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Smarter Computing and Breakthrough IT Economics


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In this whitepaper, we will look at multiple case studies that demonstrate how Smarter Computing delivers improved IT economics. The case studies cover different IT domains—
optimized systems, federated data, Cloud and new service delivery models.

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
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Smarter Computing and Breakthrough IT Economics

  1. 1. Smarter Computingand BreakthroughIT Economics
  2. 2. 2 SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICSExecutive Summary Smarter ComputingThe IT industry is faced with the challenge of meeting an ever On a Smarter Planet, opportunities for innovation are tremen-increasing demand for processing while holding finite budgets. dous across industries. Leading enterprises in every industryLeading clients are already addressing this challenge through are helping to transform the world we live in. Entire industrya new era of computing—Smarter Computing. Smarter ecosystems are becoming instrumented and interconnected.Computing is about transforming IT to deliver breakthrough With this, the possibility to create entirely new operatingeconomics and support innovation. It is a path that clients models arises. These opportunities for innovation bringcan take to transform their IT infrastructure by integrating, challenges with them. Every IT organization faces the realityautomating and securing their IT. This approach results in that the demand for computing capacity is nearly insatiablebreakthrough economics that dramatically lowers the cost while their IT budgets are increasingly viewed as a meansof delivering workloads. of cost control. To address this “IT Conundrum”, forward thinking IT leaders are embracing the next era of computing—Powerful servers in this era of Smarter Computing can Smarter many workloads simultaneously. In this context, costper workload becomes an important metric to discuss Leaders in this new era understand that the traditionaland quantify IT economics. How can clients deliver their approach of just adding more servers, storage, networkingworkloads at the lowest cost per workload? and other system components to meet increasing demand is no longer a sustainable model. This traditional approach endsIn this whitepaper, we will look at multiple case studies that in hardware sprawl, bloated software and labor costs, higherdemonstrate how Smarter Computing delivers improved IT environmental costs, all contributing to higher total IT costs.economics. The case studies cover different IT domains— A smarter approach to computing makes it possible to meetoptimized systems, federated data, Cloud and new service increasing demand and to support innovation while managingdelivery models. to stay within nearly flat IT budgets. Smarter ComputingLeaders who are embracing the Smarter Computing applies architectural choices to integrate, automate andapproach recognize that as intelligence is infused into secure IT infrastructures, thereby transforming the economicsproducts, processes, and systems, the possibility arises to of IT while freeing teams to focus on new innovation.create entirely new revenue streams and business models. IT leaders are realizing that they need to understand the trueMore importantly, they are actively transforming their IT cost of delivering workloads, especially with the emergenceinfrastructures, to realize the IT efficiency and innovation of new hybrid and mission critical workloads. With the rightthat is required to capture these business opportunities. technology and data center architecture, clients are able to deliver a broad set of workloads at dramatically lower costs
  3. 3. SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS 3SMARTER COMPUTINGEfficient and innovativeIT for improved economicsdramatically reduce costper workload. Automate Integrate Secure
  4. 4. 4 SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICSCost Per Workload—A Key MetricFor IT EconomicsIn order to understand the true economic benefits from a As an example, look at the case study below (Figure 1). ItSmarter Computing approach, we need to understand the shows two options for deploying a set of banking workloads.true cost of delivering a set of workloads. Often, when people In one option, we look at deploying the entire set of workloadscompare the cost of deployment options, they limit the onto a homogeneous (in this case, Intel) environment. In thecomparison to the cost of hardware acquisition. This can other option, we look at doing a “Fit for Purpose” deploymentbe quite misleading. It is important to consider all of the key of the workloads onto a zEnterprise system—where workloadselements of cost. Even for a Total Cost of Acquisition (TCA) with different characteristics are best fit onto the differentcalculation alone, the different elements of cost include runtime environments supported in zEnterprise. In order tosoftware acquisition costs, software S&S (support & understand true value, we need to understand the amount ofsubscription) costs, hardware maintenance costs etc., in work being done on the systems being compared. We alsoaddition to the base hardware acquisition costs. A Total Cost need to understand the major line items of cost—in this case,of Ownership (TCO) calculation typically is much broader and the cost of acquisition includes hardware acquisition, hardwareincludes many other relevant elements of cost—some being maintenance, software (hypervisor, OS and middleware)administration/labor costs, systems management software acquisition, and software S&S costs for a 3 year period. Thiscosts, power and cooling costs, facilities costs, refresh costs allows us to compare the cost per workload, which in turnetc. Another important aspect to consider is the amount of gives us a way to quantify IT economics being done on the two systems. If two systems beingcompared have been sized upfront so as to guarantee the FIGURE 1same amount of work is being done on both, a direct totalcost comparison is valid. In scenarios where we compare 56 Intel Blades Add 192 cores (8 cores per blade) (IFLs and zBX Blade cores)systems delivering different amounts of work, it is imperative 448 cores total to 1 zEnterprisethat we reduce it to a cost per workload comparison tounderstand true value. Total Acquisition $11.5 $7.5 Cost million million Number of Workloads 500 500 Cost per Workload $23.0K $15.0K 3 yr TCA comparison of deployment options for 500 workloads—a mix of light cpu, heavy cpu and heavy IO workloads. Consolidation ratios derived from IBM benchmarks, zBX with x blades is a statement of direction only. Results may vary based on customer workload profiles/characteristics. US prices, prices will vary by country.
  5. 5. SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS 5Improve IT Economics WithOptimized SystemsThe last few years have seen a tremendous increase in server FIGURE 2: IBM WebSphere Application Server Designed tohardware capabilities, especially in the number of processor Leverage Threads in POWER 7 Systemscores and hardware threads available per server. For example,IBM® POWER7® can support 4 simultaneous threads per core 5,009 WebSphere IBM BladeCenter transactionsand can scale to 256 cores, making available a massive 1024 Application PS701 per secondhardware threads in a single frame for meeting the ever Server v7.0increasing demand for processing. However, having this kind 1 Instance AIX V6.1 64-bit 8 cores/3.0GHz 32 Threads $32 per transactionof hardware capability is not as useful if the software running per secondon that machine cannot exploit those hardware capabilities.The IBM Software suite of products is designed to take better Competitive 746 Oracle Sparc transactionsadvantage of available hardware computing capabilities. Application T3-1B per secondTogether with IBM hardware and their differentiated features, Server $137 1 instance Solaris 10 8 cores/1.65GHzIBM Software exploits the higher number of cores and 64-bit 64 Threads per transactionthreads, increasing application utilization efficiency, and per seconddelivers better price/performance for many workloads.The following case study (Figure 2) demonstrates how IBMWebSphere® Application Server exploits the hardware 6.7x Superior Throughput 4.2x Lower Costcapabilities of an IBM POWER7 server. The end result is thatthe IBM solution is able to deliver an online banking workload Source: IBM internal benchmarks of a banking workload. Throughput on IBM Blade Center PS701 Express POWER7 3.0GHz: UNIX: (1ch/8co) is 5009 tps. Throughput on SPARC T3-1B SPARC T3at a much lower cost per workload than a competitive option. 1.65GHz: UNIX: (1ch/8co) is 746 tps. 3 yr TCA calculation includes hardware acquisition, maintenance, software acquisition and S&S. Publicly available U.S. list prices, prices will vary by country.
  6. 6. 6 SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICSA similar case study (Figure 3) demonstrates how IBM FIGURE 3: IBM WebSphere Message BrokerWebSphere Message Broker effectively leverages an IBM Leverages Threads in System x ServersSystem x server. The test consists of measuring maximumthroughput of an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) whileperforming a variety of message mediation workloads. IBM Message IBM 3690 X5 10,962 Broker v7 messages Intel x7560Competitor hardware used in this study has double the MQ Server 7.0.1number of cores as the IBM server, but the competitor RHEL 5.5 2 sockets, 16 cores 256 GB $142 per MPSsoftware is unable to effectively use those cores. The endresult is a 5.4x more cost effective solution from IBM.Beyond more cores and threads per server, IBM also offers Competitor Messaging SW on Competitor HW 492a wide range of hardware innovations. For example, the Turbo messages per second Windows Server Intel x7560Core® mode in POWER7 allows the server to switch to a $764 2008 R2 4 sockets, 32 cores, 256 GBconfiguration with more cache per core, ideal for memory per MPShungry data workloads. The MAX5 memory controller inSystem x® eX5 servers provides unparalleled memory Source: IBM internal benchmarks. Test consists of measuring maximum throughput of ESB while performing a variety of message mediation workloads: pass-through, routing, transformation, and schema validation.capacity on x86 systems. The Parallel Sysplex® is a unique 3 yr TCA includes hardware acquisition, maintenance, software acquisition and S&S. U.S. list prices, prices will vary by country.System z® capability to cluster mainframes to achieve nearlinear scale and unmatched availability characteristics.IBM also offers an additional level of optimization withspecialized, purpose-built appliances for running specifictypes of workloads. Appliances such IBM WebSphereDataPower® for SOA, Netezza for data warehousing, andCloudburst™ for simplified cloud administration providefocused capabilities with very quick return on investment.These appliances are generally comprised of a base operatingsystem, the necessary middleware, and the application inquestion into a single stack, pre-configured to work out-of-the-box. They typically require lesser skills and labor toconfigure and operate. Install time is often mentioned in hoursinstead of days or weeks. Focused delivery capabilities makeappliances ideal for certain workload types.These case studies illustrate the “Integrate” concept ofSmarter Computing. In these cases, IBM has taken on thetask of integration for the client—we have integrated hardwareand software to create optimized systems, driving down costper workload dramatically.
  7. 7. SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS 7Improve IT Economics WithAdvanced Data CapabilitiesWe are seeing an explosion in data – the volume of Solid state disk drives are revolutionizing storageinformation being generated has increased exponentially performance—they support much higher Input/Outputin the last few years. This data needs to be stored, managed Operations (IOPS) than traditional hard disk drives (HDDs).and used efficiently. Storage systems need to be able to However, SSDs are also more expensive than HDDs. Overhandle this growth. Software for managing data needs to provisioning storage systems with SSDs in the hope of gettingleverage hardware capabilities. Business analytics and the best performance often results in huge storage costderiving intelligence from information is becoming an increases. We find that, often a small fraction of SSDs will yieldincreasingly important factor that decides how competitive the majority of the performance gain possible for a givena company will be. workload. The ideal price/performance point is reached by having a judicious mix of SSDs and HDDs. Doing this manuallyIBM software, servers and storage systems are meeting this is quite cumbersome and inefficient. IBM’s Easy Tier canchallenge. IBM offers a broad portfolio of storage systems, optimize the amount of SSD allocated. It dynamically movesranging from small to mid range to enterprise class. There are data to SSD, based on hot spots detected. Further, Easy Tiernumerous innovations in this space. For example, IBM’s Easy can dynamically share the available SSDs across manyTier® capability can automatically allocate optimum amounts workloads, efficiently allocating the SSDs to the hottest spots.of Solid State Drives (SSD), thus maximizing SSD performancegains while minimizing costs. Another example of innovation in The following case study (Figure 4) demonstrates how Easythis space is the IBM Smart Analytics Optimizer—a purpose- Tier helps improve IT economics when dealing with databuilt appliance for optimizing business analytics on zEnterprise. workloads.Real world Business Analytics workloads need to supportconcurrent performance. A typical Business Analytics solution FIGURE 4: EASY TIER IN IBM STORAGE SYSTEMS AUTOMATES OPTIMUM USE OF SSDwill need to support multiple users executing a wide varietyof queries and reports concurrently. IBM offers packagedsolutions like the IBM Smart Analytics System (ISAS) that 4000 100%have been built as pre-packaged, pre-configured solutions 13%to support this kind of real world usage patterns. 3000 11% 6% 3000 1000 0 0 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% SSD Transactional Database Performance as Blend of SSD is increased (Transactions per Second) Just 13% blend of SSD to HDD achieves 171% performance gain
  8. 8. 8 SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS Improve IT Economics With Private Clouds And New Service Delivery Models Cloud computing is poised to transform the service deliveryFIGURE 4: CONTINUED model. At an abstract level, it is about delivering hosted services with some key distinguishing attributes:$30 $28.35 Elastic Scaling: Resources scale up and down by large 25 $22.65 factors as the demand changes 20 Flexible Pricing: Utility pricing, variable payments, pay-by- 49% $16.85 15 consumption and subscription models make pricing of IT $12.66 $11.66 less services more flexible 10 Ease of Use: End user often just needs a PC with Internet 5 access to request services, without IT skills or knowledge of 0 the system 0 0% 2% 6% 13% 100% SSD Many businesses are moving to a Cloud Computing model. Cost of Storage Per Transactions Per Second as SSD Blend is Increased Line-of-business units within organizations are going to public cloud providers as their low cost, pay-per-use model is Easy Tier achieves 78% of the maximum seen as more cost effective. Furthermore, faster provisioning SSD performance potential with a blend of resources offered by them can enable users to respond of just 13% SSD. with agility. In some cases, the public cloud model makes theSource: IBM Internal Study of Benchmark Factory transactional database workload performance as Easy most economic sense. However, IT leaders need to be awareTier migrates data to SSD. The performance data contained herein was obtained in a controlled, isolatedenvironment. Actual results that may be obtained in other operating environments may vary. that in many cases they may be able to provide private cloud services to their end users much more cost effectively than paying for external public cloud services. In general, private clouds are a model for delivering ITThis is an example of the “Automate” principle of Smarter services in a pay-as-you-go fashion similar to what publicComputing. Automatic allocation of expensive SSD resources clouds can offer. The difference is that a private cloud is builtin an optimum way results in lowering overall storage costs. from resources inside an organization and is typically hostedAutomation also reduces labor costs. IBM offers a within the data center to be used by line of business andcomprehensive suite of software products aimed at efficiently other end users within the organization. Workloads run onautomating various data center tasks. Some examples are large scale virtualization platforms. This approach maysoftware that automatically provisions systems, software that significantly reduce hardware, software and labor costs.synchronizes the start and stop of sequenced applications, Users request services via a self-service portal and virtualsoftware that automatically adjusts system resources available machines are quickly provisioned. Labor costs may beto workloads to meet varying demand etc. Automation not just significantly reduced via standardization and automation.reduces labor costs; it also improves the quality of service Furthermore, users may be given tools to manage theirdelivery. This is especially true as automating mundane applications on the virtual machines that are running theirrepetitive tasks eliminates the risk of manual operations error. services and they only pay for what they consume.
  9. 9. SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS 9IBM offers a wide range of capabilities in the Cloud FIGURE 5: A FIT FOR PURPOSE PRIVATE CLOUD ON ZENTERPRISEComputing space. For example, IBM provides large scale DRAMATICALLY REDUCES COSTSvirtualization environments in POWER7 and zEnterprise thatare ideal to host private clouds. IBM provides software thatmanages the entire lifecycle of virtual servers—everything 3 Yr Cost per Workload/Image (USD) Public Cloud Private Cloud with zEnterprise 72% lower overall TCOfrom self-service automated provisioning to metering andbilling based on usage. IBM also offers industry specific 250KCloud Service Platforms. An example is the recently 191K 200Kannounced IBM Cloud Service Provider Platform, acomprehensive set of hardware, software and services to 150Khelp providers rapidly deliver cloud computing on their own. 100K 78.6K 70.5KThe zEnterprise system provides the broadest architectural 50K 42.0Ksupport for building a private cloud. Different environments in 11.6K 4.5KzEnterprise may be used to run workloads without requiring a 0port or rewrite. Where there is an option, workloads may be Light Intel Heavy Unix Heavy I/O Workloads Workloads Linux onbest fit to an environment to run at the lowest cost per z Workloadsworkload. A Fit-for-Purpose deployment strategy aims to Source: IBM internal study. zEnterprise configurations needed to support the three workload types wereassign a workload to the environment that best satisfies the derived from IBM internal benchmarks. Public cloud sizing needed to support the three workload types wereparticular requirements of that workload. For example, calculated based on compute capacity of public cloud services. 3 yr TCO for public cloud calculated using web-based calculator made available by the service provided. 3 yr TCO for zEnterprise includes hardwareworkloads with heavy IO demand may be best fit on Linux on acquisition, maintenance, software acquisition, S&S and labor. U.S. pricing, prices will vary by country.z/VM on the z196 portion of zEnterprise. Workloads that havehigh CPU demand and that can exploit multithreading maybe best fit on the POWER7 blades in the zBX. Large scalevirtualization on z/VM drive down acquisition costs. Theprivate data network as well as the private managementnetwork between the z196 and the zBX plus network accesscontrol mechanisms ensure a secure network environment.Managing this environment with zManager and withIntegrated Service Management software results in loweringoperational costs.The following cases study (Figure 5) demonstrates howzEnterprise, with its broad Fit-for-Purpose architecturalsupport, and Integrated Service Management yieldsthe lowest cost per workload when delivering privatecloud services.
  10. 10. 10 SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICSIntegrate, Automate And SecureTo Transform ITzEnterprise as a private cloud foundation is a perfect example Secure: The zEnterprise system builds on the highly secureof how the three principles of Smarter Computing—Integrate, environment that traditional mainframes have always provided.Automate and Secure—come together to transform IT and Traditional System z security mechanisms ensure isolation ofdeliver workloads at the lowest cost. users/tenants and centralized access control of all system resources. System z holds the highest Common CriteriaIntegration: By integrating the traditional mainframe with security rating for commercial operating environments withPOWER7 and Intel* blades, zEnterprise provides a compelling an Evaluation Assurance Level 5 (EAL5) certification of itsmulti-architecture, “Fit for Purpose” platform for deploying logical partitions. System z also provides advanced encryptiondiverse data center workloads with different characteristics. A capabilities—from built-in encryption capabilities on thebest fit assignment of workloads onto the appropriate processor chip and specialized crypto cards to IBM softwareenvironments lowers the cost of delivering those workloads like DB2 that can leverage these capabilities and encryptwhile meeting requirements. Multi-tier and hybrid workloads data all the way from storage media to channels and buffercan also leverage this tight integration. For example, web pools. Hipersockets provide internal secure communicationfacing applications on the blades can access backend data between virtual machines, eliminating the risk of potentialin a highly efficient manner, avoiding complex and expensive exposures on the physical network. Private networks betweennetwork hops. the mainframe and blades in the attached BladeCenterAutomation: High levels of automation reduce the labor Extension(zBX) provide secure environments for hybrid andneeded for setting up and maintaining this hybrid virtualized multi-tier workloads. With comprehensive and sophisticatedenvironment. For example, when a new POWER blade security features pre-built into everything from the hardware,is added to a zEnterprise system, automation kicks in to networks, channels, virtualization environments and software,dramatically cut down the steps for setting up and configuring zEnterprise provides an unmatched secure foundation forthe hypervisor and network environments. Lab tests show implementing a private cloud.that the average time taken for hypervisor setup and In this use case, we see how Smarter Computing principlesconfiguration of a single blade goes down from about 46 come together to transform service delivery models.minutes when done manually to about a minute and a half.The average time taken for network setup and configuration We have seen examples of Smarter Computing in three keywent down from 26 hours to 5 hours. That is an 81% reduction IT domains. The principles of Smarter Computing are notin labor time for a specific set of tasks due to automation and limited to just these, but apply to a broad spectrum of ITtranslates into labor cost savings and improved time to domains and industries.solution. The zManager component of zEnterprise ensuresthat service levels are met automatically by making computingresources available to the different virtual machines ondemand. For example, if mean demand changes, zManagercan automatically change the LPAR processor entitlementvalues in the POWER7 blade to meet service level agreements.This ability translates into cost savings as well, as we avoidhaving to over provision to meet changes in workload demand.
  11. 11. SMARTER COMPUTING AND BREAKTHROUGH IT ECONOMICS 11ConclusionIntegrate: The era of traditional system acquisitionstrategies is being replaced by an era of optimized systemacquisition strategy. Make sure you leverage the price/performance advantages of software/hardware integrationand systems that have been optimized for the particularneeds of your workloads.Automate: Leverage every opportunity to take advantageof self tuning and automation capabilities provided bysystems. Eliminating manual repetitive tasks will cut downsystems management and administration costs whilemeeting service level agreements.Secure: The economic impact of a security breach couldbe devastating. Make sure your computing foundation isrock solid in terms of security, privacy and compliancerequirements. Ensure your data is secure in all phases ofuse—whether at rest or in motion.Judicious use of these principles of Smarter Computingwill help clients transform their IT service delivery and drivedown costs. As Smarter Planet transformations continue tobring business opportunities as well as accompanying ITchallenges, this new era of Smarter Computing promisesto support innovation with breakthrough IT economics.
  12. 12. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2011IBM CorporationRoute 100Somers, NY10589, USAProduced in the United StatesApril 2011All Rights Reserved*Intel blades in the zBX are currently a Statement of Direction only. All statements regarding IBM’s future direction and intent aresubject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.IBM, the IBM logo, AIX, AIX (logo), AIX 6 (logo), AS/400, Active Memory, BladeCenter, Blue Gene, CacheFlow, ClusterProven,DB2, ESCON, i5/OS, i5/OS (logo), IBM Business Partner (logo), IntelliStation, LoadLeveler, Lotus, Lotus Notes, Notes, OperatingSystem/400, OS/400, PartnerLink, PartnerWorld, PowerPC, pSeries, Rational, RISC System/6000, RS/6000, THINK, Tivoli, Tivoli(logo), Tivoli Management Environment, WebSphere, xSeries, z/OS, zSeries, AIX 5L, Chiphopper, Chipkill, Cloudscape, DB2 UniversalDatabase, DS4000, DS6000, DS8000, EnergyScale, Enterprise Workload Manager, General Purpose File System, , GPFS, HACMP,HACMP/6000, HASM, IBM Systems Director Active Energy Manager, iSeries, Micro-Partitioning, POWER, PowerExecutive, PowerVM,PowerVM (logo), PowerHA, Power Architecture, Power Everywhere, Power Family, POWER Hypervisor, Power Systems, PowerSystems (logo), Power Systems Software, Power Systems Software (logo), POWER2, POWER3, POWER4, POWER4+, POWER5,POWER5+, POWER6, POWER7, pureScale, System i, System p, System p5, System Storage, System z, zEnterprise, Tivoli Enterprise,TME 10, TurboCore, Workload Partitions Manager and X-Architecture are trademarks or registered trademarks of InternationalBusiness Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Such trademarks may also be registered or commonlaw trademarks in other countries. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at “Copyright and trademark information”at Power Architecture and wordmarks and the Power and logos and related marks are trademarks and servicemarks licensed by, the IBM logo, DB2 and WebSphere are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation inthe United States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States, other countries or both.Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries or both.Microsoft, Windows and the Windows logo are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries orboth. Microsoft, .NET Framework, Office, Visio, SharePoint, InfoPath, Active Directory, SQL Server, Windows, Visual Studio, VisualStudio Team System, Silverlight, Popfly, WCF, WPF, BizTalk are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corp. in theUnited States and other countries.Intel, Itanium, Pentium are registered trademarks and Xeon is a trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States,other countries or both.Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.The information contained in this documentation is provided for informational purposes only. While efforts were made to verify thecompleteness and accuracy of the information contained in this documentation, it is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind,express or implied. In addition, this information is based on IBM’s current product plans and strategy, which are subject to change byIBM without notice. IBM shall not be responsible for any damages arising out of the use of, or otherwise related to, this documentationor any other documentation. Nothing contained in this documentation is intended to, nor shall have the effect of, creating anywarranties or representations from IBM (or its suppliers or licensors), or altering the terms and conditions of the applicable licenseagreement governing the use of IBM software.References in these materials to IBM products, programs, or services do not imply that they will be available in all countries in whichIBM operates. Product release dates and/or capabilities referenced in these materials may change at any time at IBM’s solediscretion based on market opportunities or other factors, and are not intended to be a commitment to future product or featureavailability in any way. XBL03007-USEN-01