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Improved On-farm Irrigation Management for Olive Growing

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Improved On-farm Irrigation Management for Olive Growing

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Improved On-farm Irrigation Management for Olive Growing

  1. 1. Improved On-farm Irrigation Management for Olive Growing L. Sikaoui1, N. El Jouni2, M. Karrou3 and V. Nangia3 1Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Morocco) 2General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (Syria) 3International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (Jordan/Morocco)
  2. 2. Acknowledgements • The study was presented by the International Olives Council (IOC) to the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) for funding and was drawn up at the IOC Executive Secretariat in cooperation with the Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS-CSIC), Spain, and the Instituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo (CNR-ISAFoM), Italy. CFC is an intergovernmental financial institution established within the framework of the United Nations, headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  3. 3. Study sites
  4. 4. More than 900,000 ha 9% of cultivated land 5% of agricultural GDP 16% of Morocco’s consumption requirements in edible vegetable oils 15% food exports 400,000 farms 100,000 jobs Source: MAPM, 2011 olive : 65,46% grape: 7,19% date palm: 3,11% rosacees: 3,42% dry nuts: 5,26% citrus 11,57% grenade 0,41% citrus 3,58% Morocco
  5. 5. Olive plantation area The olive plantation is spread over the northern half of the national territory, except the Atlantic coast
  6. 6. 128.5 266 310 365 560 920 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1960/61 1970/71 1980/81 1990/91 2001/02 2010/11 Olivegrowingarea(thousandha) Cropping season - Olive growing area has increased in Morocco - From 1960 to 2010, Olive planting area increased 7x Source: MAPM, 2011
  7. 7. Moroccan Strategy For Olive Sector Development (Plan Maroc Vert) 2009 2020 Total Area 680,000 ha 1,220,000 ha Drip irrigation Area 17,000 ha 150,000 ha Production (ton) Total 700,000 2,500,000 Olive oil 60,000 273,000 Table olives 120,000 250,000 Exports Olive oil 16,000 120,000 Table olive 60,000 150,000 Source: Contrat programme olivier
  8. 8. Syria
  9. 9. Distribution of cultivated varieties on agro- climatic conditions
  10. 10. Study general objectives • To enhance crop yields of smallholder olive farmers in two Mediterranean countries - Morocco and Syria through the optimization of water management practices applied to olive cultivation • Improved and more stable olive yields are going to lead to improved earnings and livelihoods for the targeted smallholder farmers
  11. 11. Specific objectives • To increase yield of olive groves in the target areas by using advanced strategies • To minimize yearly fluctuations in yield, and securing more stable farm income • To increase water productivity of irrigated olive
  12. 12. Outputs Output1 Demonstration of the potential of advanced irrigation for increasing olive yield above current levels in rainfed olive groves and in conventionally irrigated groves. Output2 Demonstration of the potential of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) for increasing production under irrigation with a limited water supply Output3 Demonstration of a) the advantages of irrigation on the quality of olive fruits; b) the lack of detrimental effects on the quality of olive oil Output4 Dissemination & training based on the new information on olive irrigation management obtained in the regions where pilot plots are established
  13. 13. Morocco • Rainfall ~ 200-250 mm • Treatments (2 replicates of each) – Flood irrigation (control) – Irrigate at 100% ETc – Irrigate at 70% ETc Syria Rainfall ~ 300-400 mm Treatments (2 replicates of each) Rainfed (control) Irrigate at 100% CWR Irrigate at 50% CWR
  14. 14. Results - Syria • 2012 678 515 353 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 100% ETc 50% ETc Rainfed Waterapplied(rainfall+ irrigation,mm) Treatment
  15. 15. Olive Yield 11076 9828 7368 9984 7956 4056 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 100% ETc 50% ETc Rainfed Yield(kg/ha) Treatment Sorani cv. Jlout cv.
  16. 16. Oil Yield 2437 2345 11781268 1218 769 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 100% ETc 50% ETc Rainfed Oilyield(kg/ha) Treatment
  17. 17. Water Productivity 1.63 1.91 2.09 1.47 1.54 1.15 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 100% ETc 50% ETc Rainfed Waterproductivity(kg/m3ET) Treatment
  18. 18. Key results from 2012 data • 50% ETc (353 mm rainfall + 162 mm irrigation) compared to rainfed plantation, – fruit yield increased by 2,460 (33%) to 3,900 (96%) kg/ha – Yield of Sorani cv. was always higher than Jlout cv. at all locations – Water productivity ranged between 1.1 and 2.1 kg/m3 ET – There was a further increase of 1,250 (13%) to 2,030 (25%) kg/ha by switching from 50% ETc to 100% ETc
  19. 19. Key results from 2012 data (cont’d) The lowest WP was found for rainfed Sorani cv. at farmer’s field and highest for rainfed Sorani cv. at experimental station in Dara’a, but yields were always higher for irrigated olives plantations compared to rainfed proving that there is a loss of yield if we do not irrigate In terms of percentage oil extracted from fruit, Sorani cv. grown under 50% ETc treatment produced highest values (24%)
  20. 20. Key results from 2013 data (not shown here) • Yields increased by as much as 113% (4,056 kg/ha vs. 8,580 kg/ha) when 142 mm of irrigation was applied (in addition to 416 mm rainfall) by drip • A further increase of 1,560 kg/ha (21%) was achieved by applying additional 142 mm of irrigation (100% ETc) in addition to the rainfall
  21. 21. Results – Morocco 2012 649 492 1061 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 100% ETc 70% ETc Traditional Waterapplied(mm)
  22. 22. Olive yield 7570 7760 4530 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 100% ETc 70% ETc Traditional Olivefruityield(kg/ha)
  23. 23. Oil yield 1567 1629 951 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 100% ETc 70% ETc Traditional Oilyield(kg/ha)
  24. 24. Water productivity 1.17 1.58 0.43 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 100% ETc 70% ETc Traditional Waterproductivity (kg/m3appliedwater)
  25. 25. Key results from 2012 data • Received less than normal rainfall (140 mm) • Water requirement of olive trees, in addition to the rainfall, was higher than in normal year • Traditional flood irrigation method consumed 1,061 mm of irrigation water and – produced 1,150 kg/ha olive fruit yield – at a WP of 0.19 kg/m3 ET
  26. 26. Key results from 2012 data (cont’d) Switching to regulated drip irrigation reduced the water usage by 397 mm (44%) for 100% ETc treatment along with an increase of 430 kg/ha of yield (37%) 70% ETc treatment further saved 66 mm water (13%) but decreased yield by 260 kg/ha (16%)
  27. 27. Key results from 2013 data (not shown here) • During 2013 growing season (a relatively normal year - 240mm) at experiment site in Marrakesh, • by switching from traditional flood irrigation to drip irrigation, there was a – saving of 47% of water (800 mm vs. 316 mm), – 8% increase in olive fruit yield, – 100% increase in water productivity (0.76 kg/m3 vs. 1.54 kg/m3) and – 11% increase in oil yield
  28. 28. Key results from 2013 data (cont’d) Another 48% saving of water (167 mm) was possible by applying deficit drip irrigation at 70% of ETc level yield was 12% higher than traditional irrigation method, water productivity was 200% higher and oil yield was 18% higher
  29. 29. Statistical Analyses Differences (P < 0.05) • Cultivar • Irrigation treatment • Oil yield • Oil WP • Olive yield
  30. 30. Overarching conclusions • Applying a small amount of water by drip irrigation, in addition to rainfall, can be beneficial in two ways – – it helps increase the yields of fruits as well as oil, and – it helps stabilize the yields • In Syria, SI helped increase yields • In Morocco, RDI helped reduce water usage and improve WP
  31. 31. THANK YOU v.nangia@cgiar.org

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