Dose of Fe solution ↑ Fe conc. in seed
  12. 12. pH decrease with the increase of doses↓ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2800 3200 pHofthesolution Fe conc. (ppm) in solution FeSO4.7H2O FeSO4.H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO47H2O 2000 ppm FeSO47H2O 2000ppmNaFeEDTA 2000 ppm
  13. 13. ↑ Doses of fortificants ↓ L*, a* and b* score 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 a* Conc. of Fe solution FeSO47H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO4H2O Control 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 L* Conc (ppm) of Fe solution FeSO47H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO4H2O Control 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 200 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 b* Conc. of Fe solution FeSO47H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO4H2O Control Lightness Redness Yellowness Lightness Yellowness Redness
  14. 14. 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 FeSO47H2O NaFeEDTA FeSO4H2O Control Cookingtime(minute) Fe fortificants used to fortify lentil A AB A A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 L* a* b* L*,a*andb*score L*, a* and b* scale to score at three storage periods of FeSO4.7H2O fortified lentil dal with 1600 ppm Fe Initial After 6 months After one year A B B AAA AA A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 L* a* b* L*,a*andb*score L*, a* and b* scale to score at three storage periods of NaFeEDTA fortified lentil dal with 1600 ppm Fe Initial After 6 months After one year A A AA ABA ABAB B 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 L* a* b* L*,a*andb*score L*, a* and b* scale to score at three storage periods of FeSO4. H2O fortified lentil dal with 1600 ppm Fe Initial After 6 months After one yearA A AB A A A A AA Boiling time and storage
  15. 15. Outcome from this study FeSO4 7H2O [2800 ppm ] FeSO4 H2O [2800 ppm] NaFeEDTA [2800 ppm] NaFeEDTA fortified lentils have the best appearance amongst all samples tested
  16. 16. “A scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret those responses to products that are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing.” Stone, H and Sidel, JL. 1993. Sensory Evaluation Practices. 2nd ed. Academic Press: San Diego. © 2007 Institute of Food Technologists, Washington, D.C. 20036 √ √ √ √ √ Study II: Sensory evaluation
  17. 17. © 2007 Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL, U.S.A Purpose of sensory evaluation  It reduces  It ensures a cost-efficient delivery of new products with high consumer acceptability Objective: Determine sensory acceptability of fortified lentils – appearance, odour, texture, taste and Overall acceptability
  18. 18. Scale: A 9 point hedonic scale : [9=like extremely; 7=like moderately; 5=neither like nor dislike; 3=dislike moderately and 1=dislike extremely] Attributes Uncooked Cooked Appearance Appearance Odour Taste Overall Acceptability Odour Texture Overall Acceptability Sensory evaluation 45 Panellists were recruited from staff and students at U of S (2 replications) 98 consumers were selected University of Saskatchewan Bangladesh (BRAC University)
  19. 19. 10 uncooked samples (800, 1600, 2800 ppm Fe) Sensory evaluation of uncooked fortified lentil samples - Saskatoon NaFeEDTA fortified lentil samples are more accepted by panellist
  20. 20. FeSO4 7H2O FeSO4 H2OControlNaFeEDTA 4 cooked samples (fortified with 1600 ppm Fe) Sensory evaluation for cooked fortified lentil samples - Saskatoon
  21. 21. Sensory evaluation in for uncooked samples - Bangladesh 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Appearance Odor Overall acceptability Hedonicscore Attributes Control NaFeEDTA 800 ppm NaFeEDTA 1600 ppm NaFeEDTA 2800 ppm FeSO4.7H2O 800 ppm FeSO4.7H2O 1600 ppm FeSO4.7H2O 2800 ppm FeSO4.H2O 800 ppm FeSO4.H2O 1600 ppm FeSO4.H2O 2800 ppm A B B B C D D C D D C C B C B AA D D E A F E D C C B B B B
  22. 22. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Appearance Odor Taste Texture Overall acceptability Hedonicscore Sensory attributes Control FeSO4.7H2O 1600 ppm NaFeEDTA 1600 ppm FeSO4.H2O 1600 ppm A AABAAA AA A AAABAA AB ABAAA Sensory evaluation for cooked samples - Bangladesh
  23. 23. Bioavailability test for fortified lentil samples Bioavailability - is a post-absorption assessment of how much of a nutrient that has been absorbed becomes functional to the system Source: https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/.../Lecture%2009%20Bioavailability.ppt Source: http://plantbaseddietitian.com/tag/dr-howard-jacobson/ Objective Determine the iron concentration and bioavailability of fortified lentils
  24. 24. Fe absorbed from NaFeEDTA fortified lentil Laboratory: Dr. Raymond Glahn, USDA-ARS, Ithaca, New York using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay (Glahn, 2009). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 FeSO4 7H2O FeSO4 H2O NaFeEDTA Control BioavailabilityofFe(ngferritin/mg protein ConcentrationofFe(ppm) Fortificants and control Concentration and bioavailability of Fe Fe Bioavailability A AB B C B B A B
  25. 25. Findings from the study • Lentil can be used as a potential vehicle for Fe fortification • NaFeEDTA was the most suitable Fe fortificant for de-hulled lentils based on ease of fortification; consumer acceptability; and bioavailability • Fortification of lentil dal is a potential effective technology that could provide significant health benefits to vulnerable populations
  26. 26. Acknowledgements Committee members: Dr. Bunyamin Tar'an Dr. Robert T. (Bob) Tyler Dr. Carol J. Henry Special Advisor: Chowdhury Jalal, Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa Dr. Phyllis Shand, 2Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Canada Barry Goetz (micronutrient analysis), Crystal Chan UofS CSFL Crews, BRAC University, Bangladesh Supervisor: Prof. Albert Vandenberg
  27. 27. http://www.wphna.org/htdocs/2013_mar_wn3_fortification.htm
  28. 28. Supplementary slides
  29. 29. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 ODSOD SS&D RODSOD SOD SROD CDC maxim yellow lentil Feconcentration(ppm) Different fortification methods used to fortify lentil dal with control and lab check (yellow lentil) A D C B B A E Selection of appropriate method for fortification
  30. 30.  1 kg NaFeEDTA cost $ 14 US  1 kg lentil can be fortified by 1.282 g of NaFeEDTA  The price of 1.282 g NaFeEDTA is approximately $ (0.014 X 1.282) US = $ 0.0179 US  1 kg of lentil 0.0179 $US is needed  1 ton of lentil 17.9 $US is needed Cost analysis of fortification 0.000895 $US needed for 50 g of lentil to fortify and this amount can provide the major portion of the RDA
  31. 31. 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 Production(tonnes) 2013 2014 World production of lentil in 2013 and 2014 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Yield(ton/ha) Yield in 2013 and 2014 2013 2014
  32. 32. Recommendation for consumers • According to WHO/FAO RNIs (Recommended Nutrient intakes), the Estimated average requirements of Fe for 1-3 years, 4–6 years, 19–50 years, female Pregnant women, Lactating women, 19–50 years male is 5.8, 6.3, 29.4, >40.0 , 11.7 and 10.8 mg respectively with 10% bioavailability. • So, with 11 % bioavailability, 100 g of fortified lentil will provide 21 mg of Fe • So, 50g of lentil will provide 10.5 mg of Fe that will meet the requirement of iron

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