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THEME – 3 Wheat Improvement for the Changing Climate: Adaptation to Heat Stress Environments


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THEME – 3 Wheat Improvement for the Changing Climate: Adaptation to Heat Stress Environments

  1. 1. Wheat Improvement for the Changing Climate: Adaptation to Heat Stress Environments Izzat S. A. Tahir ARC/ICARDA International Workshop on: “Applied Mathematics and Omics Technologies for Discovering Biodiversity and Genetic Resources for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation to Sustain Agriculture in Drylands” Rabat - Morocco, 24-27 June 2014
  2. 2. Outlines • Climate change and its effects on wheat production • Breeding strategy and methodology • Wheat improvement for heat tolerance • Broadening the wheat genetic diversity • Crop management • Integrated approaches • Precision Phenotyping Platforms • Conclusions
  3. 3. Abstract Breeding high-yielding wheat varieties adapted to diverse environments is regarded as one of the most important means needed to meet the ever increasing global demand for wheat especially in the light of the ensuing climate change. Genetic improvement of wheat yield could be through a better exploitation of genetic diversity, understanding and mining physiological traits associated with climate change and then utilization these traits via their introduction into new varieties by conventional breeding and/or genetic manipulation. Multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) developed by Tottori University utilizing diverse sources of Aegilops tauschii are being evaluated for heat stress tolerance in Sudan. Multi-location evaluation and selection is essential for identifying high-yielding better adapted wheat varieties. In this respect, close collaboration, coordination and communication are needed among the national (NARS), regional and international wheat research centers and scientific community. One of the good examples for such collaboration between NARS and international center is wheat improvement under heat stress condition coordinated by CIMMYT/ICARDA. In this regard, wheat germplasm targeted to heat stress areas is evaluated and selected under temperature gradients ranging from favorable to very high temperatures. Some stress adaptive traits have been identified and could be used for further improvement and mining the genetic resources for heat stress tolerance. Promising lines identified have been shared among west and east African low lands experiencing high temperature during the growing season. This is further supported by the plan to set up Precision Wheat Phenotyping Platforms (PWPPs) anticipated to improve the breadth and quality of data collected and shared among wheat scientists.
  4. 4. Climate changeand its effects on wheat production • Increased frequency of: • Heat stress, • Droughts • Flooding • Reduced crop yields. • Food insecurity due to extreme climate events • Countries with less wealth and natural resource adapt less efficiently to climate change IPCC, 2007
  5. 5. Climate change and its effects on wheat production, cont. • Global warming: • Could be beneficial for wheat in some regions, • Could reduce productivity in zones where optimal temperatures already exist. • How to adapt and mitigate the climate change effects: • Germplasm development • Crop management • Mitigation (Climate change: Can wheat beat the heat? (Ortiz et al. 2008).
  6. 6. Figs. Adapted from Lobell et al. 2008. Science , 319: 607-610
  7. 7. Breeding Strategy and Methodology • Broadening the genetic base and enhancing variability:  Locally adapted cultivars  Landraces  Wild relatives  Derived synthetic wheat  Winter wheat gene
  8. 8. BreedingStrategy and Methodology,cont. • Strategic trait-based crossing to address different objectives:  Yield potential  Biotic stresses  Abiotic stresses (e.g. Heat stress)  Grain quality Bringing drought and heat adaptive traits together in one genotype could increase wheat yields particularly in low yielding environments. Lopes et al. 2012. Field Crops Res. 128:129–136
  9. 9. BreedingStrategy and Methodology,cont. • Biotech Tools: • Doubled haploid (Anther/microspore culture) • Molecular Breeding
  10. 10. Multi-environment testing and evaluation • Yield potential • Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance: • Cold • Drought • Heat stress
  11. 11.  Attempts to expand wheat into heat-stressed areas in Central Sudan from 1918-1940 failed due to the lack of:  Adapted cultivars  Appropriate cultural practices  Intensified wheat breeding in collaboration with CG Centers resulted in the release of several heat stress tolerant cultivars,  The major outcome was the expansion of wheat to new heat-stressed areas. An example
  12. 12. The genetic gain in grain yield under the heat stress environment of Sudan was estimated to be 30.2 kg/ha/year Tahir et al. 2000
  13. 13. Wheat improvement for heat tolerance
  14. 14. Wad Medani Dongola Sids Screening and Selection for Heat Tolerance: Temperature gradient Mean temperatures (0C) during crop season (LTA) 28.9 20.8 16.4 0 20 40 Wad Medani, Sudan Dongola, Sudan Sids, Egypt
  15. 15. Daysto heading and grain yield acrosssites 8860 5250 3540 89 68 59 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Sids (Egypt) Dongola (N Sudan) Wad Medani (C Sudan) Grain yield (kg/ha) Days to heading
  16. 16. Screening/Selectionforheattolerance:Hotspots • Advanced lines and segregating populations (F3- F6) evaluated at Wad Medani, Sudan. • Visual selection have been made • More than 65% of visually selected lines were of high yield
  17. 17. Materials received from CIMMYT, ICARDA + National Program evaluated and selected under temperature gradients
  18. 18. / • Selected elite lines redistributed to different East and west African countries involved in SARD-SC Wheat Project • Promising and encouraging results obtained
  19. 19.  Partners countries expressed their satisfaction with the material received and evaluated  A number of entries have been frequently selected by partners form the nurseries received  Some lines selected across several environments Preliminary Results (2013/2014 Season):
  20. 20.  REYNA-28  REYNA-29  JNRB.5/PIFED  KINGBRD#1//INQALAB91*2/TUKURU  HUBARA-3*2/SHUHA-4  HUBARA-16/2*SOMAMA-3  KAUZ'S'/FLORKWA-1//GOUMRIA-3  SERI.1B*2/3/KAUZ*2/BOW//KAUZ/4/ANGI-2  ATTILA 50Y//ATTILA/BCN/3/STAR*MUSK-3  SERI.1B*2/3/KAUZ*2/BOW//KAUZ/4/KAUZ/FLORKWA-1 Most frequently selected lines/families:
  21. 21. More studies at molecular level: • Association Mapping Panel (GRDC Project) • WAM I • Physiological and Molecular Breeding
  22. 22. Broadening the wheat genetic diversity for abiotic stress tolerance (Multiple Synthetic Derivatives, MSD Tsujimoto et al. • Genetic diversity of diverse 51 accessions of Aegilops tauschi was analyzed using DArT markers. • The accessions were crossed with a durum wheat to produce 51 amphidiploids designated as primary synthetics • Each primary synthetic line was crossed with ‘Norin 61
  23. 23. Stress adaptive traits Canopy temperature Fig. adapted from Pask et al . 2012 Ground cover Fig. adapted from Pask et al . 2012 Stomatal conductance Key developmental (phenological) stages
  24. 24. NUT H2O CHO CHO Stem Reserve Remobilization NUT H2O
  25. 25. Crop management • Raised bed planting • Conservation Agriculture • New Irrigation systems
  26. 26. More approaches • Mathematics, Omics and Modeling • Network s • Facilities • Platforms for integrated solution
  27. 27. Credit agencies Trader/marketer transporter NGOs Farmers Government policies, Informal institutions, practices, behaviors and attitudes NARS Extension agencies Education and training organizations Development agencies SARD-SC Wheat Research teams Local and regional decision makers Service providers Manufacturers IAR4D and Innovation Systems: Innovation Platform
  28. 28. Precision Phenotyping Platforms • Precision Wheat Phenotyping Platforms (PWPPs) anticipated to: • Improve the breadth and quality of data collected • Data and knowledge shared among wheat scientists. • Wad Medani, Sudan is proposed as PWPP for heat stress
  29. 29. Conclusions • Better exploitation of genetic diversity, understanding and mining physiological climate change-adaptive traits and their utilization . • Multi-location testing is important for spatial adaptation and identification of temporally stable, stress tolerant germplasm • Evaluation at hot spots has resulted in the development of several promising lines tolerance to abiotic stresses • Broadening the wheat genetic diversity • Networking and international collaboration • Platforms for Integrated solution