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Dissecting water-saving traits in pulses

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Michel E. Ghanem, Hélène Marrou, Shiv Kumar,
Vincent Vadez, Thomas R. Sinclair

Published in: Science
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Dissecting water-saving traits in pulses

  1. 1. Michel E. Ghanem, Hélène Marrou, Shiv Kumar, Vincent Vadez, Thomas R. Sinclair Dissecting water-saving traits in pulses Crop Physiology Laboratory ICARDA – Rabat Platform m.ghanem@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Sensitive Tolerant No major water extraction differences in sensitive and tolerant chickpea Yield and water use Zaman-Allah et al. 2011 JXB
  3. 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 Waterused(kgpl-1) Days after sowing Sensitive Tolerant Low early vigor Low leaf Gs Tolerant: less WU at vegetative stage, more water left for reproduction and grain filling Yield and water use Zaman-Allah et al. 2011 JXB Vegetative Reprod/ Grain fill CHICKPEA
  4. 4. A plant that has:  enough water for grain filling  no more water after grain filling Hypotheses:  Looking for new sources of water  Save/manage water Focus on traits affecting plant water budget What is a drought tolerant plant ?
  5. 5. Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD; kPa) Transpirationrate(gcm-2h- 1) 0 2 4 0 1 VPD Basic research on “Building block” of Water Use (WU) FTSW 0.00.20.40.60.81.0Normalizedtranspiration 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Stage I Stage II Stage III FTSW
  6. 6. Limited transpiration rate under elevated midday vapor pressure deficit (i.e., low relative humidity) Water conservation traits Sinclair et al., 2005, FPB 6 9 12 15 18 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 < 0.6 mm h-1 < 0.4 mm h-1 VPD 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Tr Time VaporPressureDeficit(kPa) TranspirationRate(mmh-1) Exploratory studies (modeling): simulation of relative grain yield (sorghum) Yield gain in 75 % of the cases
  7. 7. What would be the impact of limited transpiration under high VPD trait for soybean production in Africa? Base line scenario Scenario with improved variety • Change value of 1 parameter : • VPD thereshold : 4 1.8 KPa 7 Soltani et Sinclair, 2012 Using crop modeling
  8. 8. 8H. Marrou, Montpellier Supagro What would be the impact of limited transpiration under high VPD trait for soybean production in Africa? Modeling 50 different years allows risk assessment Sinclair, Marrou et al., 2014, GFS (g/m2) Using crop modeling
  9. 9. 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 VPD (kPa) H77/2 833-2 PRLT-2/89-33 Transpiration(gcm-2h-1) Kholova et al 2010 – J. Exp. Bot Transpiration response to VPD in pearl millet: Terminal drought Sensitive (VPD-insensitive) Terminal drought Tolerant (VPD-sensitive) Water conservation traits 2 mechanisms of water saving: • Low TR at low VPD • Further restriction of TR at high VPD
  10. 10. VPD response in pulses • Common bean • Chickpea • Peanut • Lentil • Soybean
  11. 11. FTSW 0.00.20.40.60.81.0 Normalizedtranspiration 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Stage I Stage II Stage III Plants don’t suffer stress until >60% soil water is depleted How plants manage water when there is water is critical Basic response of plant exposed to water deficit Conserving water by early stomata closure in soil drying cycle in lentil
  12. 12. NTR 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 FLIP 2009-55L JL1 FTSW 0,00,20,40,60,81,0 NTR 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 Ghanem, et al. unpublished Conserving water by early stomata closure in soil drying cycle in lentil Sensitive Tolerant Water conservation traits • Tolerant line have higher FTSW threshold for transpiration decline under water deficit
  13. 13. FTSW response in pulses • Common bean • Chickpea • Peanut • Lentil • Soybean (no variation yet found !) • Cowpea
  14. 14. • Two traits have been extensively explored for expression and genetic variability • VPD • FTSW • Breeding is now underway based on these results for physiologically-targeted drought traits Summary
  15. 15. • Professor Thomas R. Sinclair North Carolina State University - USA • Dr. Vincent Vadez • Dr. Hélène Marrou UMR SYSTEM-Montpellier SupAgro - France International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics - India

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