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Improve on-farm irrigation management


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Atef Swelam, ICARDA

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Improve on-farm irrigation management

  1. 1. Improve on-farm irrigation management Atef Swelam, ICARDA On-farm irrigation management
  2. 2. The available annual water per capita is about 600 m3 Egypt Population is about 95 million 95% of Egypt land is desert Renewable water resources is 55.5 billion m3
  3. 3.  land fragmentation  lack of appropriate good agricultural practices (GAP) at the field level  adoption of new AWM practices is very low (farmers attitude)  inequitable water distribution along meskas and marwas  inefficient and outdated extension systems and advisory services  low-level adoption of new and good practices  lack of incentives in Ag. sector from the states (mostly seniors who are farming now, juniors are away)  drop in water quantity and quality  poor management of water, land and fertilizers  lack of follow-up by the community after new agricultural activities or interventions have been introduced The challenges
  4. 4. Donors National /Int’l Research Institutions Demo Farms 1 2 3 3 2 1 • Key Findings1 • Recom. 2 Research Impact/Communication Pathway
  5. 5. Technical Environ- mental Socio- economical Agricultural Water Management Elements SAgWM • Innovation • Research gaps (community needs) • Soil/water management • Crop manag./intercrop. • Water reuse • Supple. Irri. • New varieties • Practical packages • Water/soil conservation • Climate change • Salinity control • Water pollution • Water availability/accessibility • Food Security • Energy cost • Cost-effective techniques • Cost recovery • Improved yield Q&Q • Markets and trade policies • Governance (WUA, policy setups) • Job opportunities • Land tenure/size • Training/CD
  6. 6. Better Livelihoods Economical Environ- mental Technical Better Water Management Social System Change Management & inputs
  7. 7. New Land system Old Land system Salt-affected Land system Agro-Systems in Egypt Desert Land system
  8. 8. Egypt Agroecosystems New reclaimed Land Old Land (Delta) Salt-affected Land 55% 20% 25%
  9. 9. Improve L & W productivity Sustainabilit y of intensive agricultural functions Manage salinity to improve L & W productivity What are the objectives of interventions in sub sites? Improved Livelihoods
  10. 10. Typical Nile Delta farm layout Agriculture • Survival function • Intensive farming practices • Diversified and free crop rotation • Offer opportunities to tackle full spectrum of issues associated with irrigated agro-ecosystems.
  11. 11. Nile Delta Irrigation/Drainage Network
  12. 12. Irrigation • Flood irrigation, agriculture uses 85% available water • Inequity of water distribution (social conflicts) • Water quality deterioration • Drainage water reuse
  13. 13. How can we shift from current practices to best practices and achieve the potential production? Yield (Egyptian Lira/acre)
  14. 14. Central Objective: To sustainably improve the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities in Egypt by introducing open-source solutions for enhanced water productivity. Improve the productivity of small-scale farming systems through more effective and efficient use of water and land resources. 1 Improve farm profitability by scaling out improved irrigation and agricultural practices. Immediateobjectives 2 Develop and disseminate innovative and cost- effective integrated packages at the field level to increase agricultural water productivity 3 Improve on-farm irrigation management
  15. 15. Management of Saline Soils to Improve Productivity
  16. 16. Low quality irrigation water (mixed) Poor soil structurer Rapid salinity build up
  17. 17. Salinity in Irrigated Areas is Unavoidable……… ………Unless irrigation and salts are well managed
  18. 18. Subsoiling Gypsum application Gypsum is a good option to improve the soil salinity by replacing sodium with calcium
  19. 19. Maintenance and operation of open field drains It is important to maintain the open field drains to be capable to convey drainage water out of the fields to improve soil conditions.
  20. 20. Mole drain practice to improve drainage efficiency and improve soil quality
  21. 21. 1st season 3rd season
  22. 22. FP MRB Mechanized raisedbed practice to improve soil salinity
  23. 23. Fertilizer management under saline water irrigation Fertilizer management under conjunctive use of saline water  Nitrogen +20% than the conventional rate resulted in better crop establishment  Increase in cotton yield up to 16%
  24. 24. Mulching of alternate furrows and irrigation with saline water on a salt-affected soil  Decrease ET by 12%  Increase is cotton yields by 10%  Increase in WP by 14%  Reduction in soil salinity by 18% Mulching practice
  25. 25. Sustainable interventions to address degradation associated with salt-affected soils Packages introduced include: application of gypsum, organic matter, bio-fertilizers, ammonia injection, mole drains and laser leveling. Application of gypsum combined with ammonia gas and farm manure helped to: • improve soil physical and chemical properties, and subsequently improved soil structure and hydraulic conductivity • increase the crop yield by 20-30% • reduce soil salinity by 35% • Improve water productivity by 50% • Increase farm income by 15% The introduced package is being implemented/partially by 20% of the young farmers in the northern Delta
  26. 26. 1. Improve the estimation of ETc and Kc for farmers and water agencies 2. Validating the crop ET using Energy Balance 3. Develop ET maps for different agro-climatic zones 4. Upgrade crop coefficient (Kc) values to improve: • On-farm irrigation management • Confidence in the Kc values • Water demand estimates for regional planning Objectives: Water Demand Management
  27. 27. ET = Rn - G - H Rn (radiation from sun) Heat to air Transpiration heat to Ground The energy balance includes all major sources (Rn) and consumers (ET, G, H) Evaporation • The Surface Renewal (SR) and Eddy Covariance (EC) methods provide a good alternative to using expensive lysimeters to measuring ETa. • The SR method is the least expensive and it requires less fetch, so it is useful for small plantations. • The SR method is useful for upgrading the crop coefficients to improve on- farm irrigation management, confidence in the Kc values and water demand estimates for regional water planning The technology
  28. 28. Using Energy Balance (SR and EC) to measure ET for field crops in Nile Delta
  29. 29. Using Energy Balance (SR and EC) to measure ET for orchards in Nile Delta
  30. 30. Results Samples
  31. 31. Updating crop coefficients Wheat 09/10 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 DOS ET(mm) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 Kc ETo mm ETc mm Kc A B C D EInitial Rapid Mid season Late season 20% 45% 75% 100% T  0 10% Cg 75% Cg Kc1=0.36 Kc2=1.11 Kc3=0.15
  32. 32. Epan Chart A-pan reading Equivalent ETo value 9.9 17.5 Simple for technicians
  33. 33. Farm level practices for better water demand management
  34. 34. Deficit irrigation to adapt with water shortage conditions
  35. 35. Simple but difficult to achieve Water Demand Developed Water Supply Water Demand Developed Water Supply In the region
  36. 36. Newland Characteristics Collective Action Irrigation Lined canals 100% pumped water Pressurized irrigation systems
  37. 37. Poor soils, inequity of water distribution and uncertainty are the main issues
  38. 38. DI ETc Adoption of Deficit Irrigation in Newlands An example for adaptation to climate change DI is: A useful option for improved on-farm water management under shortage of water supply
  39. 39. Reduce negative impact of DI by other management
  40. 40. Interaction between irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield - 7%
  41. 41. << Water productivity as affected by DI
  42. 42. I1=75%ET, N2=100%I1=100%ET, N1=75% I2=75%ET, N1=75% High quality yield
  43. 43. I3=125%ET, N1=75%I2=75%ET, N2=100% I3=125%ET, N2=100% Low quality yield
  44. 44. Central Objective: To sustainably improve the livelihoods of resource-poor rural communities in Minya and Fayoum governorates in Egypt by introducing open-source solutions for enhanced water productivity. Improve the productivity of small-scale farming systems through more effective and efficient use of water and land resources. 1 Improve farm profitability by scaling out improved irrigation and agricultural practices. Immediateobjectives 2 Develop and disseminate innovative and cost- effective integrated packages at the field level to increase agricultural water productivity 3
  45. 45. Expected Outcomes  Marwas in pilot areas Minya and Fayoum are improved  Farmers in Minya and Fayoum adopt more efficient and integrated on-farm irrigation and agricultural packages.  Guidelines on improving water productivity and farm income are produced; the guidelines are then disseminated to communities in the two areas.  Stakeholders gain improved awareness regarding good agricultural practices.  Improved irrigation practices are fine-tuned, calibrated, and tested under farm conditions; they are then disseminated to farmers.  Information/knowledge on potential benefits and trade-offs using various technologies are synthesized and shared with stakeholders.  Crop water productivity maps for Minya and Fayoum are produced and disseminated.  Reports on options and guidelines of promising technologies that improve water-land-crop productivity are developed and shared with relevant stakeholders. The project will use proven science-based on-farm applied research. The outputs and outcomes will enhance productivity and sustainability of agriculture. The project will create synergies with other ongoing EU-JRDP activities in the same areas of intervention of Bahr Awlad Mohamed and Bahr Biahmu in Fayoum and Hafez Al Sharkyia in Minya.
  46. 46. Project Interventions  Promote farmers’ awareness on the adoption of good irrigation practices and improve the conventional practices for enhanced irrigation efficiency.  Support farmer water user associations (WUAs) by reinforcing existing organizations or creating new ones with special attention to gender sensitivity.  Rehabilitate the marwas for adequate and more efficient delivery of irrigation water to farmer field.  Conduct proper land levelling for pilot areas and facilitate the maintenance of open field drainage networks.  Facilitate the improvement of soil quality (gypsum application)  Introduce and train farmers on using the mechanized raisedbed technology for precision water and agricultural operations.  Strengthen the role of collective action by building the capacity of growers, WUAs, water planners and decision makers to improve sustainable productivity in all dimensions (social, economic, and biophysical). Facilitate the dissemination of good irrigation techniques and practices.  Promote the concept of community-based, participatory approach of irrigation improvement by involving stakeholders in the entire implementation process.  Conduct inception and validation workshops to disseminate the project’s key findings. Through a participatory approach, the project will support the target groups with innovative packages to improve on-farm irrigation management. The interventions will include
  47. 47. Meska line Farm valve Farm outlet Pumping house
  48. 48. Work package-1: Marwa Improvement
  49. 49. • Inception workshop conducted on 13-14 February • The baseline survey started to select the locations of marwas for rehabilitation, and for the implementation of other project interventions • Several focus group discussions were conducted with farmers and water user associations • Contracts with local contractors for construction works • Training for WUAs will start in mid September Progress:
  50. 50. Mechanized raisedbed technology to improve water and land productivity
  51. 51. Mechanized raisedbed technology to improve water and land productivity
  52. 52. Conventional farmer practices
  53. 53. Mechanized Raisedbed (Evaporation )Farmer practices (Evaporation ) + -
  54. 54. Development of water saving technology for small-scale farms to improve land and water productivity in the Nile Implemented by: ARC, ICARDA Supported by: IFAD, AFESD, OFID Development of a cost- effective raisedbed machine for small-scale farms to promote the adoption Implemented by: ARC, NWRC, ZU, ICARDA Supported by: AFESD Dissemination and scale out of mechanized raisedbed package Implemented by: NWC, FSP, ZU, MALR, ICARDA Supported by: AFESD, NWC, STDF, KWFD, IsDB, OFID, Gates foundation, FAO Phase-I Phase-II Phase-III The development process of raisedbed technology in Egypt
  55. 55. Soil moisture uniformity distribution to avoid water stress in the middle rows Evaporation + Transpiration - Yield
  56. 56. Comparison between Mechanized Raisedbed (MRB) and Farmer Practices (FP) in Applied Water FP MRB
  57. 57. MRB: Better seed distributionFP: Bad seed distribution Waterlogging due to heavy rain and/or over-irrigation Safe disposal of runoff
  58. 58. Depressive Impressive FP MRB
  59. 59. Depressive Impressive FP MRB
  60. 60. 6125 4775 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Traditional Method MRB Appliedwater(m3/ha) 27% + 22% - 64% +
  61. 61. Wheat grain yield of farmer practices vs MRB Ardab = 150 kg 10 ton/ha or 1 kg/m2 Farmer’s Name
  62. 62. Benefits to Farmers The RB helped the wheat growers to:  save the applied water by 20-25%  reduce seed rate by 50%  decrease farming cost by 25%  increase fertilizers use efficiency by 30%  reduce yield loss (no lodge)  reduce farming time by 80%  increase crops yields by 15- 30% = Perfect Match + + + + +
  63. 63. Manual implementation of RB, but the cost was very high and the adoption was very low!!
  64. 64. Farmers adoption/adaptation
  65. 65. Development of the machine prototype at a local workshop
  66. 66. Multi-option machine
  67. 67. The machine can be used in tilled and untilled soil
  68. 68. Implementation of mechanized raisedbed at farmer fields
  69. 69. Maturity Stage Establishment StageGermination Stage Mechanical Harvesting of MRB Implementation of mechanized raisedbed for wheat at Farmer fields
  70. 70. 20 cm20 cm Adjustment for maize crop according to the seed size and inter-plant distance
  71. 71. MRB Fababean MRB Sugarbeet
  72. 72. The development of wheat area grown on raisedbed (ha) in Sharkia governorate Up-to-date progress made to scale-out the raisedbed Source: MoA-NWC, 2016: Total wheat RB cultivated area in 2017/2017 in Sharkia Governorate 37,815 ha and 384,453 ha allover Egypt The Egypt wheat strategy targets 600,00 ha cultivated under RB system by 2020
  73. 73. The Egypt wheat strategy targets 600,00 ha cultivated under RB system by 2020
  74. 74. How do we do that? Benchmark Advisory Group (interaction with farmers/technical backstopping) Demonstration fields at farmers plots Capacity building of extension officers Capacity building of key farmers Capacity building of WUAs
  75. 75. Satellite village Demo Farms (Core farmers) Target Community Farmers Clusters Build farmer groups one of which is women only, who will commit to engagement with the implementation through the full duration Satellite village Satellite village Satellite village
  76. 76. Farmers’ Ownership Farmers were involved in the whole process
  77. 77. Benchmark Advisory Group (interaction with farmers & technical backstopping)
  78. 78. Training of key farmers
  79. 79. Solving water conflicts between upstream and downstream water users
  80. 80. Local dissemination Direct dissemination
  81. 81. High level workshop on Raisedbed attended by: • Minister of agriculture • Sharkai Governor • ICARDA DG • FAO Deputy of ADG • International media
  82. 82. Nile Basin Learning Routes
  83. 83. Jobs creation as an impact from the raised innovation
  84. 84. Jobs creation as an impact from the raised innovation
  85. 85. Due to its success and impact achieved, other countries in the region has strongly requested ICARDA to test and scale out the MRB to their ecosystems. Several machines have been produced and sent to: Ethiopia, Jordan, Iraq, Morocco, Nigeria, Sudan, Tunisia, Uzbekistan) Scale out the MRB in the region
  86. 86. Scale out to other countries Several machines have been produced and sent to: (Ethiopia, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Morocco, Nigeria, Sudan, Tunisia, Uzbekistan)
  87. 87. ICARDA’s Enhanced 2019 Model
  88. 88. Implemented by Supported by Acknowledgement
  89. 89. Thank you