Wheat Improvement in Iran:
Challenges and Achievements
A. Ghaffari1 & M. R. Jalal Kamali2
1Dryland Agricultural Research I...
Outlines
- An Overview on Wheat Production in Iran
- Climate Change
- Challenges, Priorities and Research strategies
- Whe...
● Wheat is the major crop
● Total land area is 164.8 Mha
● About 18.5 Mha are used
for agriculture:
6 Mha (Irrigated field...
• Iran is generally known of arid and semi-arid
climate (94.1% based on UNESCO Approach)
except for Caspian Sea region.
• ...
Rainfed Land area means:
P/PET = 0.2 – 0.5
Agro-Climatic Zoning Map
Distribution (%) of country area by
annual rainfall rates
29
24
23
11
8 2
<150 mm
150-250 mm
250-350 mm
350-450 mm
450-600...
Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall
75% off Growing Season
25% in Growing Season
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012
...
Bread Wheat and Durum Wheat are grown:
- Winter/Facultative wheat: 4.1 Mha
- Spring Wheat: 2.6 Mha
Percentage of daily calories from Wheat
Source: FAO 2009
Climate Change
Sharifi and Bani-Hashemi, 2010
By 2040 precipitation will decline
by 9%
By 2040 temperature will increase by
0.5-1.5 oC
Water-Short Countries in 2020 and 2050
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%WaterResourceUsedfor
Agriculture
Percentof total water resource used for agriculture
in ...
21.04
24.77
21.42
11.79
4.94
1.12
0.46
14.46
Distribution of Irrigated Wheat Grain Yield in Iran
2-3 t/ha
3-4 t/ha
4-5 t/h...
Major Challenges:
• Drought is always a limiting factor
• Agronomy is a limiting factor to harvesting the genetic potential
of improved cult...
1- Agronomy: Crop management/CA (3 million ha)
2- Physiology: Application of physiology in wheat breeding
programs for dro...
1- Development and release of improved bread and durum wheat
cultivars with:
- Yield potential, yield stability, wide adap...
1- Agronomy/Crop management/CA
2- Physiology/Application of physiology in wheat breeding
programs for drought and heat tol...
There are Two Main National Wheat
Improvement Programs:
1- Irrigated Wheat Improvement Program by the
Seed and Plant Impro...
Some of the
Aachievements
Bread Wheat cultivars released in Iran during 2002-2014
No. Cultivar Year of Release Institute Origin Growth Habit
1 Pisht...
Durum wheat and triticale cultivars released
in Iran during 2003-2012
No. Cultivar Year of Release Institute Origin Growth...
- The presence of Ug99 in west part (Winter wheat growing areas) of Iran
was reported in 2008.
- In 2009 the presence of U...
Cultivar Ug99
reaction
Expected Sr gene (s) Area
sown
(ha)
Year of
release
Origin GH Pedigree
Akbari 30RMR
Race-specific d...
We Sincerely invite you to visit our beautiful country
Iran country report izmir 2014
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  • Iran country report izmir 2014

    1. 1. Wheat Improvement in Iran: Challenges and Achievements A. Ghaffari1 & M. R. Jalal Kamali2 1Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Iran 2Global Wheat Program, CIMMYT, Iran 2nd International Yellow Rust Symposium 28April-1 May 2014, Hotel Hilton, Izmir, Turkey
    2. 2. Outlines - An Overview on Wheat Production in Iran - Climate Change - Challenges, Priorities and Research strategies - Wheat Research Activities - Some of the Achievements
    3. 3. ● Wheat is the major crop ● Total land area is 164.8 Mha ● About 18.5 Mha are used for agriculture: 6 Mha (Irrigated field crops): 32.4% 6 Mha (Rainfed field crops): 32.4% 4.5 Mha (Fallow): 24.4% 2 Mha (Horticultural crops): 10.8% Average Wheat Growing areas: 6.7 Mha Irrigated wheat: 2.7 Mha Rainfed wheat: 4.0 Mha Introduction
    4. 4. • Iran is generally known of arid and semi-arid climate (94.1% based on UNESCO Approach) except for Caspian Sea region. • The average precipitation of the country (247 mm) is about half of Asia (480 mm) and one third of the world (850 mm). Climate
    5. 5. Rainfed Land area means: P/PET = 0.2 – 0.5 Agro-Climatic Zoning Map
    6. 6. Distribution (%) of country area by annual rainfall rates 29 24 23 11 8 2 <150 mm 150-250 mm 250-350 mm 350-450 mm 450-600 mm >600 mm Ghaffari et al., 2004 Precipitation
    7. 7. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall 75% off Growing Season 25% in Growing Season
    8. 8. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 1000hectares/tons Production Area Harvested 2200 Kg ha-1 2000 Kg ha-1 1500 Kg ha-1 2000 Kg ha-1 0.790 Kg ha-1
    9. 9. Bread Wheat and Durum Wheat are grown: - Winter/Facultative wheat: 4.1 Mha - Spring Wheat: 2.6 Mha
    10. 10. Percentage of daily calories from Wheat Source: FAO 2009
    11. 11. Climate Change
    12. 12. Sharifi and Bani-Hashemi, 2010 By 2040 precipitation will decline by 9% By 2040 temperature will increase by 0.5-1.5 oC
    13. 13. Water-Short Countries in 2020 and 2050
    14. 14. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 %WaterResourceUsedfor Agriculture Percentof total water resource used for agriculture in different parts of the world
    15. 15. 21.04 24.77 21.42 11.79 4.94 1.12 0.46 14.46 Distribution of Irrigated Wheat Grain Yield in Iran 2-3 t/ha 3-4 t/ha 4-5 t/ha 5-6 t/ha 6-7 t/ha 7-8 t/ha >8 t/ha 0-2 t/ha
    16. 16. Major Challenges:
    17. 17. • Drought is always a limiting factor • Agronomy is a limiting factor to harvesting the genetic potential of improved cultivars • Cold is limiting factor in Winter & Facultative wheat areas • Yellow rust remains the major disease. • Septoria is growing as a new major diseases in the Caspian and southern regions • Sunn pest is a major pest in all areas. • Common aphid has become a problem in temperate and warm areas • UG99 is a threat • Some weed species are becoming very invasive Major Limiting Factors
    18. 18. 1- Agronomy: Crop management/CA (3 million ha) 2- Physiology: Application of physiology in wheat breeding programs for drought and heat tolerance. Earliness is desirable. 3- Durable resistance for wheat rusts, particularly, Yellow Rust. 4- Development of germplasm resistant to insect pest, e. g. Sunn Pest. 5- Application of biotechnology particularly Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs for diseases/pests resistance as well as heat and drought tolerance 6- Enhancement of the rate of adoption of new cultivars. 7- Socio-economic studies on the adoption of new cultivars and recommendation packages. Priorities
    19. 19. 1- Development and release of improved bread and durum wheat cultivars with: - Yield potential, yield stability, wide adaptation - Desirable agronomic traits - Resistance to biotic stresses : Rusts (YR, LR & SR), Common Bunt, Dwarf Bunt, Septoria, FHB -Tolerance/ adaptation to environmental stresses : Cold, Heat, Drought as well as WUE - High quality for traditional flat bread baking - High quality in durum wheat for macaroni industries 2- Agronomic and wheat crop management packages 3- Breeder and foundation seed multiplication Main Objectives in Wheat Research Programs
    20. 20. 1- Agronomy/Crop management/CA 2- Physiology/Application of physiology in wheat breeding programs for drought and heat tolerance. Earliness is desirable. 3- Durable resistance for wheat rusts, particularly, Yellow Rust. 4- Development of germplasm resistant to insect pest, e. g. Sunn Pest. 5- Application of biotechnology in wheat breeding programs for diseases/pests resistance as well as heat and drought tolerance 6- Enhancement of variety replacement Strategies to be followed in Wheat Improvement Program for Adaptation to Changing Climate
    21. 21. There are Two Main National Wheat Improvement Programs: 1- Irrigated Wheat Improvement Program by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII) 2- Rainfed Wheat Improvement Program by the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI)
    22. 22. Some of the Aachievements
    23. 23. Bread Wheat cultivars released in Iran during 2002-2014 No. Cultivar Year of Release Institute Origin Growth Habit 1 Pishtaz 2002 SPII Iran Spring 2 Shiraz 2002 SPII Iran Spring 3 Tous 2002 SPII IWWIP Facultative 4 Bam 2006 SPII Iran Spring 5 Neishabour 2006 SPII Iran Spring 6 Sistan 2006 SPII Iran Spring 7 Arta 2006 SPII Iran Spring 8 Moghan3 2006 SPII Iran Spring 9 Drya 2006 SPII Iran Spring 10 Bahar 2007 SPII ICARDA Spring 11 Pishgam 2008 SPII Iran Facultative 12 Sivand 2009 SPII Iran Spring 13 Parsi 2009 SPII Iran Spring 14 Uroum 2009 SPII Iran Winter 15 Arg 2009 SPII Iran Facultative 16 Rasad 2009 DARI Iran Winter 17 Morvarid 2009 SPII CIMMYT Spring 18 Homa 2009 DARI Iran Winter 19 Zare 2010 SPII IWWIP Facultative 20 Mihan 2010 SPII Iran Winter 21 Aflak 2010 SPII CIMMYT Spring 22 Ohadi 2010 DARI Iran Winter 23 Rijaw 2011 DARI IWWIP Facultative 24 Karim 2012 DARI ICARDA Spring 25 Gonbad 2012 SPII Iran Spring 26 Sirvan 2012 SPII CIMMYT Spring 27 Ofogh 2012 SPII Iran Spring 28 Tak-Ab 2013 DARI IWWIP Winter 29 Cahmaran-2 2013 SPII Iran Spring 30 Baran 2014 DARI IWWIP Winter 31 Qaboos 2014 DARI CIMMYT Spring
    24. 24. Durum wheat and triticale cultivars released in Iran during 2003-2012 No. Cultivar Year of Release Institute Origin Growth Habit 1 Arya 2003 SPII CIMMYT Spring 2 Karkheh 2005 SPII ICARDA Spring 3 Dena 2007 SPII CIMMYT Spring 4 Behrang 2009 SPII CIMMYT Spring 5 Dehdasht 2009 DARI ICARDA Spring 6 Saji 2010 DARI ICARDA Spring 7 Sanabad (Triticale)2012 SPII CIMMYT Spring
    25. 25. - The presence of Ug99 in west part (Winter wheat growing areas) of Iran was reported in 2008. - In 2009 the presence of Ug99 was reported from Khuzestan in the south part (Spring wheat growing areas) of Iran. - In 2012 the presence of Ug99 was monitored in target areas in the south part (Spring wheat growing areas) of Iran. No evidence of Ug99 was reported. - A national research and management program for stem rust (Ug99) is carried out. - Resistant/Tolerant wheat cultivars have been developed/identified and commercially released. The presence of Ug99
    26. 26. Cultivar Ug99 reaction Expected Sr gene (s) Area sown (ha) Year of release Origin GH Pedigree Akbari 30RMR Race-specific due to R-MR reaction in field NA 2006 Iran S 1-63-31/3/12300/TOB//CNO67/SX Arg 40M APR (Sr2+) (MR-MS Category) 3775 2009 Iran S 1-66-22/INIA66 Bam 20RMR Race-specific due to R-MR reaction in field 6182 2006 Iran S VEE#5/NAC//1-66-22 Gonbad 30M APR (MR Category) also in 2007 955 2012 Iran S ATRAK/WANG-SHUI-BAI Morvarid 10RMR SrSha7+APR 114500 2009 CIMMYT S MILAN/SHANGHAI-7 Parsi 20RMR Race-specific due to R-MR reaction in field 5005 2009 Iran S Dove"S"/Buc"S"//2*Darab1 Pishgam 40M APR 25493 2008 Iran F Bkt/90Zhong87 Sirvan 40M APR (Sr2+) (MR-MS Category) 15 2012 CIMMYT S PRL/2*PASTOR Sistan 20RMR Race-specific 2896 2006 Iran S Bank"s"/Veery"s" Ofogh 10-30RMR Sr2 and Sr38 (tentative) NA 2012 Iran S GF-gy54 Ug99 resistant wheat cultivars released/identified in Iran since the launch of BGRI in 2006
    27. 27. We Sincerely invite you to visit our beautiful country

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