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Sudan – Successes, Lessons Learnt & Challenges Ahead


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Sudan Country Presentation by Gamal E. Khalifa at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

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Sudan – Successes, Lessons Learnt & Challenges Ahead

  1. 1. Gamal E. Khalifa Sudan – Successes, Lessons Learnt & Challenges Ahead EU-IFAD PROJECT- ICARDA ARC- Sudan
  2. 2. 2 Project target zones:  In Sudan The legume program has been executed in five states: River Nile, Northern, Khartoum, Gezira and North Darfur covering 40 villages and more than 1000 farmers were participated in this activity.  As usual the faba bean crop was grown in River Nile, Khartoum, North Korodfan and Northern states.  While lentil was grown mainly in River Nile State.  Chickpea in River Nile and Gezira, as it was promising in this region.
  3. 3. 3 The main Areas of The Project in Sudan Elfashir Nyala Dongola Merowe ED-damer Shendi Khartoum Wad Madani
  4. 4. 4 Major Focus Areas of Project Activities Many activities were carried out during ( 2013-2015) with special concentration on the following activities: I-Research support II-Seed increase III-Technology dissemination IV-Capacity building
  5. 5. 5 Project Outputs I - Research Support Achievements:- 1 -Released of two new faba bean varieties (Merowe and Shendi) 2- Two chickpea genotypes were submitted to NVRC for release. 3- Three large seeded faba bean genotypes in the pipe line ,will be submitted to VRC during this year. 4- Screening for heat tolerance: 5 – Mapping of faba bean infested area by Orobanche was determined. 6- Virus survey at Gezira Scheme
  6. 6. 6 Project Outputs  The two varieties showed stable and significantly higher seed yields than the checks, in addition to their resistance to dry root rot, which are considered among the major biotic stresses in the production areas.  They were also characterized by good seed quality as they have high protein content (24.62 and 27.05), and short cooking time (45 and40 min.) respectively. 1 -Released of two medium- seeded ( 53.0 g) faba bean varieties Merowe and Shendi.
  7. 7. Project Output Seed yield(ton/ha) of the two released varieties and their seed increase percent over the two checks Varieties Seed yield over3 locations % increase over the two checks H.93 Ed-Damer Merowe 2.6 26.7 25.2 Shendi 2.4 17.2 15.2 H.93(check 1) 2.1 - - Ed-Damer (check 2) 2.0 - -
  8. 8. Genotype Disease Score (%) 100-seed weight (g) Grain yield (kg/ha) Merowe 5.7 R 54.1 1718.4 Shendi 11.8 R 44.7 2164.8 H.72 66.4 S 50.0 1553.6 Disease reactions (root rots), 100-seed weights and grain yield of some faba bean resistant genotypes. Project Outputs SHENDI MEROWE
  9. 9. 9 Project Outputs 2- Two chickpea genotypes were submitted to NVRC for release  The two genotypes FLIP03-50C and FLIP03-59C are proposed for release for commercial production because of their valuable characteristic (high seed yield, large seed weight, earliness).  Moreover, the genotype FLIP03-50C is adapted to favorable conditions and resistant to Fusarium wilt .  The genotype FLIP03-59C is more stable.
  10. 10. 10 Project Outputs Genotype 2012/13 2013/14 Mean Hudeiba Merowe Hudeiba Merowe FLIP 03-59C 2.2 1.5 2.5 3.0 2.3 FLIP 03-50C 2.1 1.5 2.6 3.4 2.4 Salawa (FLIP 89-82C) 1.9 2.0 2.6 2.0 2.0 Burgeig (ICCV 91-302) 2.2 1.9 2.4 3.1 2.4 Mean 2.0 1.4 2.2 2.7 2.1 Seed yield(ton/ha) of the two proposed chickpea genotypes for release
  11. 11. FLIP 03-59C (High yield +Earliness) Project Outputs
  12. 12. FLIP 03-50C Project Outputs
  13. 13. 3- Three large seeded faba bean genotypes in the pipe line for release  The three introduced varieties; Giza843,Turkey and Otono were tested for three seasons at three States (River Nile, Northern and North Korodfan States), in comparison to the released check SM-L.  The results indicated the good performance of these varieties as they gave good seed yield and large seed. Project Outputs
  14. 14. Project Outputs 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Turkey Giza 843 Otono SM-L 2770 2916 1956 2557 2769 2573 2306 2709 3124 2806 3897 2874 Northern R.N.S N.Kordofan
  15. 15. Giza 843 For the 3 states Otono for North Kordofan Turkey for Northern and N. Kordofan Project Outputs
  16. 16.  More than 500 accessions of faba bean genotypes were received from ICARDA and Sudan Gene Bank.  Some of ICARDA materials showed good performance under Sudan conditions and they will be used in the breeding program . Project Outputs 4- Screening for heat tolerance
  17. 17. 17 Sudan Gene –Bank Material (44) Project Outputs
  18. 18. 18 ICARDA Material (50)
  19. 19.  Surveys done during 2012- 2015 revealed further dissemination of O. crenata by more than 350 km downstream from the original focus of infestation in new areas.. It is a real threat for faba bean cultivation 5 – Mapping of faba bean infested area by Orobanche was determined. Project Outputs
  20. 20. 20 Project Outputs
  21. 21. 21 Project Outputs Two Surveys during 2012-2015 in Gezira and River Nile States were carried out. Sixty chickpea fields in the Gezira Scheme were visited during Feb. 2013 when the crop at flowering and podding stage. The field area was ranged between 2- 40 ha. 6- Virus survey at Gezira Scheme
  22. 22. The results revealed that: Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CPCDV) was the main biotic constraints for chickpea production besides wilt and root rot. The incidence of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus disease was found to be much higher at Central of the Scheme (35% ). % Average disease incidence # of fields visitedLocation 3520Central Part of scheme 2518Northern Part of scheme 3012Southern Part of scheme 1710Western Part of scheme Project Outputs
  23. 23. 23 Project Outputs Locations surveyed in Gezira ``
  24. 24. The main Objective To provide growers by foundation and certified seeds. Project Outputs II-SEED INCREASE
  25. 25. 25 Seed Increase Achievements  ARC research stations(4), responsible for foundation seed production, three of them located in Northern Sudan for production of faba bean and chickpea, and one at Gezira scheme for chickpea production.  MOA in River Nile State established small unit of seed production for legume and wheat in collaboration with wheat and legume programs. Production and distribution of a considerable amount of legume foundation and certified seeds of the released varieties. Project Outputs
  26. 26. 1-Early generation seed increase. 2-Foundation and certified seed. Project Outputs Seed activities under EU-IFAD PROJECT
  27. 27. The amount of seed obtained from the new released and pre-released varieties, under the EU-IFAD Project (2012- 2015) Crop Varieties Yield (kg) Faba Bean 2 Released 715 Chickpea 8 Released 780 2 pre-release Lentil 3Released 250 Total 13 1745 Project Outputs 1- Early generation seed increase
  28. 28. The amount of certified and foundation seed for the released faba bean cultivars produced at River Nile and Northern States Research Station Farms, (2012-2015) 4/25/201628 Cultivar 2012-013 2013-14 2014-15 Ed-Damer 1.6 3.3 2.6 Basabeer 2.9 19.5 39.5 Hudeiba93 4.7 7.1 7.5 SML 0.1 2.4 5.4 Total 9.3 32.3 55.0 Grand Total 96.6 90% of the produced seed distributed to farmers Project Outputs 2-Foundation and certified seed.
  29. 29. Cultivar 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Atmor 0.2 0.3 0.4 Burgeig 0.1 0.4 0.3 Hawata 0.1 0.5 0.3 Salawa 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total 0.7 1.5 1.3 Grand Total 3.5 Amount of seed yield(kg) of the released chickpea cultivars produced at ARC Stations (Hudeiba, Shendi and Medani)-2012-2015. 29 Project Outputs
  30. 30. Cultivar 2012-013 2013-014 2014-015 Total Aribo 0.12 0.12 0.1 0.34 Nedi 0.03 0.04 0.1 0.17 Rubatab 0.03 0.04 0.5 0.57 Selaim 0.02 - - 0.02 Total 0.2 0.2 0.7 1.1 The amount of foundation seed (ton)of the released lentil cultivars at River Nile State, Hudeiba Research Station Farm, (2012-2015) 30 Project Outputs
  31. 31. 31 Project Outputs The main Objective To enhance and support farmers in the River Nile State to use clean seeds of legume and wheat as a factor to increase productivity. SEED PROCESSING UNIT
  32. 32. 32  It has been received from EU- IFAD Project in November 2014.  Season 2014/ 2015 the processed seeds were about 21.2, 3.0, 1.0 and 69 tons of faba bean, chickpea, lentil and wheat seeds respectively. 32 About the UNIT Project Outputs
  33. 33. 33 Amount of seeds processed for season 2015/016 Crop Faba bean (ton) Wheat (ton) Variety Ed-Damer Basabeer Hudeiba93 Imam El Nelien Legume Program 1.700 10.250 1.000 - - HRS & Farmers 6.100 2.100 48.5 5.0 MDRP * - 5.0 10.5 Total 21.2 69.0 * MDRP = Merowe Dam Rehabilitation Project Project Outputs
  34. 34. Photos for the Seed Unit 34 Project Outputs
  35. 35. Packing and label the products 35 Project Outputs
  36. 36. III. Technology Dissemination 1- Demonstration Plots 2-Field Days and Farmer Field Schools Project outcomes
  37. 37. 37 Faba Bean, Lentil and Chickpea Demonstration Plots (2012-2015)-River Nile and Northern States. 2014-0152013-0142012-013Item 331Number of States 13113Number of Localities 1087514Number of Farmers 50156Number of Villages 953Number of Varieties Project Outcomes
  38. 38. 38 Percent Increase in seed yield of demonstration plots over the neighboring farmers % increase over the 3 years 2014-152013-142012-13Crop (%)(%)(%) 124.5162100111Faba Bean 102.311666125Chickpea Project Outcomes
  39. 39. 39 Average Seed yield (tonha) of faba bean and chickpea demonstration and neighboring plots over 4 localities, River Nile State. 2014-152013-142012-2013Crop NPDPNPDPNP*DP* Bean - *DP= Demonstration Plots *NP=Neighboring Plots Project Outcomes
  40. 40. 40 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Research plots' yield MT/ ha. Demonstration plots yield Neighboring farmers’ plots Faba bean yield MT/ ha in the River Nile State season 2012/2013 Research plots' yield MT/ ha. Demonstration plots yield Neighboring farmers’ plots Outcomes Chart
  41. 41. 41 Objective:- 1-To enable the farmers to have information related to improved varieties technology. 2-To raise their awareness regarding the importance of improved varieties and crop management in increasing crop yield. 2. Field days and Farmer Field School (FFS) Project Outcomes
  42. 42. Item 2012-013 2013-014 2014-015 Total Number of field days 7 9 11 27 Number of farmers 230 356 470 1056 Number of other participants 47 94 148 289 Total number of field days, farmers and other participants(2012-2015) Project Outcomes
  43. 43. Project Outcomes
  44. 44. Project Outcomes
  45. 45. Objective:- The main objective of this activity is to increase the knowledge of field officers and farmers about the legume production packages. 49 Project Outcomes IV. Capacity Building
  46. 46. Number of Participants No. of coursesCourse 80 (Field officers) 2 IPM of faba bean ●Integrated insect pest management of faba bean. ●Integrated diseases management of faba bean. ●Integrated weed managements of faba bean. 320 (Farmers)4Components of legume crops package as recommended by ARC. 180 (farmers)6Group discussion (FFS) 58011Total Training of field officers and Farmers organized by ARC in collaboration with the Department of Extension and Technology Transfer of the RNS Ministry of Agriculture(2013-2015). 50 Project Outcomes
  47. 47. 51 Lessons Learnt from the Project  Participation of farmers in the evaluation and selection processes is an important approach for increasing their awareness and demand for the improved production technologies .  Adoption of the production technologies is necessary for increasing the farmer's income and raising their livelihood.  Training of the legume scientists and their participation in the meetings and workshops have appreciably improved their research performance
  48. 48. 52 Outstanding Project Result  The introduction of chickpea in Gezira Scheme  The development and demonstration of new IPM technology are the most outcomes that make the project successful and contribute to Sudan’s bigger national goals.
  49. 49. 53 Outstanding Project Result  Introduction of Chickpea in Gezira State. The area allocated to the crop was increased from few hectares during the nineties to more than 30000 (ha.) during the last phase of the project.
  50. 50. 54 1-The eight released chickpea cultivars ,were distributed to farmers in the first season(2012-13). 2-In the second season (2013-14) only 6 cultivars were selected by farmers . 3-In the third season (2014-15), the best two cultivars (Burgeig and Hawata) selected by farmers were distributed to 19 farmers in eight locations. Outstanding Project Result
  51. 51. 55 Number of localities, farmers, villages ,cultivars and area(ha) at Gezira Scheme. Total2014-0152013-0142012-013Item 16853No. Localities 311984No. Farmers 311984No. Villages -268No.Cultivars 231652Area(ha) Outstanding Project Result
  52. 52. 56 Average seed yield(tonha) of the best two chickpea cultivars grown by 19 farmers over 8 Locations ,Gezira Scheme. Cultivar 2012-013 2013-014 2014-015 Yield (tonha) % increase Yield (tonha) % increase Yield (tonha) % increase Burgeig 3.0 76.5 2.8 86.6 2.5 56.3 Hawata 2.8 64.7 3.1 106.6 2.4 50.0 Farmers seed 1.7 - 1.5 - 1.6 Outstanding Project Result
  53. 53. .Integrated Pest Management Objective:  To build on farmers, own perception and knowledge of sustainable crop production in Northern Sudan by demonstrating to them the effectiveness of an IPM package for aphids control in faba bean. Outstanding Project Result
  54. 54. Cont. The package was consisting of two treatments: Gaucho & Raxil and Neem water extracts with dosage rate of Gaucho (3g) +Raxil (4g)/kg seeds and 60g/liter of water, respectively. The IPM-farmers field school, chosen to promote the technology and evaluation. Outstanding Project Result
  55. 55. The IPM package gave an increase in yield of about 25-30% and 22-25% over farmer’s practices for chemical insecticides and botanicals for both SM-L and Turkey varieties respectively. Seed dressing insecticides gave a lower percentage of wilted plants (root rot wilt complex).  Adoption of the IPM package improved faba bean yield and net profits of farmers. Outstanding Project Result
  56. 56. 20142013 Themes Number of participants Field daysNumber of participants Field days 23061554Seed dressing with Tricil to control aphids and fungus infections 484--The use of pre- emergence herbicides Outstanding Project Result Integrated Pest Management Field Days and FFS
  57. 57. Farmer Field School, Fadalab Scheme RNS
  58. 58. 62 Supportive Policy, Regulations & Market Forces  To enhance small-holder wheat-legume cropping systems and to improve food security under changing climate in Sudan; The government applied some polices and regulations, these include :-  The removal of taxes from all agricultural machines (seed driller, tractor, harvester, … etc) and agricultural inputs.  Also, the government encourages the post harvest methods and pulses grading and packaging.
  59. 59. 63 Project Upscaling and Out scaling  To upscale and out scale the achieved results on both wheat and food legume crops the following technologies should be applied:-  On-farm technology dissemination platforms and better adapted wheat and food legume varieties .  More proper of integrated pest/ disease management (IPM/IDM).  Conservation agriculture, supplemental irrigation technology packages and their combination where new varieties and more appropriate crop production packages should be used.
  60. 60. 64 Policy, Regulations & Market Constraints  For efficient and adequate pulses markets, they have: To provide better prices to producers and the availability of competitively priced produce to consumers.  Constraints : There are many constraints that hinder the pulses market: 1-lack of infrastructures. 2- The weakness of rural assembly markets and urban wholesale or semi-wholesale markets.
  61. 61. THANK YOU