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Combating wilt susceptibility in Chickpea – A Success story and Challenges ahead


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D.R. Saxena

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Combating wilt susceptibility in Chickpea – A Success story and Challenges ahead

  1. 1. Combating wilt susceptibility in Chickpea – A Success story and Challenges ahead D.R. Saxena Principal Scientist (Plant Pathology) All India Coordinated Research project on Chickpea Main Centre, R.A.K. College of Agriculture, RVSKVV SEHORE 466001 (M.P.) India ICP 2016 ICARDA Marrakech, Morocco
  2. 2. Status of Chickpea Area [lakh ha] Production [lakh tons] Yield [kg/ha] World 148.04 142.49 962.25 India 107.40 (72%) 98.00 (68%) 912.48 M.P. 28.53 (27%) 29.64 (30%) 1040.00 FAOSTAT (2014) India Madhya Pradesh (M.P.)
  3. 3. 1. AICRP Main Chickpea Centre 2. IIPR Regional Centre 3. ICARDA Centre on Pulses 4. Pulses Directorate
  4. 4. India, 875 M.P., 1040 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Kg/ha Productivity of chickpea in 21st Centuary
  5. 5. About wilt • Wilt has remained a major limiting factor of chickpea production in the Mediterranean Basin and the Indian Subcontinent (Jalali and Chand 1992). – Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. ciceris (Padwick) Matuo & K. Sato (FOC). • Annual yield losses range from 10 to 15% (Trapero-Casas and Jiménez-Díaz,1985). • Fusarium wilt epidemics can be devastating and cause 100% loss under favorable conditions (Navas-Cortés et al. 2000).
  6. 6. The nature of pathogen (FOC) • The fungus is soil-borne and can survive in soil for several years • Attacks plant at seedling and flowering stages. • Exhibits significant pathogenic variability, eight races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (races 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) have been reported. • Races 0, 1A, 5, and 6 can be identified by means of specific molecular markers in PCR assays (Jiménez-Gasco and Jiménez-Díaz, 2003). • Identification of races 1B/C, 2, 3, and 4, or new races of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, as well as the characterization of resistance reactions in chickpea germplasm are dependent on traditional pathogenicity test. (Sharma, et al. 2005 )
  7. 7. The nature of pathogen….. • The Races reaction of FOC is Influenced by temperature and soil moisture conditions (Landa et al. 2006) . • Difficult to manage this disease through crop rotation or application of chemicals. • Cultivation of varieties possessing resistance to specific races of the pathogen is most economical disease management strategy. Survival of wilt resistant chickpea cultivar in sick plot
  8. 8. Efforts: Identification of sources of wilt resistance • How to maintain inoculum potential: A prerequisite Prior Sowing of highly wilt susceptible JG 62 and mixing of wilted plants before sowing in soil is found one of the best method to maintain the IP (3 x 10 5 CFU /g soil). • Use of susceptible check after two tests rows – The reaction of check ensures proper spread of inoculum in sick plot, JG 62 was identified as most susceptible check Check JG 62 Chickpea wilt sick plot at Sehore
  9. 9. Wilt sick plots
  10. 10. Development of wilt resistant chickpea genotypes… A Success • In 1970’s – Collection of land races ad their evaluation for immediate use as potential varieties (JG 62, JG 1, JG 5 and JG 221) – JG 62 suffered heavily due to wilt and presently used as national susceptible check. (Identified by its double pod character) • In 1980’s – Identification of wilt resistant genotypes JG 315 and JG 74 – JG 315 globally known for its multi race resistant behavior. – JG 74 is being used for differentiating races of FOC. JG 62 JG 315
  11. 11. Chronological development of wilt resistant chickpea genotypes • In 1990’s – Development of JG 218 and JG 322 – Gulabi Chickpea JGG 1 – Release of wilt resistant variety JG 11 in 1999. • Significant impact in changing scenario of chickpea cultivation in India. It has covered more than 75 per cent area in Southern India. • In 2000’s – Release of wilt resistant early maturing JG 16, JG 130, JAKI 9218 and JG 6 varieties has made tremendous impact in chickpea cultivation in Madhya Pradesh which witnessed with the increase in area, production.
  12. 12. Chronological development of wilt resistant chickpea genotypes…….. • In 2010’s – Wilt resistant, thermo- tolerant varieties were developed which were suitable for late planting with over 2t/ha yield potential RVG 201, RVG 202 and RVG 203 – Sources for wilt resistance in kabuli types were identified and RVKG 101 and RVSJKG 102
  13. 13. Recent developments • Identification of donors for wilt resistance – In deshi types • JSC 35 • JSC 40 – In kabuli Types • RVKG 37 – Recommended as National Donors
  14. 14. Identification of FOC pathotypes Chickpea differentials reaction (12 nos.) indicated presence of race 2 and 4 of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in M.P.
  15. 15. Prevalence of FOC races in M.P.
  16. 16. Alternative approach to manage chickpea wilt and root Boost plant health Through Micronutrient application …
  17. 17. Incidence of wilt/root can be reduced by the application of 1g Ammonium molybdate/Kg of seed along with PSB and Rhizobium • Use of 1g Ammonium molybdate/Kg seed as seed treatment along with PSB and Rhizobium
  18. 18. Challenges Ahead…. • Effect of climatic changes on expressivity of FOC races • Development of new pathotypes of FOC • Increasing incidence of other soil-borne pathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola and Sclerotium rolfsii. • Lake of durable wilt resistance in Extra large kabuli types • Legume v/s legume cropping system in Central India (Soybean vs. Chickpea) Wilt Root rot Collar rot
  19. 19. • Identification of cause of chickpea mortality at early stage • In soybean based chickpea cropping system mortality in chickpea at pre- flowering stage was observed • The cause was identified as Colletotrichum dematium (A New threat to this cropping system) • Some of the known wilt resistant varieties like JG 315 was susceptible, causing 40-50 % loss during 2010-11. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Weatherparameters Dates Weather data during rabi 2010-11 Max. Temp. Min. Temp. Max. Humi. Min. Humi. Rain fall Challenges Ahead….
  20. 20. Challenges ahead… • Wilt coupled with root rot is posing threat to chickpea cultivation. • Intensity of wilt/root rot is more in rain-fed conditions. • Climatic changes are influencing inoculum potential of wilt and expressivity of FOC races. • There is need of incorporating multiple disease resistance for wilt and root rot.
  21. 21. Conclusion • The traditional method of screening chickpea germplasm and identifying races by the use of differentials has to be continued, till the MAS become affordable. • The races picture of FOC is not very clear in some parts of India, needs attention. • Climatic changes influencing races of FOC. • Root rot is emerging as a potential threat to chickpea cultivation due to climatic changes. • Regular monitoring of diseases is essential.
  22. 22. ThanaThanks for your kind attention