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Effect of deficit irrigation on vegetative
growth and fruit yield parameters of young
olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in se...
Introduction
 In Morocco, almost one million ha are cropped with olive trees.
Olive irrigated area has increased in the l...
Introduction
 In Marrakech region Olive orchards occupies almost 160 000
Ha ( 18 %)
 High evaporative demand (about 1600...
DAMS CAPACITY
(Mm3)
17/08/2014 17/08/2013
RESERVE %
RESERVE
(Mm3) %
BIN EL OUIDANE
1 233,10 686,78 55,7
1092,2 89.1
HASSAN...
Objective
 The adoption of the deficit irrigation by farmers to save
irrigation water.
 However, restriction of applied ...
Material and methods
Saada Pilot Plot (young olive orchard)
 Location: Experimental station of Saada (INRA-CRRA
Marrakech...
Material and methods
Saada Pilot Plot (young olive orchard)
Irrigation treatments
 Drip irrigation: 100 % ETc ( Full irri...
Material and methods
Experimental design
 Vegetative growth
 Fruit and oil measurements
Parameter measured
Material and methods
In the first year after planting, all trees were irrigated equally.
In the second year, irrigation wa...
Material and methods
Kc = Kt + Ks * (1-fw) + Kg * fw
For 2012, 2013 and 2014: Irrigation scheduling (Lucas et al.;
2009)
Results
Vegetative growth parameters
2012 2013
Growth rate
(%)
Watering
regimes Means E.S Means E.S
FDI 215.8 ±17.7a 255.2...
2012 2013
Growth rate
(%)
Watering
regimes Means E.S Means E.S
FDI 18.9 ±3.1a 20.4 ±3.7a 7.4a
DDI 19.9 ±3.3a 21.4 ±2.8a 7....
Results
Vegetative growth parameters
2012 2013
Growth
rate (%)
Watering
regimes Means E.S Means E.S
FDI 137.2 ±21.1a 178.5...
Results
Vegetative growth parameters
2012 2013
Growth rate
(%)
Watering
regimes Means E.S Means E.S
FDI 1.37 ±0.08a 4.3 ±0...
Results
Olive fruit parameters
Fruiting rate
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
FDI DDI FU
Fruitingyoungolivetreesrate(%)
Irrigation r...
Results
Olive fruit yield
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
FDI DDI FU
Olivefruityield(kg/ha)
Irrigation regimes
a
ab
b
Olive ...
Results
Olive fruit characteristics
Irrigation
regimes
Olive
weight (g)
Fruit Width
(mm)
Fruit length
(mm)
Pit weight
(g)
...
Results
Olive oil parameters
Irrigation regimes
Water content
(%)
Oil content (%)
FDI 18.4 8.3
DDI 18.6 9.1
FU 18.3 9.6
New orchard: Oil parameters
Oil parameters
oil content
(%) estimated
Industrial
oil yield (Kg /
Ha)
acidity Total
polyphen...
Conclusion
 The application of DDI frequently kept the soil relatively wet in the root
zone and hence did not affect sign...
 DDI permits also 30% of water saving compared to FDI and
more than 70% when compared to FU.
 FU technique, despite the ...
The introduction of drip irrigation system under young olive
orchard improved growth performance of young olive trees
comp...
Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Vegetative Growth
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Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Vegetative Growth

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Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Vegetative Growth

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Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Vegetative Growth

  1. 1. Effect of deficit irrigation on vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of young olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in semi arid area of Morocco Lhassane SIKAOUI, Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN, Abderraouf EL ANTARI, Mohammed KARROU, Vinay NANGIA, Theib Oweis National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA), Marrakesh, Morocco. International Center of Agricultural Research in Dry Area (ICARDA) OLIVEBIOTEQ V AMMAN (JORDAN) 3-6 November; 2014
  2. 2. Introduction  In Morocco, almost one million ha are cropped with olive trees. Olive irrigated area has increased in the last decades and now is around 35% of olive orchards area, but only 20.000 ha are conducted under drip irrigation.  Due to limited water resources, the objective is to replace the traditional irrigation methods with saving water systems such as drip irrigation. The aim of the Moroccan Green Plan is to increase, by 2020, the olive area under drip irrigation to 153,000 ha.  Moroccan governoment offers important subsidies to farmers to switch from FI to DI
  3. 3. Introduction  In Marrakech region Olive orchards occupies almost 160 000 Ha ( 18 %)  High evaporative demand (about 1600 mm/ year), low and irregular rainfall (200 mm/year), and repeated periods of droughts.  Irrigation management strategy has to shift from maximizing the yield per unit area or land productivity to maximizing the productivity per unit of water used.  However, the land productivity should be maintained at the optimal level.
  4. 4. DAMS CAPACITY (Mm3) 17/08/2014 17/08/2013 RESERVE % RESERVE (Mm3) % BIN EL OUIDANE 1 233,10 686,78 55,7 1092,2 89.1 HASSAN 1er 242,10 60,5 25 135,1 55.8 SIDI DRISS 2,20 1,7 78,5 1,7 79.0 MOULAY YOUSSEF 148,70 42,4 28,5 106,2 71.4 TIMINOUTINE 3,10 2 65,8 1,9 60.0 YAAKOUB MANSOUR 70,30 5,5 7.8 21,9 31.1 ABOU EL ABBAS ESSABTI 24,80 18,9 76.2 20 80.7 LALLA TAKERKOUST 53,29 2,31 4.3 18 33.7 TOTAL 1 777,59 820,09 46 % 1 397,00 78,59% Water scarcity in Marrakech region Situation of dams
  5. 5. Objective  The adoption of the deficit irrigation by farmers to save irrigation water.  However, restriction of applied water may affect negatively the performance of olive orchard.  This study aims at evaluating the effect of deficit irrigation technique on vegetative growth and fruit yield parameters of young olive trees.
  6. 6. Material and methods Saada Pilot Plot (young olive orchard)  Location: Experimental station of Saada (INRA-CRRA Marrakech) at 9 km West of Marrakech city.  Climate: Mediterranean semi-arid with a hot and dry summer  The area of olive orchard experimental plot :1.67 ha; - Drip irrigation plot: 1.15 ha - Traditional irrigation plot: 0.52 ha  Plantation date of olive trees: December 2010  Variety: Menara  Row spacing : 8m x 8 m (156 plants / ha) Pilot plot description 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Annual rainfall (mm)
  7. 7. Material and methods Saada Pilot Plot (young olive orchard) Irrigation treatments  Drip irrigation: 100 % ETc ( Full irrigation)and 70 % ETc (Deficit irrigation)  Traditional irrigation: farmer use
  8. 8. Material and methods Experimental design  Vegetative growth  Fruit and oil measurements Parameter measured
  9. 9. Material and methods In the first year after planting, all trees were irrigated equally. In the second year, irrigation water was applied based on the estimation of tree evapotranspiration (ETc). ETc = ET0 x Kc x Kr /Ne
  10. 10. Material and methods Kc = Kt + Ks * (1-fw) + Kg * fw For 2012, 2013 and 2014: Irrigation scheduling (Lucas et al.; 2009)
  11. 11. Results Vegetative growth parameters 2012 2013 Growth rate (%) Watering regimes Means E.S Means E.S FDI 215.8 ±17.7a 255.2 ±19.3a 15.4a DDI 217.9 ±15.5a 248.3 ±18.4a 12.2a FU 186.7 ±17.7b 209.1 ±17.6b 10.7b Tree height (cm)
  12. 12. 2012 2013 Growth rate (%) Watering regimes Means E.S Means E.S FDI 18.9 ±3.1a 20.4 ±3.7a 7.4a DDI 19.9 ±3.3a 21.4 ±2.8a 7.0a FU 16.5 ±5.3b 17.1 ±5.0b 3.6b Results Vegetative growth parameters Trunk perimeter (cm)
  13. 13. Results Vegetative growth parameters 2012 2013 Growth rate (%) Watering regimes Means E.S Means E.S FDI 137.2 ±21.1a 178.5 ±26.4a 23.1a DDI 133.9 ±19.1a 174.2 ±27.9a 23.1a FU 107.8 ±15.7b 141.8 ±14.4b 23.9a Trunk diameter (cm)
  14. 14. Results Vegetative growth parameters 2012 2013 Growth rate (%) Watering regimes Means E.S Means E.S FDI 1.37 ±0.08a 4.3 ±0.07a 68.5 a DDI 1.33 ±0.08a 4.0 ±0.07a 67.1a FU 1.07 ±0.09b 2.2 ±0.03b 52.4 b Canopy volume (m3)
  15. 15. Results Olive fruit parameters Fruiting rate 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 FDI DDI FU Fruitingyoungolivetreesrate(%) Irrigation regimes a a b
  16. 16. Results Olive fruit yield 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 FDI DDI FU Olivefruityield(kg/ha) Irrigation regimes a ab b Olive fruit parameters
  17. 17. Results Olive fruit characteristics Irrigation regimes Olive weight (g) Fruit Width (mm) Fruit length (mm) Pit weight (g) FDI 3.42 a 16.9 22.9 3.40 DDI 3.38 b 16.3 21.9 3.38 FU 2.36 b 15.4 21.4 3.36 Olive fruit parameters
  18. 18. Results Olive oil parameters Irrigation regimes Water content (%) Oil content (%) FDI 18.4 8.3 DDI 18.6 9.1 FU 18.3 9.6
  19. 19. New orchard: Oil parameters Oil parameters oil content (%) estimated Industrial oil yield (Kg / Ha) acidity Total polyphenols (ppm) 18 26,28 0,21 165 19 22,23 0,22 161 19,5 12,48 0,21 115
  20. 20. Conclusion  The application of DDI frequently kept the soil relatively wet in the root zone and hence did not affect significantly most of the agronomical parameters measured on young olive trees.  Consequently, DDI did not induce a water stress in comparison with FDI, and it allowed an early entry in fruit production with a higher rate of fruiting in comparison with the two other watering regimes.  The fruit yield under DDI did not differ significantly from that obtained under FDI and it was 80% higher than that obtained under FU conditions.
  21. 21.  DDI permits also 30% of water saving compared to FDI and more than 70% when compared to FU.  FU technique, despite the application of high amounts of irrigation water, the time between the successive irrigations was very long and hence a lot of water was lost by percolation and evaporation in this environment characterized by very high temperatures during summer.  This induced certainly a high soil moisture reduction and hence a significant negative effect on many agronomical parameters studied. Conclusion
  22. 22. The introduction of drip irrigation system under young olive orchard improved growth performance of young olive trees compared to traditional irrigated system with flooding. Conclusion Performance of young olive trees (new orchard) under deficit irrigation Deficit irrigation had any penalty on growth performance of young olive trees. •Average water saved 66 % (Full irrigation) and 76 % (deficit irrigation) •Growth: : + 16 % height , +23 % canopy diameter + 21 % trunk perimeter • Early flower set under drip (60 %) against 40 % under floody irrigation

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