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Field crops breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: achievements & prospects

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11-14 February 2019. Jodhpur, India. The 13th International Conference on Dryland Development
Presentation of Michael Baum, Director Biodiversity & Crop Improvement Program Jodhpur, India

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Field crops breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: achievements & prospects

  1. 1. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas icarda.org cgiar.org A CGIAR Research Center Field crops breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: achievements & prospects Michael Baum Director Biodiversity & Crop Improvement Program Jodhpur, India
  2. 2. icarda.org 2 The Dry Arc expansion
  3. 3. icarda.org 3 ICARDA within the Dry Arc Arab climate change assessment report 2017: • +1.9 ⁰C by 2050 • +4.8 ⁰C by 2100 • -100 mm rainfall by 2100 • Doubling of days >40 ⁰C • Decreasing of underground water 3 Research Platforms 5 Thematic Platforms 3 Integrated Research Programs 7 SDG targeted
  4. 4. Crop genepool Global Ranking % acc. globally Barley 2nd 19.0 Wheat 4th 14.6 Chickpea 2nd 23.2 Faba bean 1st 89.1 Lentil 1st 43.5 Lathyrus 1st 63.6 Medicago 2nd 15.0 Pisum 3rd 12.1 Trifolium 3rd 9.0 Vicia 1st 23.7 Overall 4th 4.0 Crop No of accs. Crop No of accs. Barley 30,225 Pisum spp. 6,131 Bread wheat 15,088 Trifolium spp. 5,933 Durum wheat 20,540 Vicia spp. 6,556 Primitive wheat 1,214 Faba bean 10,034 Aegilops spp. 5,155 Chickpea 15,195 Wild Triticum 1871 Lentil 13,980 Wild Hordeum 2,563 Wild Cicer 554 Not mandate cereals 182 Wild Lens 617 Lathyrus spp. 4,458 Range & Pasture 7,404 Medicago annual 9,160 Others 50 Total 156,910 ICARDA’s most precious treasure ICARDA hosts more than 156.000 accessions of cereals and legumes, the vast majority landraces
  5. 5. Diversity of the ICARDA durum wheat landraces collection using high density DartSeq markers K= 2: Differentiation between ethiopicum and durum K= 3: Differentiation between ethiopicum, North Africa and AsiaK= 2: Differentiation between ethiopicum and durum K= 5: Differentiation between ethiopicum, North Africa, fertile crescent, facultative and East Asia
  6. 6. Understand landraces adaptation using allele climate association
  7. 7. icarda.org 7 The role of breeding against climate change Morocco February 2016 Karim Faraj Drought of the century Morocco April 2016
  8. 8. icarda.org 8 Durum root types for drought tolerance • Deep roots have a yield advantage under drought of +39% • Three QTLs controls root angel and these have a significant effect on yield under drought Root System Architecture and Its Association with Yield under Different Water Regimes in Durum Wheat El Hassouni et al. Crop Science 2018, 58:1-16
  9. 9. Variety Nachit, released in 2017 Adk1/T. dicoccoidesSyr/Lks • + 42% yield • Large grains • Good industrial quality • Excellent disease package Morocco – first variety released targeted for deep roots Nachit
  10. 10. icarda.org 10 Barley root types for drought tolerance • Testing of root angle via clear-pot • Testing of drought adaptation via dry-down experiment • 39% r2,with narrow roots being more drought tolerant • 5H QTL associated with root angle (r2: 8.25%) R2 = 39% Drought Tolerance
  11. 11. icarda.org 11 Heat tolerance in durum and bread wheat Ndiayene, Senegal, 2018 Wad Madani, Sudan, 2016 Testing of bread wheat and durum wheat GWAS panels under 31-42° C throughout the season Durum Wheat Breeding: In the Heat of the Senegal River. Sall et al. Agricolture, 2018, 8 Heat tolerance of durum wheat (Tritcum durum Desf.) elite germplasm tested along the Senegal River Sall et al. J Ag Science, 2018, 10:2 Associated with Grain Yield and Its Components in Spring Bread Wheat under Heat-Stressed Environments of Sudan and Egypt. Tadesse et al. Crop Science, 2018, 59:199
  12. 12. icarda.org 12 Heat tolerance in durum and bread wheat Durum wheat (Senegal River) Bread wheat (Sudan) Q.Icd.Gy.Biom.01 on chr 4A: LOD of 3.8 and R2 9% Q.Icd.Biom.TKW.01 on chr 5A: LOD of 5.6 and R2 1% Flowering time used as co-variate Ex_c12812_20324622 on chr 4A: LOD of 3.9 and R2 5% Ex_c2526_24715978 on chr 5A: LOD of 6.1 and R2 6% Flowering time used as co-variate Associated with Grain Yield and Its Components in Spring Bread Wheat under Heat-Stressed Environments of Sudan and Egypt. Tadesse et al. Crop Science, 2018, 59:199
  13. 13. icarda.org 13 Hessian Fly resistance in durum • Hessian fly (M. destructora) is a devastating insect pest of North Africa • Resistance derived from Triticum araraticum introgression • Major QTL on 6BS (LOD 35 by MP and 54.5 by GWAS) • One marker validated for MAS and available at LGC BS00072387 Genetic identification of loci for Hessian fly resistance in durum wheat Bassi et al. Molecular Breeding, 2019
  14. 14. icarda.org 14 Hessian Fly resistance in bread wheat • Resistance derived from Ae. Tauschii introgression in Synthetic wheat • The gene is located on chromosome 7DS with a homeologue on 7AS • A bulk-seq approach identified 2 SNPs located at the dirigent-like protein gene (HfrDrd), a key defense gene. • KASP markers have also been developed and are now available
  15. 15. icarda.org 15 Short duration lentils • Intensification by inclusion of pulses as cash crop instead of fallow (potential area 15 million ha) • New niches such as spring planted crop • Market opportunities Replacing fallow season
  16. 16. 16 Durum Wheat Int. Nursery Bread Wheat selected entries Farmers in wheat trial Barley trial Durum, Bread Wheat and Barley Trials at IRP, Amlaha
  17. 17. 17 Lentil Int. Elite Nusries Exotic lentil material (Bangladesh) Lentil International Nurseries at Amlaha
  18. 18. icarda.org 18 The usual role of breeding against climate change Tolerance to stresses, increase productivity per unit of land/input ADAPTATION
  19. 19. icarda.org 19 A new role for breeding against climate change? Tolerance to stresses, increase productivity per unit of land/input Carbon/nitrogen fixation, better fit within agronomy practices, extended respiration ADAPTATION MITIGATION
  20. 20. icarda.org 20 Breeding FOR agronomy • The best genotypes for Conventional Till (CT) and for Zero-till (ZT) are not the same • Combine G + GxE + GxM
  21. 21. icarda.org 21 A new role for breeding against climate change? Treatment Plot (soil C %) Control (soil C %) Change (soil C %) Normal-till 0.96 0.89 +0.07 Zero-till 1.05 0.94 +0.11** Omrabi (narrow) 0.94 0.80 +0.14** Bellaroi (wide) 0.92 0.88 +0.04 Marchouch 16/17, ZT left, NT right +0.04% +0.10% Testing of carbon fixation in field at the end of the season after removing all solid organic matter • ZT increase carbon still present at the end of summer by +0.04% after just 1 season (1.5-folds) • Some genotypes (narrow/deep root system) accumulated 3.5-folds more carbon in the soil than other • We can breed for climate change mitigation
  22. 22. icarda.org 22 A new role for breeding against climate change? Nitrogen fixation in lentils • Clustering analysis of different lentil genotypes for nodulation • The bottom cluster is super-nodulating • Currently working on testing different rhizobium strains and their interaction with super-nodulating genotypes
  23. 23. icarda.org 23 Conclusions • Temperatures are raising faster than originally expected • Abiotic and biotic resistances remain the key to ensure productivity • Exploitation of the genebank material for biotic and abiotic stress resistance • The use of tools such as GWAS can guarantee useful discoveries for breeders, but only if followed by adequate marker validation for MAS • ICARDA will invest more time to assess the possibility to continue the “adaptation” breeding strategy, but in integration with a new “mitigation” approach
  24. 24. icarda.org 24 Thank you .Afghanistan Egypt Iraq Jordan Morocco Palestine Sudan Syria Tunisia Ethiopia Mauretania Senegal Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi-Arabia UAE Yemen

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