!"#$%&()*++(,-.-/0,0.1(23405(                      Cost/Benefit Case for                IBM System Storage DS8800         ...
Copyright © 2011 by the International Technology Group. All rights reserved. Material, in whole or part, contained in this...
TABLE OF CONTENTS         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                          1              Challe...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYChallenges and OpportunitiesAt yearend 2005, the average U.S. Fortune 500 corporation contained around 15...
IBM                                                         23.0        DS8800          EMC                               ...
In cost calculations presented in this report, allowance was made for annual capacity growth rates         of between 15 a...
Equally, however, IBM claims that around 50 percent of DS8700 and DS8800 users have activated EasyTier, and it can be expe...
PLATFORMSOverviewEMC VMAX and IBM DS8800 represent the latest chapter in a more than 20-year rivalry between thesevendors ...
Both platforms are recognized industry leaders in the following areas:    •    Availability. DS8800 as well as VMAX system...
VMAX systems support larger overall cache sizes than DMX-4 systems – up to 1,024GB compared to512GB. However, as cache for...
IBM DS8800OverviewThe DS8800 platform is, in some respects, an evolutionary upgrade of the DS8700. Systems continue toempl...
One key implication is that more drives may be housed in the same frame. Figure 5, for example, showsnumbers of drives sup...
The Uptime Institute, which sets de facto industry standards for data center resiliency, defines four tiers.The highest of...
Figure 8: Data Center Hot/Cold Aisle Layout – ExampleBy improving airflow efficiency, such approaches have commonly reduce...
ALGORITHM                    FUNCTION           Sequential Prefetching in    Manages cache allocation for random & sequent...
SSDS AND TIERINGGeneral PictureSolid state drives (SSDs) originated in the 1990s, and were initially employed in specializ...
EMC FAST VPEMC’s FAST has developed in two phases. The original version of FAST, introduced in 2009, supportedallocation a...
Tiering policies                        Data allocations Auto-tier                               e.g. 10% SSD – RAID 5 Hig...
Easy Tier is designed to minimize complexity. It may be set up in, at most, a few hours by in-house ITstaff. In comparison...
DETAILED DATAInstallations and ScenariosCost comparisons presented in this report are based on high-end disk system instal...
Real-time replication software is employed only for systems requiring exceptionally high levels ofavailability and recover...
FINANCIAL SERVICES               MANUFACTURING             IT SERVICES        COMPANY                       COMPANY       ...
For tiered scenarios, software acquisition and maintenance calculations allow for variations in         EMC pricing for SA...
Financial Services   Manufacturing   IT Services Category                               Company            Company        ...
ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY GROUP         ITG sharpens your awareness of what’s happening and your competitive edge...
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ITG: Cost/Benefit Case for the IBM DS8800 Systems: Comparing Costs for DS8800 and EMC VMAX Systems

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ITG: Cost/Benefit Case for the IBM DS8800 Systems: Comparing Costs for DS8800 and EMC VMAX Systems

  1. 1. !"#$%&()*++(,-.-/0,0.1(23405( Cost/Benefit Case for IBM System Storage DS8800 Comparing Costs for IBM DS8800 and EMC Symmetrix VMAX Systems International Technology Group 609 Pacific Avenue, Suite 102 Santa Cruz, California 95060-4406 Telephone: + 831-427-9260 Email: Contact@ITGforInfo.com Website: ITGforInfo.com
  2. 2. Copyright © 2011 by the International Technology Group. All rights reserved. Material, in whole or part, contained in this document may not bereproduced or distributed by any means or in any form, including original, without the prior written permission of the International TechnologyGroup (ITG). Information has been obtained from sources assumed reliable and reflects conclusions at the time. This document was developedwith International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) funding. Although the document may utilize publicly available material from varioussources, including IBM, it does not necessarily reflect the positions of such sources on the issues addressed in this document. Material containedand conclusions presented in this document are subject to change without notice. All warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy ofsuch material are disclaimed. There shall be no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the material contained in this document or forinterpretations thereof. Trademarks included in this document are the property of their respective owners.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Challenges and Opportunities 1 Cost Factors 2 EMC FAST VP and IBM Easy Tier 3 Overview 5 EMC Symmetrix VMAX 6 VMAX Systems 6 VMAXe Systems 7 IBM DS8800 8 Overview 8 SFF and SAS-2 8 Space Reduction 8 Energy and Cooling 10 Other Areas 11 SSDS AND TIERING 13 General Picture 13 Storage Tiering 13 EMC FAST VP 14 IBM Easy Tier 15 Drive Blends 16 DETAILED DATA 17 Installations and Scenarios 17 Cost Calculations 19 Cost Breakdowns 20List of Figures 1. Average Three-year VMAX and DS8800 Costs – Conventional Scenarios 1 2. Average Three-year VMAX and DS8800 Costs – Tiered Scenarios 2 3. General Comparison of EMC VMAX and IBM DS8800 Systems 5 4. EMC Symmetrix VMAXe and VMAX Systems – Summary 7 5. Number of Disks per Frame – Example 9 6. Floor Space Occupied by IBM DS8800 and EMC VMAX Systems – Example 9 7. Data Center Energy Consumption by Type of Equipment – User Example 10 8. Data Center Hot/Cold Aisle Layout – Example 11 9. DS8800 Advanced Caching Algorithms 12 10. EMC FAST Cache and FAST VP 14 11. FAST VP Management Variables – Examples 15 12. EMC FAST VP Performance Tests – Summary 16 13. Installations Summary – Business Profiles 17 14. Software Products Employed in All Comparisons 17 15. Installations Summary – Conventional Scenarios 18 16. Installations Summary – Tiered Scenarios 19 17. Three-year Cost Breakdowns – Conventional Comparisons 20 18. Three-year Cost Breakdowns – Tiered Comparisons 21International Technology Group i
  4. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYChallenges and OpportunitiesAt yearend 2005, the average U.S. Fortune 500 corporation contained around 150 terabytes (TB) of serverdisk storage. By yearend 2010, this had increased to more than 900TB. On current trends, it will exceedfive petabytes (5,000TB) by yearend 2014. For most organizations, managing growth has become thenumber one storage priority.The elements of a solution are emerging. The storage industry has entered a period of unprecedentedchange. Virtualization (a.k.a. thin provisioning), solid state drives (SSDs), nearline devices, tieringstrategies, deduplication and other new capabilities offer the potential for major efficiency gains.But there is a downside. At a time when storage workloads are growing more complex, there arewidespread uncertainties as to which technologies should be employed, in what manner, for the greatestbenefit. Expectations are often exaggerated. Integration, optimization and management of increasinglydiverse application and technology portfolios pose new challenges.These issues are particularly significant for the high-end disk systems that, in large organizations, supportthe most business-critical workloads. Users of these remain conservative. Meeting performance demands,maintaining service levels and ensuring enterprise-class availability and recoverability remain overridingpriorities. Technological change and cost control must occur without jeopardizing them.This does not mean, however, that new technologies cannot be introduced, or that costs cannot becontained. High-end systems account for a large part of organizational storage expenditures. If risk issuesare properly addressed, they may represent a major opportunity for cost savings.This report deals with this opportunity. Specifically, it compares three-year costs for use of IBM SystemStorage DS8800 and EMC Symmetrix VMAX systems.Comparisons are presented for conventional scenarios, in which systems are equipped with standardhigh-performance drives, and for tiered scenarios using EMC Fully Automated Storage Tiering forVirtual Pools (FAST VP) and IBM Easy Tier V3.In three large installations in financial services, manufacturing and IT services companies, costs for use ofDS8800 systems equipped with conventional high-performance drives average 28 percent less than forVMAX equivalents. Figure 1 summarizes these results. IBM 20.0 DS8800 EMC 27.6 VMAX $ Millions Hardware Software Software support Data centerFigure 1: Average Three-year VMAX and DS8800 Costs – Conventional ScenariosFor tiered scenarios, three-year costs for use DS8800 systems with Easy Tier V3 average 31 percent lessthan for VMAX equivalents with FAST VP. Figure 2 summarizes these results.International Technology Group 1
  5. 5. IBM 23.0 DS8800 EMC 33.2 VMAX $ Millions Hardware Software Software support Data centerFigure 2: Average Three-year VMAX and DS8800 Costs – Tiered ScenariosIn conventional scenarios, VMAX systems are configured with 300GB Fiber Channel (FC) drivesoperating at 15,000 revolutions per minute (15K rpm). DS8800 systems employ 300GB Serial AttachedSCSI 2.0 (SAS-2) 15K rpm drives. DS8800 SAS-2 drives are 2.5-inch Small Form Factor (SFF) devices.In tiered scenarios, both platforms are configured as full three-tier systems equipped with solid statedrives (SSDs). In addition, VMAX systems employ 300GB FC 15K rpm and 2TB SATA 7.2K rpm.DS8800 systems also employ 300GB SAS-2 15K rpm SFF and 3TB nearline SAS-2 7.2K rpm devices.In both sets of scenarios, configurations include operating systems, tiering, point-in-time copy,multipathing and, where appropriate, real-time replication and recovery software. Hardware and softwarecosts are based on “street” prices; i.e., discounted prices reported by users.Configurations in tiered scenarios are based on user experiences, supplemented by vendor test results andguidelines for tiered environments. Configurations were established based on application, workloads andperformance and service level requirements for individual systems in each installation.Calculations include hardware acquisition, software licenses and (for VMAX systems) maintenance anddata center costs including occupancy, energy and infrastructure equipment. Hardware maintenance is notincluded, as EMC offers a standard three-year 24x7 warranty, and DS8800 calculations are based on IBMwarranty options providing comparable coverage. DS8800 software maintenance is not included ascalculations are again based on three-year, 24x7 IBM software warranty options.The basis of these calculations, along with details of installations, configurations and pricingmethodology, may be found in the Detailed Data section of this report. Cost breakdowns for installationsand scenarios are also presented in this section.Cost FactorsLower three-year costs for DS8800 systems are due to two main factors: 1. Pricing practices. Although initial EMC purchase prices for hardware and software may be similar to or lower than DS8800 equivalents, the company tends to charge more for later upgrades. For example, list prices for disk units are routinely 40 percent higher for upgrades, and surcharges extend to a wide range of other hardware and software components. User experiences indicate that IBM pricing tends to be more consistent over time, with the result that cost comparisons over three-year or longer periods tend to favor DS8800 systems.International Technology Group 2
  6. 6. In cost calculations presented in this report, allowance was made for annual capacity growth rates of between 15 and 35 percent for the financial services company, 20 to 45 percent for the manufacturing company and 20 to 40 percent for the IT services companies, depending on applications. In organizations experiencing higher growth, cost disparities in favor of DS88000 systems may be larger. It should be emphasized that discounts offered by EMC and IBM vary widely between organizations. The pricing employed in this report may thus not correspond to that experienced by individual customers. 2. Hardware technologies. DS8800 systems support use of SAS-2 SFF drives. Although these have been widely adopted by vendors of small and midrange arrays, IBM is the first major vendor to have introduced them into a high-end disk system. EMC has announced plans to do the same. SAS-2 technology is significantly faster than earlier generation SAS drives employed in volume products. The connection speed has doubled – from 3 to 6 Gbps. In comparison, current- generation FC drives employed in VMAX systems continue to employ 4 Gbps speeds. The next- generation SAS-2 specification will boost speed to 12 Gbps. The SAS-2 point-to-point connection method also generates less system overhead than Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) technology. Moreover, FC-AL overhead tends to expand when some drives in a loop are significantly faster than others. The performance impact is thus comparatively high when SSDs are combined with other types of drive. In addition, the 2.5-inch form factor enables major space savings – in DS8800 systems, twenty- four 2.5-inch drives occupy the same rack space as sixteen 3.5-inch devices – and upward of 30 percent lower energy consumption. The bottom-line significance of space and energy economies is often underestimated. If allowance is made for overall data center infrastructures, occupancy and energy costs may be three or more times higher than for disk systems alone. Standardized cost per square foot assumptions may also mislead. Construction and operating costs for Tier 4 data centers, which typically house business-critical systems in large organizations, are – by wide margins – higher than for the less sophisticated facilities that feature in most industry TCO methodologies. Reflecting technology differences, data center costs for conventional and tiered DS8800 scenarios average 33 and 36 percent less respectively than VMAX equivalents.Although overall three-year costs for both platforms are marginally higher for tiered than for conventionalscenarios, comparative cost structures are generally similar. In tiered scenarios, lower DS8800 and EasyTier costs reflect the same factors as for conventional scenarios, as well as costs of FAST VP softwareand support. Easy Tier is a no-charge feature.EMC FAST VP and IBM Easy TierAggressive EMC claims for performance improvements and cost reductions that may be realized throughFAST VP have drawn a great deal of industry attention.EMC has reported strong growth in demand since FAST VP was introduced in January 2011. Duringsecond quarter 2011, for example, more than 90 percent of VMAX systems were said to have shippedwith FAST software, SSDs and SATA drives.International Technology Group 3
  7. 7. Equally, however, IBM claims that around 50 percent of DS8700 and DS8800 users have activated EasyTier, and it can be expected that adoption rates will increase following the introduction of Easy Tier V3.Clearly, both solutions have proved attractive to users. Organizations have been able to exploit thepotential of SSDs to improve performance and reduce overall disk capacities for high-end I/O-intensiveworkloads. In many cases, tiering has also enabled use of high-capacity SATA drives as an alternative tomore expensive, higher-performance FC devices.Although Easy Tier provides many of the same capabilities as FAST VP, the IBM approach toimplementation and operation has been significantly different. According to the company, this approachresponds closely to the requirements expressed by its DS8000 customers.In principle, FAST VP enables operating parameters to be set more frequently, and with highergranularity than Easy Tier. FAST VP is also designed to run continuously, with statistics collection,analysis and data movement processes occurring on a 24x7 basis.In practice, however, users have found it difficult to exploit such capabilities. Continuous data collectionand movement tend to generate system overhead that may impair production performance and servicelevels. Equally, few organizations seem prepared to invest the administrator time and effort that would benecessary to migrate data across tiers multiple times per day, on an application-by-application basis.As a result, FAST VP processes are typically executed during off-peak periods, often in batch mode. EasyTier migrates small increments of data every five minutes, reducing production impacts.A further difference should be highlighted. In sharp contrast to FAST VP, Easy Tier is designed tominimize complexity. Administrative processes are simpler, and automation and workload managementtechnologies are more advanced. (For example, Easy Tier implementations involve setting only twoparameters. FAST VP requires that a wide range of parameters be set, and policies defined on anapplication-by-application basis.)FAST VP is not “fully automated” – in practice a great deal more administrator intervention is typicallyrequired than for use of Easy Tier. “Fully automated” may be an eventual goal. But it does not correspondto current realities.A clear conclusion emerges. Tiering may play a valuable role in meeting today’s high-end storagechallenges. But in business-critical environments, its deployment remains subject to operationalconstraints, and to the need to maintain continuity of performance, service quality and data protection.Schemes for the future cannot substitute for solid engineering and quality of technology today.From this perspective, DS8800 systems remain among the industry’s premier high-end disk solutions.International Technology Group 4
  8. 8. PLATFORMSOverviewEMC VMAX and IBM DS8800 represent the latest chapter in a more than 20-year rivalry between thesevendors in high-end disk systems.The EMC VMAX platform, introduced in April 2009, is the latest iteration of the EMC Symmetrixarchitecture, which first reached the marketplace in 1990. The immediate predecessor of VMAX, theDMX generation of systems, was introduced in 2003 and last updated in 2007.The IBM DS8800 is the latest in the company’s DS8000 series of systems, the first of which wasintroduced in 2004. The immediate DS8800 predecessor, the DS8700, was introduced in 2009. Bothcompanies have maintained high levels of compatibility between successive generations of system.For example, the VMAX version of the EMC Enginuity allows DMX scripts to run on VMAX systems.DS8800 OEL is said by IBM to contain around 85 percent of the same code as for the DS8700, which inturn contained over 95 percent of the code of its DS8300 predecessor. Maintenance of compatibility inthis manner materially reduces risks of errors that may impact production.There are numerous commonalties and some differences between VMAX and DS8800 systems, which aresummarized in figure 3. FUNCTION EMC SYMMETRIX VMAX SYSTEM IBM DS8800 SYSTEM System units 1-8 engines Dual 2-way or 4-way Power6+ 5.0 GHz Each engine contains: dual integrated processor units directors with 2 x quad core Intel Xeon Cache, I/O & disk ports separately 2.33 GHz processors each; 32-128GB configurable physical (16-64GB effective) cache; 8-16 I/O ports; & 16 disk ports Configuration range 96 to 2,400 3.5” drives 8 to 1,536 2.5” (SAS-2 or SSD) or 8 to 768 64GB-1,024GB physical (32GB-512GB 3.5” drives effective) cache 32GB-384GB cache 16-128 disk ports 8-64 disk ports 4-128 host FC ports 4-128 host FC/FICON ports 4-64 host FICON ports Drive interface 4 Gbps FC & SATA 6 Gbps SAS-2 Drive types 200GB & 400GB SSD 300GB SSD 146GB, 300GB, 450GB & 600GB FC 15K 146GB & 300GB SAS-2 15K 300GB, 450GB & 600GB FC 10K 450GB, 600GB & 900GB SAS-2 10K 1TB & 2TB 7.2K SATA 3TB 7.2K Nearline SAS-2 Host interface 4 Gbps or 8 Gbps FC/FICON 4 Gbps or 8 Gbps FC/FICON RAID support Levels 1, 5, 6 & 10 Levels 5, 6 & 10 Thin provisioning Yes (Virtual Provisioning) Yes Encryption method Executes on back-end processor Disk-basedFigure 3: General Comparison of EMC VMAX and IBM DS8800 SystemsCommonalities include support for tiered use of SSDs, high-performance HDDs and higher-capacity,lower-cost media; and thin provisioning (which EMC refers to as “virtual provisioning”); i.e., the abilityto allocate space dynamically as data is written to disk, rather than in preset volumes.International Technology Group 5
  9. 9. Both platforms are recognized industry leaders in the following areas: • Availability. DS8800 as well as VMAX systems incorporate sophisticated reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features, and allow use of RAID to mask the effects of disk failures. IBM and EMC support RAID level 5 (which is now routine for most high-end applications), level 6 (an enhancement to level 5 that combines four or more disks to protect data against loss of any two disks) and level 10 (which combines level 0 striping and level 1 mirroring). EMC continues to support RAID level 1, which provides basic 1:1 mirroring. RAID 1 is now rarely used for new applications. RAID 10 provides superior data protection. EMC’s engine-based packaging represents a potential vulnerability. In principle, engines can be replaced without disrupting operations. But because each engine handles a specific set of disks, an engine failure could result in loss of access to some or all of the data on these. • Replication and recovery. Both companies offer robust solutions for point-in-time copy (IBM FlashCopy and EMC TimeFinder families) and remote real-time replication and disaster recovery. EMC Symmetrix Remote Data Facility/Asynchronous (SRDF/A) and Symmetric Remote Data Facility/Synchronous (SRDF/S), and IBM Global Mirror (asynchronous) and Metro Mirror (synchronous) are recognized industry leaders in this area. Three-site replication solutions, which provide a further level of protection against “cascading” outages that might affect two data centers, include EMC’s SRDF/Star and IBM’s Metro/Global Mirror. Although there are some technical differences between EMC and IBM solutions, these deliver generally similar functionality, and all are widely used.DS8800 and VMAX systems both offer hardware-based encryption. EMC offers an adapter-basedimplementation of RSA Data Protection Manager encryption. RSA was acquired by EMC in 2006.IBM offers self-encrypting options for all DS8800 SAS-2 15K and 10K rpm drives. These optionsemploy onboard encryption engines implementing Seagate Secure technology. The company has alsoannounced plans to deliver similar options for DS8800 SSDs and nearline drives in the fast half of 2012.Differences between these platforms are discussed in more detail below. In dealing with performanceissues, a distinction is drawn between system-level performance, and the effects of SSDs and tieringsolutions. These are addressed separately in the following section.EMC Symmetrix VMAXVMAX SystemsVMAX systems are built around engine units containing redundant Intel Xeon-based integrated directors,along with cache, and I/O and disk ports. Up to eight engines may be configured in a frame. Enginesreplace dedicated channel and disk directors employed in earlier EMC systems.Engines contain symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) units built around quad core Intel Xeon 2.33 GHzprocessors, 16GB to 64GB of RAM, up to 128GB of mirrored (i.e., 64GB of effective) cache, 8 to 16front-end I/O ports and 16 back-end ports. Engine-based packaging means that processors, cache and (ifmore than 16 are required) host ports cannot be configured separately. Expansion of these requires anadditional engine or engines.International Technology Group 6
  10. 10. VMAX systems support larger overall cache sizes than DMX-4 systems – up to 1,024GB compared to512GB. However, as cache for both systems is fully mirrored, only about 50 percent is usable. Theeffective increase is from 256GB to 512GB.VMAX systems retain the same overall structure of system bays and storage bays as DMX systems.Configurations may include up to 8 engines and 2,400 disk drives, which may be SSD, FC and/or SATAdevices. In principle, DMX-4 systems supported 1,920 drives, although EMC offered customconfigurations of up to 2,400.EMC also offers an entry-level model, the VMAX SE, which is built around a single system engine andsupports up to 128GB physical (64GB effective) cache and 360 disk drives. VMAX SE systems cannot beupgraded to larger VMAX configurations.VMAXe SystemsVMAXe, which was introduced in January 2011, is a downsized version of the core VMAX platform.VMAXe cannot be upgraded to VMAX.Principal differences between VMAXe and VMAX systems are summarized in figure 4. VMAXe VMAX Maximum engines 4 8 Intel processor Westmere quad 2.4 GHz Harpertown quad 2.33 GHz Maximum disks 960 2,400 Maximum cache per engine 96GB 128GB 64 x 8 Gbps FC ports 128 x 8 Gbps FC ports Connectivity 32 x Ethernet ports 64 x Ethernet ports CKD & FICON support No Yes Power Single-phase only Single- & three-phaseFigure 4: EMC Symmetrix VMAXe and VMAX Systems – SummaryUnlike VMAX, VMAXe does not support Fibre Connection (FICON) and Count Key Data (CKD), whicheffectively preclude use with mainframe systems.Support for single-phase power only further restricts use of VMAXe systems. Single-phase is widely usedfor smaller loads (e.g., for small business and residential sites), and in rural areas where distribution costsare comparatively low. Large data centers tend to employ three-phase or combinations of three-phasebackbones and single-phase feeds. VMAX and DS8800 systems offer single- and three-phase options.VMAXe systems support most major EMC VMAX software tools, although the EMC RecoverPointproduct has been substituted for SRDF. RecoverPoint is positioned for use with EMC midrange systems.Because of requirements for mainframe connectivity, SRDF compatibility and/or three-phase power,VMAXe systems would not be realistic candidates for use in any of the installations upon which costcomparisons presented in this report are based. All VMAX calculations are based on mainstream models.International Technology Group 7
  11. 11. IBM DS8800OverviewThe DS8800 platform is, in some respects, an evolutionary upgrade of the DS8700. Systems continue toemploy redundant SMP clusters built around IBM POWER RISC processors. In DS8800 systems, coreprocessors have been upgraded from 4.7 GHz POWER6 to 5.0 GHz POWER6+ technology. Maximumcache size remains 384GB.The IBM SMP implementation is different from that of EMC. VMAX processor cores are dedicated tospecific front-end or back-end tasks in the same manner as for DMX-4 directors. In DS8800 systems, alltasks are shared between all cores. This approach uses overall processor capacity more efficiently.In addition to standard models, IBM also offers a DS8800 Business Class. This is a single-frame versionequipped with a single two-way SMP cluster. It may be configured with up to 10 disk enclosures (up to240 drives), 16GB to 64GB cache, and two to four host adapters. Business Class frames may be equippedwith more drives per adapter than standard models, reducing configuration cost and complexity.DS8800 Business Class models are designed for smaller environments, such as those of organizationsemploying low-end System z Business Class mainframes.SFF and SAS-2The DS8800 differs from earlier DS8000 systems in its use of Small Form Factor (SFF) 2.5 inch driveswith SAS-2 interfaces.Use of 2.5-inch drives delivers key benefits in three areas – space reduction, power and cooling overheadand performance. According to IBM, use of 2.5-inch SAS-2 drives will typically result in to 40 to 50percent reductions in footprint, and at least 30 percent reduction energy consumption compared to 3.5-inch FC drives. These claims are consistent with industry experience.EMC has announced plans to replace FC with SAS-2 in their high-end disk systems, while EMC hasindicated that it expects eventually to standardize its high-end systems on two-tier configurationsemploying combinations of SSDs and SAS-2 drives.This process has already begun with the company’s new VNX midrange platform, introduced in January2011. VNX supports use of 2.5-inch as well as 3.5-inch SSD, high-performance SAS-2 and NearlineSAS-2 drives. The system also employs 6 Gbps SAS-2 disk interfaces.Market researchers estimate that SAS devices currently represent between 40 and 60 percent of theoverall disk drive market, and that demand will continue to expand more rapidly than for FC or SATA.Costs will thus tend to decline more rapidly than for the latter. Some analysts also predict that NearlineSAS will replace SATA.There is no impact on availability. The disk mechanisms employed in enterprise-class FC and SAS-2drives are the same – they simply employ different interfaces.Space ReductionThe space reduction potential of use of 2.5-inch drives is apparent within the IBM DS8000 product line.DS8700 systems employ disk enclosures that house sixteen 3.5-inch drives in a 3.5U enclosure. DS8800systems may be configured with Gigapacks that contain twenty-four 2.5-inch drives in a 2U enclosure.Drives may be acquired and installed in increments of 8, 16 and 24.International Technology Group 8
  12. 12. One key implication is that more drives may be housed in the same frame. Figure 5, for example, showsnumbers of drives supported by three-frame configurations of both systems. st nd Base 1 2 Platform Total Frame 95E 95E DS8800 (2.5”) 240 336 480 1056 DS8700 (3.5”) 128 256 256 640Figure 5: Number of Disks per Frame – ExampleConfigurations are the same physical size, and include base frames (which house processor units andother system-level components) as well as 95E expansion frames. Maximum DS8800 and DS8700configurations are 1,536 drives in four frames, and 1,024 drives in five frames respectively.The amount of data center floor space occupied by DS8800 systems also compares favorably with EMCVMAX. Figure 6, for example, shows floor space occupied by DS8800 and VMAX configurationssupporting approximately the same number of drives, 1,056 and 960 respectively. IBM DS8800: 1,056 drives EMC Symmetric VMAX: 960 drives Back Service Clearance Back Service Area – Depth – 125.88” (319.7 cm) – Depth – 124.6” (316.5 cm) STANDARD 95E 95E FRAME STORAGE STORAGE STORAGE STORAGE 336 drives 480 drives SYSTEM 240 drives BAY BAY BAY BAY BAY 240 drives 240 drives 240 drives 240 drives Front Service Clearance Front Service Area – Total Footprint – – Total Footprint – 96.8 sq. ft. 132 sq. ft. (9 sq. meters) (12.26 sq. meters) – Width – 111.9” (284.2 cm) – Width – 151” (383.5 cm)Figure 6: Floor Space Occupied by IBM DS8800 and EMC VMAX Systems – ExampleIn this presentation, which includes vendor-recommended service clearances, the DS8800 configurationoccupies 27 percent less floor space overall, and a third less space per drive.The cost implications of such differences are magnified if allowance is also made for space occupied bycomputer room air conditioning (CRAC), chillers, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), powerdistribution systems (PDS) and other infrastructure equipment; and for aisles and other interactive areas.In most data center environments, space requirements for these are proportional to those for active ITequipment. Depending on data center layouts, equipment types and other factors, it may be necessary tomultiply space directly occupied by disk systems by three to five times to determine real occupancy costs.Another issue should be highlighted. Industry methodologies for calculating data center occupancy costsoften employ assumptions based on standard facilities housing distributed servers and small and midsizestorage arrays. High-end disk systems, however, support business-critical systems in large organizationsand are typically housed in more sophisticated and expensive Tier 3 or Tier 4 data centers.International Technology Group 9
  13. 13. The Uptime Institute, which sets de facto industry standards for data center resiliency, defines four tiers.The highest of these, Tiers 3 and 4, involve extensive redundancy of infrastructure components,“hardened” construction parameters and rigorous operating practices. Designs are intended to realize99.982 percent (Tier 3) to 99.995 percent (Tier 4) availability.Capital and operating costs for Tier 3 and Tier 4 data centers are significantly higher than those for lower-level facilities. For example, construction costs for Tier 4 data centers are typically five to ten timeshigher than for Tier 1 equivalents, and operating costs are three to five times higher.Higher construction costs may also increase annual costs. An initial construction cost of, say, $5,000 persquare foot amortized over ten years would represent more than $500 per square foot per year.All three of the organizations upon which comparative costs presented in this report were based housedhigh-end disk systems in Tier 4 data centers.Energy and CoolingIndustry experience has shown that use of 2.5-inch rather than 3.5-inch drives typically reduces energyconsumption and cooling requirements by 30 to 40 percent.The general industry “rule of thumb” is that IT equipment causes 30 to 40 percent of overall data powerconsumption. The remainder is accounted for by infrastructure equipment such as that described above,and by support systems and the space occupied by these. In Tier 3 and Tier 4 data centers with high levelsof power and cooling redundancy, the proportion may be lower.Figure 7 shows an example for one of the organizations used as the basis of comparative cost calculationspresented in this report. Other CRAC 6% 12% IT equipment Power 32% equipment 17% Chillers 33%Figure 7: Data Center Energy Consumption byType of Equipment – User ExampleOverall power consumption is proportional to that by IT equipment. In this case, it would thus benecessary to multiply energy savings realized by use of 2.5-inch drives in DS8800 systems by more thanthree times to determine the actual bottom-line impact.Potential energy and cooling savings are magnified by the DS8800’s use of front-to-back cooling; i.e.,cold air is drawn into the front of the system, and hot air is expelled from the back. Conventional designs(often referred to as “chimneys”) draw cold air through both the front and back of systems, and expel itupward, where it is eventually returned to CRAC units.Front-to-back cooling increases the effectiveness of “hot aisle/cool aisle” layouts that have becomewidely adopted in high-end data centers. Figure 8 shows a simplified example.International Technology Group 10
  14. 14. Figure 8: Data Center Hot/Cold Aisle Layout – ExampleBy improving airflow efficiency, such approaches have commonly reduced overall data center power andcooling costs by 20 to 30 percent.VMAX systems employ front-to-back cooling only for system bays. Storage bays, which generatesignificantly higher power and cooling overhead in most VMAX installations, employ chimneys.Other AreasThere are also significant technical differences between DS8000 and VMAX systems in a number ofother areas. These include the following: • Cache technologies. Although VMAX systems may be configured with larger caches, this does not necessarily translate into higher performance. User experiences have shown that IBM DS8000 systems typically require less cache than VMAX equivalents. There are a number of reasons for this. Only about 50 percent of VMAX cache is usable. Moreover, the mirroring processes employed by EMC tend to increase contention for memory resources, and to degrade overall system performance. In addition, while EMC employs DMX-era cache techniques, DS8800 systems implement newer algorithms developed by IBM’s Research Division that accelerate performance and improve capacity utilization. These are summarized in figure 9. A key advantage of the IBM approach is that it draws upon proprietary autonomic technologies. Autonomic computing, meaning the application of advanced artificial intelligence to system administration and optimization tasks, has been a major IBM research focus for more than a decade. The company is the recognized industry leader in this area.International Technology Group 11
  15. 15. ALGORITHM FUNCTION Sequential Prefetching in Manages cache allocation for random & sequential I/Os; pre-fetches Adaptive Replacement & loads data into cache; dynamically learns what data should be Cache (SARC) stored in cache based upon the frequency needs of the hosts; optimizes overall performance & capacity utilization. Adaptive Multi-Stream Determines data to be prefetched based on workload characteristics; Prefetching (AMP) minimizes idle cache capacity; improves performance for common sequential & batch processing workloads; optimizes cache efficiency in response to changing workloads. Intelligent Write Caching Organizes & manages order of cache writes to minimize use of disk (IWC) resources & improve overall I/O performance; can double throughput for random write database workloads. Figure 9: DS8800 Advanced Caching Algorithms Finally, while DS8800 systems divide cache into 4-kilobyte (KB) increments (commonly referred to as “slots” or “pages”), VMAX systems employ 64KB increments. Although random I/Os are typically 4KB to 8KB in size, the EMC approach assigns them a full 64KB of cache. As a result, overall cache utilization may be significantly lower. • Volume management. System-level performance and capacity utilization are materially affected by the manner in data volumes are organized, modified and managed. If underlying structures are inefficient, the effects may be magnified when these are mapped to RAID configurations, and the performance and functionality of tiering solutions overlaid on them may be impaired. Legacy VMAX structures oblige administrators to build higher-level metavolume structures out of hypervolumes located on individual disks. In comparison, IBM uses a single category of extent pools, which are constructed using standardized 1GB blocks of data (extents). Extent pools operate more efficiently, leave less unused capacity and do not need to be micromanaged by administrators. The IBM approach has proved a great deal less complex and more flexible. It provides particular value when organizations must deal with dynamic workloads characterized by high levels of growth and/or change. DS8800 Storage Pool Striping allows workloads to be spread across all extents within a pool, and provides load-balancing functions that reduce risks that “hot spots” will develop. A key benefit is that, by implementing these capabilities as part of the core operating system, the tasks that must be handled by Easy Tier and other optimization solutions are simplified.In addition, I/O Priority Manager enables organizations to prioritize workload access to system resourcesbased on performance and/or quality of service (QoS) targets. Administrators may define up to three mainpriority levels and 16 sublevels for specific applications. The facility provides highly granular monitoring,load balancing and policy-based allocation of system resources.Experiences with I/O Priority Manager suggest that it may obviate the need for cache partitioningtechniques such as those employed by EMC in VMAX systems. This would improve ability to respond toworkload changes, and would not limit cache resources to specific volumes.I/O Priority Manager originated as a tool for UNIX, Linux and Windows environments. In the latestversion, support has been extended to the mainframe z/OS environment. Key capabilities include supportfor z/OS volumes and integration with the z/OS Workload Manager (WLM).International Technology Group 12
  16. 16. SSDS AND TIERINGGeneral PictureSolid state drives (SSDs) originated in the 1990s, and were initially employed in specialized defense,aerospace, communications and other compute-intensive applications. Demand for high-performancesystems for such applications continues to form a high-end niche within the overall SSD market. Most“100 percent” SSD systems are for this type of application.SSDs began to move into mainstream commercial applications in the early to mid-2000s. This trendoverlapped with the appearance of storage virtualization technologies that made it possible to combineSSDs and HDDs in the same virtual pool. This approach, generally referred to as “tiering,” was pioneeredby specialist vendors and later adopted by major industry players.EMC was the first large storage systems vendor to introduce SSDs as well as FC and SATA drives on itsmajor platforms during 2008. Support was extended to DMX-4 high-end, CLARiiON midrange andCelerra network attached storage (NAS) systems. The company currently claims to be the largest vendorof SSDs in high-end and midrange disk arrays.IBM added SSD support for DS8000 and DS5000 disk systems, the IBM SAN Volume Controller (SVC)cross-platform storage virtualization system, and IBM Power and System x servers in 2009. A broaderinitiative was also launched by the company to optimize exploitation of SSDs by all IBM serverplatforms, as well as by DB2 and Tivoli software.With certain types of workload, organizations have been able to achieve increases in overall systemperformance of hundreds or even thousands of times with relatively small SSD quantities (e.g., two tothree percent). Most current applications, however, require larger SSD capacities and/or deliver smallerperformance improvements.Storage TieringThe most common form of storage tiering currently involves manual intervention by administrators toidentify “hot spot” data that would benefit from location on SSDs, move these to SSDs, and relocate themas and when workloads change. Decisions are supported by periodic collection and analysis of datadistribution and performance statistics.Manual techniques have proved adequate for high-end I/O-intensive applications where SSDs providemost benefit. However, for some vendors – EMC has been in the forefront among these – the ability todevelop a larger market for tiering depends upon automation.In most organizations, storage workloads have become increasingly diverse over time. This trend hasbeen accelerated by server as well as storage consolidation initiatives, and by the increasingly mixednature of workloads in most application areas. In such environments, manual techniques would beprohibitively expensive in administrator time an/or would not be feasible for operational reasons.Numerous other vendors now offer solutions that provide such capabilities in varying ways, and tovarying degrees. These include 3PAR (Adaptive Optimization), Compellent (Intelligent Tiered Storage),Hitachi (Dynamic Tiering), XIO (Continuous Adaptive Data Placement) and others. 3PAR andCompellent have been acquired by Hewlett-Packard and Dell respectively.International Technology Group 13
  17. 17. EMC FAST VPEMC’s FAST has developed in two phases. The original version of FAST, introduced in 2009, supportedallocation and re-allocation of data only in logical unit number (LUN) increments, and was subject toother limitations that restricted its appeal to a small minority of early adopters.FAST VP enables movement of data blocks with sub-LUN granularity. The smallest increment, accordingto EMC, is 7.68MB, and the largest is 1GB.FAST Suite software consists of two products: FAST Cache employs up to 2TB of SSD to cache datadrawn from FC and/or SATA drives; and FAST VP, which moves data from FC drives to SSDs and/orSATA drives. The roles of these products are illustrated in figure 10. SSD Fibre Channel FAST FAST Fibre Cache VP Channel SATA SATAFigure 10: EMC FAST Cache and FAST VPFAST VP is built upon the storage pool structures implemented by VMAX thin provisioning. Itincorporates two core algorithms: intelligent tiering (which determines the appropriate tier for a givendata set); and allocation compliance (which detects when allocated capacity of a storage group exceedsset limits, and initiates corrective data movements).These are applied to three main processes: collection of statistics; analysis of these; and movement of databetween tiers in response to the results of analysis. Collection of statistics may run continuously as abackground task, or may be scheduled to occur periodically. Analysis and data movement windows mayalso be set by users. EMC supplies Tier Advisor Tool to assist in making such decisions.FAST VP deployment involves two distinct phases: initial analysis of workloads and data distribution,setting of configurations, system parameters and policies, and related tasks; and ongoing activities –which, in principle, occur continuously and are fully automated.In practice, however, users have found that it is often not realistic to conduct FAST processes during peakoperating hours. Statistics collection and repeated movement of blocks of data between disks tend togenerate levels of system overhead that impair production performance. Equally, it is often not feasible toassign administrator time during periods of high activity.For both reasons, statistics are typically collected, and data is moved in batch mode during off-peakperiods. Windows for both typically range from one to eight hours, depending on application andworkloads, and on the size and complexity of data volumes.Equally, effective use of FAST requires that storage administrators perform a variety of manual taskssuch as reviewing statistical analyses, performing a variety of management functions (e.g., confirming orchanging variables such as those shown in figure 11) and initiating relocation of data between tiers.International Technology Group 14
  18. 18. Tiering policies Data allocations Auto-tier e.g. 10% SSD – RAID 5 Highest available tier 40% FC 15K – RAID 1 Lowest available tier 50% SATA – RAID 6 Tier 1/2/3 File system properties Relocation rate Statistics collection Speed of data movement Analysis • 10 settings Data relocation Storage pool properties File system properties Pool type; e.g. mapped Deduplication enabled/disabled Disk type Predict full • Single disk type Read/write throughput - Flash/FC/SATA Automatic extension enabled/disabled • Multiple disk types File-level retention enabled/disabled • Mirrored Slice volumes? - Mixed/Performance/Capacity Replications - Extreme performance Disk usage Advanced data services • Thin/Compressed/Mirrored • Tiering policy Predict full Automatic extension enabled/disabled Obtain unused disk volumes Slice pool volumes by default? Template pool Stripe Size/stripe membersFigure 11: FAST VP Management Variables – ExamplesThese effects might be manageable where workloads are comparatively simple, stable and/or predictable.However, growth in a number of variables – including configuration and workload complexity, and in thesize and frequency of data movements (which would tend to occur if data volumes were expandingrapidly) – would exacerbate operational challenges faced by users.Administrative costs and difficulties would escalate well beyond current levels. This would particularlybe the case if, as EMC has indicated as an eventual goal, policies and parameters were set on anapplication-by-application basis. Declining batch windows would also pose problems for many users.FAST VP is also supported by EMC on its Clarion CX-4 and VNX midrange disk systems.IBM Easy TierIBM’s Easy Tier was first introduced in April 2010 for DS8700 systems, and support was later extendedto the DS8800. Easy Tier is accompanied by the Storage Tier Advisor Tool that identifies “hot spots,”recommends where data should be located, and models the effects of configuration changes. Storage TierAdvisor Tool is a no-charge feature.The initial version, now referred to as Easy Tier V1, enabled concurrent use of two out of three tiers –SSDs and high-performance HDDs, or SSDs and nearline devices. Easy Tier V2 added the ability torebalance workloads within tiers in the event that imbalances developed, or when capacity was added toor removed from systems. V3 featured additional enhancements, including concurrent three-tier supportand support for thin provisioning.International Technology Group 15
  19. 19. Easy Tier is designed to minimize complexity. It may be set up in, at most, a few hours by in-house ITstaff. In comparison, FAST VP deployments typically require assistance by the EMC ProfessionalServices organization or EMC qualified service partners, as well as extensive administrator retraining.Easy Tier offers Manual and Automated Modes. Manual Mode is employed for major tasks such asmoving entire volumes between tiers, to a new pool in the same tier, striping volumes or changing RAIDconfigurations, while Automated Mode enables workload recognition, movement of data in smallerincrements, and other routine tasks to be performed without administrator intervention.IBM autonomic technologies are employed. Autonomic computing, meaning the application of advancedartificial intelligence (AI) to IT administration and optimization tasks, has been a major IBM R&D focusfor more than a decade. The company is the recognized industry leader in this area.One example is that Easy Tier is built around a continuous learning algorithm that enables the system torecognize and adapt to evolving workload patterns. When Easy Tier is first activated, it normally requiresthat statistics be collected over a 24-hour period to enable “workload learning” (IBM’s term).Easy Tier is also supported for the IBM Storwize v7000 midrange platform, and for the company’s SANVolume Controller (SVC) cross-platform storage virtualization solution.Drive BlendsAlthough performance and/or capacity utilization benefits may be realized with two to three percent SSDconfigurations, the proportion of SSDs is often higher.FAST VP performance test results published by EMC, which are summarized in figure 12, for example,employ configurations in which ten percent of drive populations are SSDs. In some user environments,percentages are significantly higher. FAST VP PERFORMANCE TEST CONFIGURATION IMPROVEMENT Oracle 11gR2 finance & HR 80 drives: 81% improvement in transactions database workloads on x86 8 x 400GB SSD (10%), 40 x 300GB per minute for combined database Linux server FC 15K rpm (50%), 32 x SATA 1TB workload; 160% improvement for April 2011 7.2K rpm (40%) separately-managed workloads Complex OLTP environment on 80 drives: 0.76% to 13.46% improvements in three DB2 9.7 LUW databases 8 x 400GB SSD (10%), 40 x 300GB transactions per minute depending January 2011 FC 15K rpm (50%), 32 x SATA 1TB on workload characteristics 7.2K rpm (40%)Figure 12: EMC FAST VP Performance Tests – SummaryIBM tests have shown similar variances. According to the company, an internal test using a transactionaldatabase workload showed that use of 13 percent SSDs achieved a 171 percent performance gain. Thisblend offered the lowest cost of storage per transaction per second of any of the configurations tested.International Technology Group 16
  20. 20. DETAILED DATAInstallations and ScenariosCost comparisons presented in this report are based on high-end disk system installations in three largeuser organizations whose business profiles are summarized in figure 13. FINANCIAL SERVICES MANUFACTURING IT SERVICES COMPANY COMPANY COMPANY Diversified retail bank Consumer packaged goods Data center, application & $600 billion assets $15 billion revenues telecommunications services 15+ million customers 70+ manufacturing & $4 billion revenues 2,000+ branches distribution centers 10 operations centers 65,000 employees 35,000 employees 20,000 employeesFigure 13: Installations Summary – Business ProfilesInstallations were based on data on disk system hardware and software configurations, applications,capacity growth rates, host platforms (e.g., mainframes, UNIX, Windows or Linux servers) and othersubjects reported by users of EMC VMAX and/or IBM DS8800 systems.Organizations also employed older EMC and IBM high-end disk platforms. These were translated intoVMAX and DS8800 configurations based on installed capacity in terabytes, performance characteristics,business criticality and projected growth rates.In the financial services and IT services company installations, high-end disk systems support mixes ofmainframe and open systems hosts. In the manufacturing company installation, systems support UNIXand Windows servers. Because of mainframe connectivity requirement and/or data center and operationalcharacteristics, VMAXe systems were not realistic candidates for use in comparisons.For each installation, two scenarios were developed: 1. Conventional scenarios are for use of VMAX and DS8800 systems equipped with 15K rpm 300GB 3.5-inch FC and 2.5-inch SAS-2 disks respectively. 2. Tiered scenarios are for use of the same systems in three-tier configurations employing FAST VP and Easy Tier V3 respectively. VMAX systems were equipped with 3.5-inch 400GB SSDs, 15K rpm 300GB FC, and 7.2K rpm 2TB SATA disks, while DS8800 systems were equipped with 2.5-inch 300GB SSDs, 2.5-inch 15K rpm 300GB SAS-2, and 3.5-inch 7.2K rpm 3TB Nearline SAS-2 drives.For both sets of scenarios, RAID 5 with normal complements of spares was employed. Configurationsalso include the software products shown in figure 14. FUNCTION EMC VMAX SYSTEM IBM DS8800 SYSTEM Operating system Enginuity 5875 Operating Environment License Point-in-time Copy TimeFinder FlashCopy Real-time replication SRDF/A, SRDF/S Global Mirror, Metro Mirror Multipathing PowerPath (host-based) Subsystem Device DriverFigure 14: Software Products Employed in All ComparisonsInternational Technology Group 17
  21. 21. Real-time replication software is employed only for systems requiring exceptionally high levels ofavailability and recoverability.Tiered VMAX scenarios also include EMC FAST Suite and Tier Advisor Tool. Tiered DS8800 scenariosinclude Easy Tier V3 and Storage Tier Advisor Tool.Hardware and software configurations were then determined for each installation and scenario over athree-year period. Results are summarized in figures 15 and 16. FINANCIAL SERVICES MANUFACTURING IT SERVICES COMPANY COMPANY COMPANY EMC VMAX SYSTEMS Initial Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 198TB, 2 x 86TB 2 x 144TB 2 x 158TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 221TB, 1 x 198TB 1 x 189TB, 1 x 126TB 1 x 113TB, 1 x 90TB 1 x 108TB 1 x 99TB, 1 x 95TB Total: 1,095TB Total: 797TB Total: 519TB End of Period Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 405TB, 2 x 203TB 2 x 317TB 2 x 347TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 464TB, 1 x 383TB 2 x 324TB, 1 x 243TB 1 x 194TB, 1 x 171TB 1 x 162TB 1 x 185TB Total: 2,225TB Total: 1,710TB Total: 1,059TB IBM DS8800 SYSTEMS Initial Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 202TB, 2 x 86TB 2 x 144TB 2 x 158TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 223TB, 1 x 202TB 1 x 187TB, 1 x 122TB 1 x 115TB, 1 x 94TB 1 x 108TB 1 x 101TB, 1 x 94TB Total: 1,109TB Total: 792TB Total: 525TB End of Period Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 410TB, 2 x 209TB 2 x 317TB 2 x 346TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 461TB, 1 x 382TB 2 x 324TB, 1 x 245TB 1 x 194TB, 1 x 173TB 1 x 166TB 1 x 187TB Total: 2,247TB Total: 1,714TB Total: 1,059TBFigure 15: Installations Summary – Conventional ScenariosTerabyte values shown are for raw physical capacity.International Technology Group 18
  22. 22. FINANCIAL SERVICES MANUFACTURING IT SERVICES COMPANY COMPANY COMPANY EMC VMAX SYSTEMS Initial Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 162TB, 2 x 116TB 2 x 177TB 2 x 323TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 437TB, 1 x 379TB 1 x 213TB, 1 x 164TB 1 x 221TB, 1 x 191TB 1 x 91TB 1 x 156TB, 1 x 77TB Total: 1,463TB Total: 964TB Total: 1,058TB End of Period Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 320TB, 2 x 290TB 2 x 383TB 2 x 703TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 762TB, 1 x 749TB 1 x 432TB, 1 x 379TB 1 x 374TB, 1 x 365TB 1 x 141TB 1 x 372TB, 1 x 149TB Total: 2,872TB Total: 2,098TB Total: 2,145TB IBM DS8800 SYSTEMS Initial Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 174TB, 2 x 122TB 2 x 173TB 2 x 331TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 445TB, 1 x 323TB 1 x 222TB, 1 x 169TB 1 x 215TB, 1 x 184TB 1 x 97TB 1 x 149TB, 1 x 85TB Total: 1,457TB Total: 971TB Total: 1,061TB End of Period Configuration Business-critical Business-critical Business-critical 2 x 360TB, 2 x 280TB 2 x 387TB 2 x 700TB Other systems Other systems Other systems 1 x 760TB, 1 x 743TB 1 x 447TB, 1 x 390TB 1 x 374TB, 1 x 361TB 1 x 149TB 1 x 369TB, 1 x 166TB Total: 2,932TB Total: 2,146TB Total: 2,135TBFigure 16: Installations Summary – Tiered ScenariosCost CalculationsCosts were calculated as follows: • System costs include initial hardware and license acquisition, as well as costs of hardware and software upgrades over three-year periods. Calculations do not include hardware maintenance costs. EMC offers a standard three-year 24x7 warranty for VMAX hardware, while costs for DS8800 systems were based on three-year warranty models offered by the company. VMAX costs include software maintenance. Although EMC offers a 90-day warranty for VMAX software, this applies only to media defects. Since such defects are rare, it is assumed that no warranty coverage occurs; i.e., maintenance charges apply upon installation. DS8800 calculations are based on three-year system warranty options.International Technology Group 19
  23. 23. For tiered scenarios, software acquisition and maintenance calculations allow for variations in EMC pricing for SATA and non-SATA devices, and in IBM pricing for use of SSD, SAS-2 or nearline drives. • Data center costs include acquisition and maintenance costs for data center infrastructure equipment including CRAC, cooling, UPS, PDS and other infrastructure equipment; and occupancy and energy costs for disk systems as well as infrastructure equipment. Occupancy costs were calculated based on footprints for disk systems as well as infrastructure equipment, including allowance for service clearances, aisles and other inactive areas. Costs were calculated using an overhead assumption for cost per square foot per year for an approximately 40,000 square foot Tier 4 facility. Infrastructure equipment costs were calculated based on discounted purchase and maintenance prices for models from leading vendors supplying large corporate data centers. Costs were prorated; e.g., if disk systems required 40 percent of the capacity of a 30-ton chiller, calculations were for 40 percent of three-year costs for this unit. Energy costs were determined using vendor ratings and independent estimates for disk systems and infrastructure equipment. Calculations were based on specific utilization levels and hours of operation. A conservative assumption for average cost per kilowatt-hour was employed. This remained constant over the three-year measurement period.All cost calculations are for the United States.Cost BreakdownsDetailed cost breakdowns are presented in figures 17 and 18. Financial Services Manufacturing IT Services Category Company Company Company EMC SYMMETRIX VMAX SYSTEMS Hardware 20,405 14,118 12,913 Software 10,531 7,491 5,383 Software support 3,666 2,570 1,838 Data center 1,873 1,069 820 Total ($000) 36,475 25,248 20,954 IBM DS8800 SYSTEMS Hardware 16,743 10,848 8,142 Software 10,735 5,965 4,868 Data center 1,289 723 522 Total ($000) 28,768 17,537 13,532Figure 17: Three-year Cost Breakdowns – Conventional ComparisonsInternational Technology Group 20
  24. 24. Financial Services Manufacturing IT Services Category Company Company Company EMC SYMMETRIX VMAX SYSTEMS with FAST VP Hardware 26,047 18,385 15,144 Software 11,722 8,522 7,333 Software support 4,063 2,909 2,548 Data center 1,512 874 645 Total ($000) 43,344 30,690 25,670 IBM DS8800 SYSTEMS with EASY TIER V3 Hardware 20,420 14,622 9,392 Software 10,136 7,012 5,014 Data center 987 571 389 Total ($000) 31,543 22,205 14,795Figure 18: Three-year Cost Breakdowns – Tiered ComparisonsInternational Technology Group 21
  25. 25. ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY GROUP ITG sharpens your awareness of what’s happening and your competitive edge . . . this could affect your future growth and profit prospectsInternational Technology Group (ITG), established in 1983, is an independent research and managementconsulting firm specializing in information technology (IT) investment strategy, cost/benefit metrics,infrastructure studies, deployment tactics, business alignment and financial analysis.ITG was an early innovator and pioneer in developing total cost of ownership (TCO) and return oninvestment (ROI) processes and methodologies. In 2004, the firm received a Decade of Education Awardfrom the Information Technology Financial Management Association (ITFMA), the leading professionalassociation dedicated to education and advancement of financial management practices in end-user ITorganizations.The firm has undertaken more than 120 major consulting projects, released more than 250 managementreports and white papers and more than 1,800 briefings and presentations to individual clients, usergroups, industry conferences and seminars throughout the world.Client services are designed to provide factual data and reliable documentation to assist in the decision-making process. Information provided establishes the basis for developing tactical and strategic plans.Important developments are analyzed and practical guidance is offered on the most effective ways torespond to changes that may impact complex IT deployment agendas.A broad range of services is offered, furnishing clients with the information necessary to complementtheir internal capabilities and resources. Customized client programs involve various combinations of thefollowing deliverables: Status Reports In-depth studies of important issues Management Briefs Detailed analysis of significant developments Management Briefings Periodic interactive meetings with management Executive Presentations Scheduled strategic presentations for decision-makers Email Communications Timely replies to informational requests Telephone Consultation Immediate response to informational needsClients include a cross section of IT end users in the private and public sectors representing multinationalcorporations, industrial companies, financial institutions, service organizations, educational institutions,federal and state government agencies as well as IT system suppliers, software vendors and service firms.Federal government clients have included agencies within the Department of Defense (e.g. DISA),Department of Transportation (e.g. FAA) and Department of Treasury (e.g. US Mint). International Technology Group 609 Pacific Avenue, Suite 102 Santa Cruz, California 95060-4406 Telephone: + 831-427-9260 Email: Contact@ITGforInfo.com Website: ITGforInfo.com

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