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Management of Insect Pests of Food Legumes in West and Central Asia and North Africa


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M. El Bouhssini et al.

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Management of Insect Pests of Food Legumes in West and Central Asia and North Africa

  1. 1. 1 Management of Insect Pests of Food Legumes in West and Central Asia and North Africa M. El Bouhssini et al.M. El Bouhssini et al.
  2. 2. Insect speciesInsect species CropCrop Regions where the pest causes economicRegions where the pest causes economic damagedamage Aphis fabaeAphis fabae Faba beanFaba bean West Asia and North AfricaWest Asia and North Africa Acyrthosiphom pisumAcyrthosiphom pisum Forages/LegumesForages/Legumes West Asia and North AfricaWest Asia and North Africa Aphis craccivoraAphis craccivora Faba beanFaba bean Nile Valley countriesNile Valley countries Sitona spp.Sitona spp. Lentil/faba beanLentil/faba bean West Asia and North AfricaWest Asia and North Africa Liriomyza cicerinaLiriomyza cicerina ChickpeaChickpea West Asia and North AfricaWest Asia and North Africa Helicoverpa armigeraHelicoverpa armigera Chickpea North Africa, West Asia, Nile valleyNorth Africa, West Asia, Nile valley countriescountries Key pests of legumes and their geographical distribution
  3. 3. Major insect pests of food legumes Chick pea pod borer Chickpea Leafminer Sitona
  4. 4. Yield loss caused by Chickpea leaf miner in Morocco Average % yield loss caused by chickpea Leaf miner in Morocco (two locations), 2014 & 2015
  5. 5. HPR is the IPM foundation
  6. 6. ICARDA Gene Bank Holdings (December 2014) Mostly landraces and unique set of wild relatives Crop No Crop No Faba bean BPL 3268 Pisum 6113 Aegilops 4382 Trifolium 5173 Barley 29722 Vicia 6228 Bread wheat 14556 Faba bean 6761 Durum wheat 19797 Chickpea 15046 Primitive wheat 913 Lentil 11877 Wild Hordeum 2239 Wild Cicer 270 Wild Triticum 1607 Wild Lens 600 Lathyrus 4220 Range & pasture 6394 Medicago annual 8706 Others 305 Total 148,177
  7. 7. FIGS is based on: -Selection pressure -Co-evolution -Adaptation For pests, select germplasm from environments that favor the development of pest populations Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy
  8. 8. 200 chickpea accessions from the ICARDA gene bank, selected using FIGS, were evaluated for resistance to Leaf miner under field conditions in Morocco in 2014 and 2015. Two accessions (IG 6461 & IG 70556) confirmed resistance to this pest with rating of 3 in the 1-9 visual damage score. New sources of resistance to Leafminer
  9. 9. Screening for Resistance to Chickpea Pod borer 375 Kabuli chickpea accessions, selected from the ICARDA genebank using FIGS, were evaluated for resistance to Pod borer in the field at Annoceur and Allal Tazi using summer planting. All the accessions tested were susceptible.
  10. 10. Combine resistance to Leaf miner and Ascochyta blight Top research priority
  11. 11. First five crosses for Leaf miner resistance were made at Tel Hadya (ICARDA main station) in 1999: ILC 3805/ ILC 3397, ILC 3805/ ILC 5309, ILC 5901/ ILC 3397, ILC 5901/ ILC 5309, and ILC 3397/ ILC 5309 ILC 5901 and ILC 3805=Resistant, ILC 5309=moderately susceptible, ILC 3397=Susceptible Breeding for Resistance to CLM
  12. 12. Late planting has been used to allow for high infestation by Leaf miner Screening for Resistance to CLM
  13. 13. Seven chickpea breeding lines, FLIP 2005-1C, FLIP 2005-2C, FLIP 2005-3C, FLIP 2005-4C, FLIP 2005-5C, FLIP 2005-6C, and FLIP 2005-7C resistant to chickpea leaf were registered in the Journal of Plant Registrations (2007). International nursery of 40 lines assembled and distributed to partners Progress in HPR to CLM
  14. 14. In 2008 six crosses were made for developing RIL populations for Leaf Miner resistance:   ILC5901XILC3805 ILC5901XILC5309 ILC5901XILC3397 ILC3805XILC5309 ILC3805XILC3397 ILC5309XILC3397 New crosses made for CLM
  15. 15. SSR markers associated with LM resistance in chickpea •QTL analysis identified three QTLs on linkage group LG2 (TA37), LG3 (TA34) and LG5 (H4F03) explaining maximum 22% of LDS variation. •Unmapped marker (NCPRG48) was strongly linked to LDS explaining 55.3% of the variation. Average infestation score RSS a: homozygous allele type b: homozygous allele type h: heterozygous allele type SSR primer: NCPRG48 QTLs for CLM Resistance
  16. 16. Oxalic acid (mg/100 g leaves)
  17. 17. Damagescore Concentration of Oxalic Acid mg/100 g leaves Damage score scale (1-9): 1 = no damage and 9 = mines observed on all the leaflets. Damage by CLM/Oxalic acid
  18. 18. • Botanical pesticides such as neem oil. • Parasitoids: conservation and enhancement through diversified cropping system and the use of flowering medicinal plants as strips between chickpea fields. • Early planting date (winter) IPM of Leaf miner
  19. 19. Efficacy of different insecticides against Leaf miner on Chickpea % reduction of leaflets infestation by insecticides over the check We tested a number of biological and chemical insecticides against Chickpea leaf miner. The experiment was conducted at Marchouch Station, using the susceptible variety Garbanzo. The application of insecticides was made three times; the first one on May 4 when 50% of the leaflets were infested, the second spray on May 18 and the third one on June 3.
  20. 20. Encouraging results with the Mentha pulegium, Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus globulus oils. Mentha pulegium oil was the most effective (100% mortality) for the two methods of application: contact toxicity (Topical method) with 30 µl/ ml 3 h after application and for the larvicidal activity with 45 µl/ml 24 h after application. Botanical pesticides
  21. 21. Effect of seed dressing insecticide on % infestation of nodules by Sitona larvae , Douyet Station, 2015 The experiment conducted at Douyet Station. Two different planting dates: December 11, 2014 for the first date and December 30, 2014 for the second date. We tested the seed treatment Celest ®Top (a.i. Difenoconazole + Fludioxonil+ Thiamethoxam) with three doses (1.5 cc, 2 cc, 2.5 cc), in addition to untreated check, for the control of nodule damaged by Sitona larvae. Effect of sowing date and seed treatment on Sitona weevil infestations
  22. 22. The experiment was conducted at Marchouch Station using the local variety Bakria. We tested the seed dressing pesticide Celest ®Top (a.i. Difenoconazole + Fludioxonil+ Thiamethoxam) for the control of the pea aphid on lentil. Three doses (1.5 cc, 2 cc, 2.5 cc), in addition to untreated check. Effect of sowing date and seed treatment on pea aphid infestations Effect of seed treatment on lentil population of Pea aphid , Marchouch Station, 2015 % reduction of Pea aphid over check
  23. 23. Acknowledgements Collaborators: -ICARDA -NARS Partners (Scientists & students) Funding: -CRP Grain Legumes - OCPF - EU/IFAD
  24. 24. THANKS