IBM Systems Storage™June, 2011 IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape Drive Performance Whitepaper by Lloyd Wiebe Tape Performance IBM Tucson
IBM System Storage TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 1Contents IntroductionIntroduction/Overview 1 The purpose of this white paper is to examine the performance of the IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape Drive (TS1140 Tape Drive) in an openPerformance Overview 2 systems environment. A short description of the TS1140 Tape Drive follows.Performance Evaluation 3 TS1140 Tape Drive OverviewWrite/Read Performance 4 The TS1140 Tape Drive is the fourth generation of the IBM 3592 family ofTape Capacity 8 enterprise level tape drives, and the successor to the TS1130 Tape Drive. AsLocate/Rewind Performance 8 such, it incorporates all of the features of the TS1130 Tape Drive while enhancing performance and including new features.Load/Unload Performance 10 Compared with other IBM tape products, the TS1140 Tape Drive providesFastSync/SkipSync 11 higher levels of performance and cartridge capacity than its 3 predecessors:Backhitchless Backspacing 12 the TS1130 Tape Drive (3592 E06 Tape Drive), the TS1120 Tape Drive (3592 E05 Tape Drive), or the IBM TotalStorage® 3592 Model J1A TapeConclusion 13 Drive. In addition, the TS1140 Tape Drive is compatible with existing tapeReferences 20 libraries, helping customers to protect their investment in tape automation. Supported environments include IBM Power™ Systems, System i™, System p™, System z™, and System x™ servers; selected Sun and Hewlett Packard servers; and Intel® servers running supported versions of Microsoft® Windows® or Linux. The TS1140 Tape Drive includes a dual-ported 8-Gbps Fibre Channel (FC-8) interface for attachment to supported host bus adapters (HBAs) in supportedThe TS1140 Tape Drive includes all IBM and non-IBM servers or supported 1, 2, 4 or 8 Gbps switched fabric orthe features of the TS1130 while arbitrated loop Storage Area Network (SAN) components.enhancing data rate performance andcartridge capacity. The native data rate of the TS1140 Tape Drive is 250 MB/sec and its native capacity with the IBM 3592 JC tape cartridge is 4 TB (500 GB with the JK cartridge). Actual tape drive data rate and cartridge capacity will vary depending on factors such as data compression, server and disk performance variables.
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 2 Performance Overview The TS1140 Tape Drive achieves a The TS1140 Tape Drive improves on many of the performance features of the leap in performance over the TS1130 TS1130 Tape Drive. These enhancements include: due to a large number of hardware • Increased native data rate of 250 MB/sec (from 160 MB/sec) and firmware improvements and additions. • Increased cartridge capacity of 4 TB for the new JC/JY Data and WORM media (from 1 TB on JB/JX media ) and support of 500 GB Short cartridge (JK media) • Ability of the drive to write and read a higher density format (Gen4 format) with the new JC/JY/JK-type media. • Increased cartridge capacity of 1.6 TB for JB/JX type media (with Gen4 format) • Ability of the drive to write and read to/from JB/JX media in Gen3 (TS1130) format and Gen4 (TS1140) format • Improved digital speed matching (more speed variations) • Improved small file performance with a better FastSync function • Improved large file performance with improved SkipSync function These technology enhancements and additional supplementary information on existing technology are described in the complementary white papers listed in the references section at the end of this white paper. Like its predecessor, the TS1140 Tape Drive also includes hardware-based data encryption capabilities within the drive itself, helping to avoid the need for host- based encryption of data and the resulting drain on host performance. This whitepaper examines the performance benchmarks of the TS1140 Tape Drive and associated features, particularly in comparison to the performance of the TS1130 Tape Drive. The performance benchmark test results do not specifically reference the hardware-based encryption capability of the tape drive, either because encryption has no impact on the performance or the impact is unchanged from TS1130. For more details on encryption performance characteristics, refer to the TS1130 Tape Drive Performance Whitepaper.
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 3 Performance Evaluation All of the performance benchmarks were run on an IBM System x Model 3755 The TS1140 Tape Drive is backward running Linux Suse 11. An 8-Gbps PCI-E FC host bus adapter (HBA) was used format and media compatible with its to connect to the tape drives. The results in the following charts reflect 3592 predecessor, and introduces a measurements made on both Emulex and Qlogic 8-Gbps HBAs. new higher density format that increases both data rate and capacity The majority of the performance benchmark tests examine the relative on the same 3592 media. performance of the different TS1140 Tape Drive read/write format/media options. The TS1140 has the following media/format support: • G4-JC: Gen4 write/read format with JC-type media. This is the new Gen-4 32-channel logical format supported for write, append or read operations with the new JC/JY/JK media types • G4-JB: Gen4 write/read format with JB-type media. This is the new Gen-4 32-channel logical format supported for write, append or read operations on legacy JB and JX media types • G3-JB: Gen3 write/read format with JB-type media. This is the legacy Gen-3 (TS1130) 16-channel logical format supported for write, append or read operations on legacy JB and JX media types • G2-JB: Gen2 write/read format with JB-type media. This is the legacy Gen-2 (TS1120) 16-channel logical format supported for read-only operations on legacy JB and JX media types. The performance of this mode was not included in the scope of this report • G1/G2/G3-JA: Gen1, Gen-2, and Gen-3 write/read formats with JA- type media. JA-type media (JA/JJ/JW/JR) is not currently supported on the TS1140, but support may be available in post-GA releases for read operations from these formats/media types. Please consult your IBM representative for more details. The performance of this mode was not included in the scope of this report In addition, some of the evaluation charts shown in this whitepaper also include results from the TS1130 Tape Drive with JB media. These results will be labeled TS1130 or TS1130-JB in the charts.
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 4 Maximum Read/Write Performance The TS1140 Tape Drive maximum The following chart compares the maximum streaming read and write streaming read and write data rates performance of the three test modes mentioned above for the TS1140 with the show a clear performance TS1130. Four different files with different compression characteristics were enhancement for each format and tested with known 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and maximum (95:1) compression ratios. The media type over the TS1130 Tape chart shows a clear performance improvement for the first two read/write modes Drive data rates. of the TS1140 over the TS1130 at all compression ratios, and similar or better (at high compression ratios) of the G3-JB throughput over the TS1130. The reason the TS1140 Tape Drive performance is so much better at high compression than the TS1130 Tape Drive is, in part, due to the greater throughput of the 8 Gbps FC attachment over the 4Gbps FC attachment of the TS1130. TS1140 Maximum Data Rates 800.0 700.0 Data Rate (MB/s) 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 1:1 Read 2:1 Read 3:1 Read Max 1:1 Write 2:1 Write 3:1 Write Max Read Write G4-JC G4-JB G3-JB TS1130-JB Streaming Write Performance The TS1140 Tape Drive streaming The following three charts detail the streaming write data rate performance at write data rates reflect the expected varying block sizes (from .5 KB to 512 KB) and varying compression ratios differences when accounting for (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, Maximum) for each of the three TS1140 write format/media block size and compression ratios modes. at each of the four format/media options.
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 5 TS1140 Write Data Rates - JC Media G4 Format 700 600 500 max 400 3:1 300 2:1 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 TS1140 Write Data Rates - JB Media G4 Format 700 600 500 max 400 3:1 300 2:1 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 6 TS1140 Write Data Rates - JB Media G3 Format 700 600 500 max 400 3:1 300 2:1 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 Streaming Read Performance The TS1140 Tape Drive streaming As with the write charts, the following three charts detail the streaming read data read data rates reflect the expected rate performance at varying block sizes (from .5 KB to 512 KB) and varying differences when accounting for compression ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, Maximum) for each of the four TS1140 read block size and compression ratios format/media modes. at each of the four format/media options. TS1140 Read Data Rates JC Media G4 Format 700 600 500 max 400 3:1 300 2:1 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 7 TS1140 Read Data Rates - JB Media G4 Format 700 600 500 max 400 3:1 300 2:1 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 TS1140 Read Data Rates - JB Media G3 Format 800 700 600 max 500 3:1 400 2:1 300 1:1 200 100 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 8 Tape Capacity The following chart displays native (uncompressible data) capacity Due to the higher density of the measurements for the TS1140 Tape Drive. The chart shows the capacity for the Gen4 format used with the TS1140 three format/media modes compared with the TS1130 Tape Drive. Included here Tape Drive, tape capacity is are JC, JB, and JK media written in G4 format. considerably enhanced for both JC and JB media. TS1140 Capacity 4.5 4 4.021 3.5 Capacity (TB) 3 2.5 2 1.5 1.608 1 1.06 1.005 0.5 0.503 0 G4-JC G4-JB G3-JB JK TS1130-JB Tape Media Tape Locate Performance The TS1140 Tape Drive’s 12.4 m/s The following two charts show the average and maximum locate times for the tape speed results in excellent TS1140 Tape Drive for the JC, JB, and JK tape media. They also show the average and maximum “locate to locate times for a 20% scaled JC media. block” times. BOT locate means the time for the drive starting at the beginning of the tape to a random location on the tape. To determine the average and maximum times, locates were made to many random locations on a completely filled tape. TS1140 BOT Locate Times 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 JC Seconds 50.0 JB 40.0 JK 30.0 JC20% 20.0 10.0 0.0 Avg BOT Locate Max BOT Locate
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 9 Random locate means the time for the drive starting at some random location on a tape to another random location on the tape. To determine the average and maximum times, locates were made from/to many random locations on a completely filled tape. TS1140 Random Locate Times 70.0 60.0 50.0 JC Seconds 40.0 JB 30.0 JK JC20% 20.0 10.0 0.0 Avg Random Locate Max Random Locate Tape Rewind Performance The TS1140 Tape Drive features In addition to locate performance, rewind performance is also exceptional in the excellent rewind performance, also TS1140 Tape Drive by using the superior 12.4 m/s maximum tape speed. The due to the superior 12.4 m/s tape following chart shows the excellent average and maximum (nominal) rewind speed. performance times of the TS1140 Tape Drive. Similar to the locate times above, the rewind times were determined by locating first to many random block locations on the tape, then measuring the rewind time back to the beginning of tape. TS1140 Rewind Times 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 JC Seconds JB 40.0 JK 30.0 JC20% 20.0 10.0 0.0 Avg Rewind Max Rewind
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 10 Cartridge Load/Unload Performance Cartridge load and unload times are The following chart displays the Load and Unload times for the TS1140 Tape similar for the TS1140 when Drive with JC, JB, and JK media. compared with the TS1130 Tape Drive. TS1140 Load/Unload Times 25.0 20.0 Seconds 15.0 Load Unload 10.0 5.0 0.0 G4-JC G4-JB G3-JB JK Format/Media
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 11 FastSync and SkipSync Performance Fast Sync and Skip Sync performance The function known as ‘virtual backhitch’ improves performance by minimizing for the TS1140 Tape Drive is the effects of start/stop write processing (tape synchronizing events). Virtual enhanced due to the better data rate Backhitch, also called FastSync or recursive accumulating backhitchless flush performance over the TS1130. (RABF), can greatly improve write performance through backhitch reduction. This function is more fully described in a separate white paper listed in the appendix matter. In short, by temporarily reserving portions of physical tape for cache areas, virtual backhitching can significantly improve the average write throughput to tape with synchronized data transactions. The chart below illustrates the usage of the FastSync function for both the TS1140 and TS1130 Tape Drives, displaying the relative data rates and the FastSync invocations for each. It is clear from the chart that at most dataset sizes, the TS1140 features improved performance over the TS1130. In addition, the chart shows the effect of a function introduced with the TS1130 called SkipSync. Briefly explained, SkipSync turns on when FastSync turns off (at or just under 200 MB transaction size) and, rather than backhitch after a sync operation, continues the tape forward motion until more data is received from the host, in effect trading a small amount of tape capacity for an increase in data rate performance. The drive does this only when it determines the time to receive data after a sync operation is small enough that it will have a minimal effect on tape capacity – not to exceed a 2% capacity penalty. As shown in the chart, the sync data rate performance when SkipSync is invoked can be greater than three times the normal data rate. TS1140 Fast Sync/Skip Sync Performance JC Media 240 200 Data Rate (MB/s) 160 TS1140 120 TS1130 80 40 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Transaction Size (MB)
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 12 Backhitchless Backspacing Performance The ‘backhitchless backspacing’ function improves performance by minimizing Backhitchless Backspacing the effects of writing/re-writing multiple trailer labels. Backhitchless performance is enhanced in the backspacing can help greatly improve write performance by virtualizing some TS1140 Tape Drive for transaction backspace operations while in FastSync mode, allowing these operations to be sizes from 1-200 MB when compared processed logically rather than physically. with the TS1130 Tape Drive. This function is more fully described in a separate white paper listed in the appendix matter. As described in the previous section, compared with the TS1130 Tape Drive the TS1140 enhances performance by a general increase in the data rate performance. TS1140 Backhitchless Backspacing Performance 70 60 Data Rate (MB/s) 50 40 TS1140 30 TS1130 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Transaction Size (MB)
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 13 Conclusion The introduction of the award winning TS1120 encrypting tape drive brought the industry’s first fully encrypting data drive with high levels of security to small, medium and large businesses alike. The TS1130 Tape Drive incorporated all the features of the TS1120 with major performance enhancements to most of those features. A native data rate improvement of 60%, increase in cartridge capacity to 1 TB with JB media, and better transaction processing performance due, in part, to a larger data buffer and functional enhancements made the TS1130 a very successful next step to the family of IBM tape drives. Now, with the release of the TS1140 Tape Drive, IBM has taken the next major step in that family of enterprise level tape drives. A huge capacity jump from 1 TB to 4 TB on new media, native data rate improvement of over 56% with an even greater increase in throughput of compressible data, legacy media support at higher capacity and performance, and further performance enhancements to small and large file processing make the TS1140 a very worthy addition to the IBM 3592 family of enterprise level tape drives.
IBM System Storage™ TS1140 Tape DrivePerformance WhitepaperPage 14 References IBM System Storage TS1130 Tape Drive Non Volatile Caching Whitepaper Christine Knibloe, IBM Performance Analyst IBM System Storage TS1130 Controller Performance Whitepaper Stella Lee, IBM Performance Analyst IBM TotalStorage 3592 Tape Drive Model J1A Performance Whitepaper Justin Hildebrandt, Program Director, IBM Tape Marketing IBM System Storage TS1120 Tape Drive Encryption Performance Whitepaper Lloyd Wiebe, IBM Performance Analyst IBM System Storage TS1130 Tape Drive Performance Whitepaper Lloyd Wiebe, IBM Performance Analyst TS1140 IBM Enterprise Tape Drive – Technology, Feature, and Function Overview James Karp, IBM Development Engineer
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