At the UN climate talks in Durban in December 2011, Parties to the Convention agreed that finance for REDD+ that is new, additional and predictable may come from ‘a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources.’ The decision noted that ‘appropriate market-based approaches’ and ‘non-market based approaches’ could be developed. At COP 18 in Doha, Parties are expected to make a final decision on ‘results based financing’ for REDD+, yet there is considerable confusion around the definition and applicability of what constitutes an ‘appropriate’ market-based approach, and how a non-market approach would be funded.CP 17, dec 2, Para 65Paras 65 and 66Fault lines on finance – no definition of what are results based actions, or what appropriate market-based approaches are.Brazil – appropriate means no offsetsBolivia – non-market approachNorway: “payments in phase 3 based on quantified emissions reductions”Current REDD approach (and funds) seen as a ‘bridge’ to post 2020 compliance forest markets
Expectations for future REDD+ funding: Verified Emissions Reductions – tons of carbon
New incentive structureEstablish REDD+ results framework that is: SimpleCost-effectiveDirectly linked to the actions that are needed on the ground to halt forest loss
Kate Dooley FERN
REDD+: expectations for Doha Kate Dooley FERN Copenhagen, November 8, 2012Une ONG œuvrant pour une plus grande justice sociale et environnementale, en sefocalisant sur les forêts et les droits des populations de ces régions au sein des politiques etdes pratiques de lUnion européenne.
UNFCCC – Durban to Doha• MRV and National forest monitoring Measuring, reporting, verification• Reference levels - Country led; review panel expected to further define review process• Safeguards System for providing information (SIS)• Finance Variety of finance sources anticipated
REDD+ Finance‘’a wide variety of sources,public and private, bilateraland multilateral, includingalternative sources.’ ‘appropriate market-basedapproaches’ and „non-market based approachescould be developed.
Consensus„Parties should collectively aim to slow, halt and reverse forestcover and carbon loss… consistent with the ultimate objectiveof the Convention, as stated in its Article 2‟To achieve lasting reduction in deforestation/degradation:• good governance• address drivers of deforestation and degradation• protect natural forests• strengthen land tenure, respect rights
REDD+ today: what is happening?• Establishing systems for MRV of carbon (~40% of readiness costs + human resources)• Lack of action on “consensus” topics• “Conditionality” concerns over safeguards• Land tenure reforms not given priority• Rights not upheld
FCPF Readiness Plan Budgets REDD Strategy 27% Implementation39% Framework Management & Consultations Social & 6% Environmental Reference Scenario 10% 16% MRV System 3%
Results based actions5 years of REDD+ in UNFCCC: Reassess our approach?• Incentive structure and expectations of future funding streams guide action today• Future demand for VERs sufficient to get adequate REDD+ funding?• How accurate MRV of emissions do we need?Mis-allocation of scarce resources• Carbon MRV does not contribute towards achieving result – only a tool for assessing performance
Proposal: align performance to „consensus‟ actionsREDD+ results based payments should be built onthe actions we know will workDefine performance as a wider set of parameters –reflecting areas where we need progress• governance• social• environment – incl. reduced emissions
Broader incentive structure• A package of performance• Nationally developed indicators• Low-cost approach; synergies with existing systems – Harmonise with existing reporting requirements: such as HR, CBD, FAO – Integral part of National Forest Monitoring System; builds on Safeguards Information System10
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