Borneo is the third largest island in the world (~750k km2); it is divided into Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia & MalaysiaThe majority of indigenous peoples of Borneo are called DayakLand Dayak or Bidayuh come from south Sarawak/north Kalimatan Barat
In Occidental cultures, knowledge (in particular, scientific knowledge) is presented in opposition to practice (science vs. technology) and the rational is presented in opposition to the spiritual (science vs. religion).
Indigenous knowledge focuses on elements of significance for local livelihoods, security and well-being, and as a result is essential for climate change adaptation
Jennifer Rubis JOAS
HOW TO ENSURE THAT REDD+DELIVERS THE FULL RANGE OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CO-BENEFITSJen Rubis, JOAS | Not seeing the forest and people for the carbon | 8 November | Copenhagen
THE WHAT OF LAND MANAGEMENTLand Type Definition • Tell which continent Jagoi)Tolun tana’ Territory (e.g. Tolun tanahTu’anyour country Jungle Primary is locatedObud on and whichand secondary jungle, usually denoted as a place where spirits Primary reside countries are its designated for cremation, burial. Includes area where theyTinungan Area in the jungle neighbors. wood for cremation collectTiboie Area under secondary growth, not yet fit for cultivationDamon Area under secondary growth fit for cultivationUmoh Padi fieldLison Orchards (fruit trees)Toyak Gardens (e.g. vegetable gardens, cash crop gardens, corn fields etc)Kupuo Village
HOW LAND IS MANAGED• Signs from the spirits, as interpreted by birds and animals tell us which lands can or cannot be used for cultivation• The process of listening is called ‘ngawah’ – involves going to the area intended for farming, clearing a small area and marking it with two bamboo sticks. Omen birds and other signs (falling trees, emerging worms, snakes, barking deer) are to be observed and heard. The combination of dreams and signs are then interpreted by the farmer or an expert. When signs point to dangers like floods, increased pests and fungus, rituals are carried out to mitigate these threats. – Bokah buku – Altar for offerings. Serikin, Bau. Photo by: Patau Rubis, 2010 – Geriak & Kutieng –
THE WHEN OF LAND MANAGEMENTTask Adat, RitualDecision making on land used Omens to determine whether land is favourable for farming that year. (Bird • Tell about the typicalCutting undergrowth calls) Omens guide individual farmers in whether the days are appropriate to go to weather patterns in the field or stay at home (presence of birds, animals). Bans on eating certain types of food as well as hunting animals in the area. your countryFelling trees/bamboo throughout theBurning cut growth, clearing away After burning, nyipotih may be made in reparation for destroying the spirits’remains, adding fertility to the soil land calendar year. New seed is blessedand reducing pestsPlanting seed GaweaFencing and building farm shelter August/September(as necessary)Weeding and cutting grass Gawea Pak may be performed in the period before ripening to limit the damage due to pestsHarvesting padiThreshing, drying and winnowingpadiTransporting padi from the farm Gawea Pali Pu’un is performed before eating the new rice to ensure that thehuts to the village house and elders do not fall sickstoring itCommunity rests Gawea Sowa, communal rice harvest festival
• This landscape is more than a reservoir of detailed ecological knowledge or a setting in which they satisfy their nutritional needs. It is also a repository for the memory of past events, a vast mnemonic representation of social relationships and of society. (Brosius, 2005)
HISTORY OF YOUR COUNTRYName of Name of Name of Name of Name of Name ofEvent 1 Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5 Event 61st date 2nd date 3rd date 4th date 5th date 6th dateDescription Description Description Description Description Descriptionof event of event of event of event of event of event
ENVIRONMENT OF YOUR COUNTRY• Describe some of the native animals and plants that can be seen in your country.
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE• A cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes, and handed down through generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment. (Berkes, 2012) – These knowledge systems are transmitted and renewed by each succeeding generation – ensure the well-being of people around the globe by providing food security from hunting, fishing, gathering, pastoralism or small-scale agriculture – healthcare, clothing, shelter and strategies for coping with environmental fluctuations and external forces of change• Science, technology, belief, social organization, spirituality, rites combine with a holistic understanding of the environment
WEATHERING UNCERTAINTY: KEYFINDINGS • Indigenous observations and interpretations of meteorological phenomena have guided seasonal and inter-annual activities of local communities for millennia. • This knowledge contributes to climate science: – by offering observations and interpretations at a much finer spatial scale with great temporal depth; – by highlighting observations that may not normally be considered by climate scientists; – by focusing adaptation efforts on indigenous-defined priorities.
WEATHERING UNCERTAINTY:CONCLUSIONSThe transformations brought about by global climate changewill surpass the lived experience of everyone, includingindigenous peoples.• Nevertheless, indigenous peoples and local communities have been confronted with environmental variability and unpredictability for millennia.• Indigenous knowledge and knowledge-based practice provide a solid foundation for indigenous resilience in the face of change.Environmental policy decisions, both in climate change andbiodiversity, should be informed by the best availableknowledge, including indigenous knowledge.
• REDD+ -- local action, nationally monitored, for global benefits; acknowledging complex issues that need to be addressed but urging action; intergovernmental agreement with diverse & multiple financing sources – What gets lost in translation across knowledge systems, cultures and scales?• International standards and principles can ensure the inclusion of diverse perspectives but… – Dangers of reductionism and approaches that overlook heterogeneity – “According to national circumstance” • burden of struggle back to local communities and national organizations
QUESTIONS TO ASK• How can indigenous knowledge be [integrated] in REDD+ policy and decision-making? – Information systems related to safeguards – Contribution to MRV systems • Monitoring carbon, monitoring drivers• How can indigenous expertise and experience be a part of REDD+ policy and decision-making? – “Facilitators” – diversity of roles that indigenous peoples and organizations can play • International standards need understanding at national level – Support and embrace, not marginalize diversity of views
HOW TO ENSURE THAT REDD+ DELIVERS THE FULL RANGE OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CO-BENEFITS• How to facilitate the inclusion of indigenous knowledge in REDD+? – Participation; indigenous peoples and communities as ACTORS, more than beneficiaries – Need to create spaces of engagement and methodologies that can cross cultures, scales and provide an enabling environment – Flexible policy and programming that take into account holistic nature and multiple ways of knowing “United in struggle” Indigenous Peoples Network of Malaysia (JOAS)
TERIMA KASIH• firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com• To download “Weathering Uncertainty” www.ipmpcc.org• Borneo Independent News Service FB page