First of all I would like to thank the organisers for this opportunity to present our work in Cambodia. I should mention that this work started out as a conservation project on threatened tree species. Developed into a REDD project with field work aiming at measuring carbon stocks. In the process, gave some interesting results relating to ecology and livelihoods too. At a time where REDD seems to be at coalition course with social safeguards globally, I hope this study will show that indigenous peoples and REDD practitioners may still find common goals.
Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in SE Asia and remains one of the countries with the highest forest cover in the Indochina bioregion. However, due to its traumatic history, few systematic collections of Cambodia’s flora and fauna have been undertaken, our understanding of these forests is cursory. Previous studies were published primarily by French botanists during the first half of the 20th century, and usually in the form of forest species lists, and floristic treatments. Very few ecological studies are available from Cambodia to document plant communities and ecology. The recent history of Cambodian forestry has been turbulent. Following a decade of anarchy and rampant corruption in the forestry sector a logging ban was put in place in 2002. This represents a huge opportunity for the people of Cambodia as to which way forward: Resume industrial logging, large scale conversion of forest (Economic Land Concessions), embrace community forestry or forest protection possibly including REDD+
Likewise, little information is available on forest products and their importance. What we do know: 1. Most households rely on forest products to some extent. 2. Often up to 30% of HH incomes is from forests. 3. Poverty coincides with forested areas Resin important forest product. For waterproofing boats and basketry, varnishes, laquers and paint. Perfume industry as fixation agent. SHOW hard resin! Liquid resin highly inflammable and airlines are not happy if I bring on the plane. But it is dark and sticky.
Study area is central lowlands which is covered by lowland evergreen forests. Using remote sensing the area is characterised as evergreen forest. The forest area is presently divided into 6 suspended logging concessions. Largest intact lowland rain forest in Indochina.
Based on literature review, interviews key informants and resin tappers we made assumptions on prices and yields. Liquid and solid resin. In some cases tapping starts in trees 30 cm dbh but we made a conservative estimate calculating from trees dbh 45cm and up.
First results ecological: what appeared to be homogenous forest based on RS actually turned out to be four distinct forest types. Huge variation in abundance of resin trees. From none to 25 resin producing trees/ha (>45 cm dbh). Floristic composition has huge implications for resin incomes per ha. Tall dipteraocarp forest and Riverine forest most interesting
More than 300 tree species recorded from these forests, shown in X-axis. Columns show abundance of species per hectar in tall Dipterocarp and Riverine forest. Resin producing species (blue columns) are common in both forest types but less so in Riverine forest.
Even though species are common not all individuals can be harvested. Trees must have a certain size in order to be tapped. We can turned to our plot data to estimate number of productive individuals. Cut of at 30 or 45 cm. We use 45 cm as cut off for a conservative estimate.
Using these data we calculated potential income/ha for species in the two forest types. Shown with standard errors. For thosse of you familiar Same species as loggers prefer. Precious timbers. It is also the species of the IUCN RED LIST. Of more recent concern: pan-tropical study shows that 50% of carbon stocks in Asia and Africa are in the BIG trees.
One surprising result is that income from solid resin is almost totally overlooked in literature. According to our data this means a considerable underestimate of potential and actual resin incomes. The potential resin incomes/ha of 50/ha should be compared to an optimistic estimate of a Government Revenue of 10 $/ha/year for logging (NFP 2010). Historically, it has been 3-4 $/ha. CIFOR and other studies on expected REDD+ returns to communities: 0.25-2.25 USD/ha). Prey Long REDD+ Feasibility study gave an estimated 2 $/ha. A traditional non-destructive use of forest products superceeds those incomes by far!
Ecological side: Our study shows a heterogeneous complex of forest types. Subtle differences in floristic composition translates into large differences in carbon stocks and use values for locals. Livelihoods side: data is lacking on yields per species/size class. Labour input, transport expenses. We hope to show that field-work has its role in relation to REDD+. Planning solely based on remote sensing and capacity building in Ministries will miss out important stories and not be able to deliver on Safeguard Information Systems. In our case carbon stocks, livelihoods, and biodiversity tied to very same trees making a good case for REDD.
I would like to present two future scenarios for Prey Long. In April, map of ELCs published. Prey Long is one of the few forested areas not handed over to concessionnaires. (red=ELCs, blue=mining, purple=annual coupe, green=forest plantations) At the same time Prey Long was proposed as Protected Forest. Being reviewed by Ministry of Agriculture). In May, following the murder of forest activist Chut Wutty, Hun Sen temporarily suspended new Economic Land Concessions. REDD+ cannot compete with rubber income/ha. But forests have other values. Prey Long is 1 of the 2 most important watersheds in Camodia. It supports not only biodiversity but cultural diversity, -its a way of life for the Kuy, the indigenous peoples of Prey Long.
A growing popular movement is calling for the protection of Prey Long through demonstrations in Phnom Penh. Since then, FA and communities have held numerous consultations under the heading of REDD+ in Prey Long. A lady said, when asked about REDD, that she thought it was a temple in the forest. REDD is this big thing which has not materialised and yet it is everywhere and in many forms. As for the Avatars from Prey Long - It is what we make of it. In the case of Prey Long, carbon stocks in the form of standing trees, local livelihoods, and REDD+ goes hand in hand. What is urgently needed is money for implementation.
Simon Lægaard, a MSc student here at LIFE, conducted socio-economic surveys in 2010. He estimated household incomes from liquid resin as 600 – 1400 $/year. In a country where almost 20% live below the poverty line of 2.25 $/day, resin collection provides substantial incomes. About 80 % of HHs are involved in resin collection. For many household the only cash income. Combining household surveys with ecological data, we could estimate number of hectares needed per household in order to provide the number of trees stated as owned/tapped ~10-50 ha. Numbers are similar to those found in anouther study from the Northeast (WCS 2003).
Ida Theilade University of Copenhagen
REDD+ in Prey Long, Cambodia -more than just carbon Ida Theilade, University of Copenhagen Henrik Meilby, University of Copenhagen Simon Bjarke Læssøe Lægaard, University of Copenhagen
Background• Cambodia has a relatively high forest cover (~50%).• Few systematic collections of Cambodia’s flora.• Very few ecological studies on Cambodia’s complex plant communities and vegetation dynamics.• To reverse the trend of forest degradation a logging moratorium was put in place in 2002. All logging concessions (3.4 mill. ha.) remain at a halt. Lack of planning and management in large areas of the forest reserve.
Background90 % of Cambodian households depend on forest resourcesto some extent (National Forest Programme 2010).Forest resources account for 15-30% of householdconsumption and income (PEN data 2012).Many forest dependent households are poor(The Atlas of Cambodia 2007).Resin from dipterocarps an importantforest product providing households anincome of 600-1200 USD/year (Lægaard2010).
Aim of the studyTo estimate potential value of forests to local resin collectorsby combining ecological and socio-economic surveys
Study Area Evergreen forests in central lowlands Cambodia 4 villagesLand use map Cambodia (JICA 2002)
MethodsEcological surveys in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012.•Checklists of plants•98 plots of 50x10 m•Trees > 10 cm DBHSocio-economic survey in 2010•Interviews with 32 households in 4 villages•Literature review on resin yields and prices•Participant observation and key informants
AssumptionsTrees >45 cm Minimum yield Maximum yieldDBHLiquid resin 22.5 l/tree/year 31 l/tree/yearSolid resin 20 kg/tree/year 50 kg/tree/yearPrice of liquid 0.3 USD/liter 0.3 USD/literand solid resin 0.3 USD/kg 0.3 USD/kg
Abundance resin producing species 60 50 Tall Dipterocarp forestMean density (ha) -1 40 30 20 10 0 Species 50 40 Riverine forestMean density (ha) -1 30 20 10 0 Species
A ni so pt -1 D er Mean density (ha) ip a te co ro st D ca at a 0 10 20 30 40 50 ip te rp us Ko 60 ro r th ca al . rp at us us co R ox st b. H at op us ea R od oxV or b. at S > 45 cm ic ho at a a 10-30 cm 30-45 cm re R Riverine forest od a ox or gu b. at is a o (G B rif lu f.) m S e ym A in ni gt so on pt er D a ip co te st ro D ca at a ip rp te us Ko ro r th ca al at . rp us us co R ox st H at b. op us ea R od oxV or b. at ic S at a ho a od re R or a ox at gu b. a is o (G B rif lu f.) m S e Size of resin-producing species ym in Tall evergreen Dipterocarp gt on
A ni so Potential gross income (USD/ha) D pt ip er te aD ro co ip 100 150 200 250 50 0 ca st te rp at ro us a ca rp al us at us co H st op at ea us od S or ho at re a V a at gu ic is a o od or Minimum yields A Maximum yields at a Riverine forest (evergreen) ni so D pt ip er te aD ro co ip ca st te rp at ro us a ca rp al us at us co H st op at ea us od S ho ora re ta V a at gu ic is a o od or at a Tall evergreen Dipterocarp Potential income/ha by forest type/species (>45 cm)
Potential income/ha by resin type (>45 cm) 500 Riverine forest (evergreen) Tall evergreen DipterocarpPotential gross income (USD/ha/year) 400 300 Minimum yields Maximum yields 200 100 0 Liquid Solid Total Liquid Solid Total Resin type
Conclusion• Prey Long heterogeneous complex of forest types. Vegetation maps based on satelite images needs to be field-checked.• Vegetation types have different use values (not just carbon).• Lack of data to calculate net household income• Understanding plant diversity and distribution and forest incomes is necessary to deliver on REDD+ safeguard information systems (livelihoods and biodiversity).
The alternative to REDD+ ?Land Concessions Protected Forest REDD+ By 2012, more than 2 million hectares of land, mostly forest, granted by the government to private companies Land concessions have been the focus of allegations of land- grabbing by big businessmen tied to corrupt officials and triggered violent clashes when residents were forcefully evicted.
Thank you WWF Novozymes Blue Moon Fund Conservation International and People of Spong, Dong, Kaes, Choam SvayPhoto: Allan Michaud
Income from resin-collection (liquid) A household owns A household uses Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Trees (n) 124 153 88 153 Riverine Dipteroc Area of Area of forest arp for. For dbh>30 cm (ha) 16.5 20.4 11.7 20.4 For dbh>45 cm (ha) 19.8 24.5 14.1 24.5 For dbh>30 cm (ha) 16.8 20.8 11.9 20.8 For dbh>45 cm (ha) 39.3 48.4 27.9 48.4 Resin yield (l/tree/year) 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 Minimum yield Price (USD/litre) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Income (USD/tree/year) 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.75 Income (USD/year) 837 1033 594 1033 Maximum Resin yield (l/tree/year) 31 31 31 31 yield Price (USD/litre) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Income (USD/tree/year) 9.30 9.30 9.30 9.30 Income (USD/year) 1153 1423 818 1423Source: Simon Lægaard 2010