Interdisciplinarity and complexity asopportunities for research innovation in  Health and Biomedical Informatics   50 year...
Health & Biomedical Informatics                                Challenges•  Medicineincreasingly relies on advances in oth...
3
New trends in Medicine•  Genomic (molecular, personalized) medicine•  Regenerative medicine/tissue engineering seeks to  d...
Partnership
•  In this context, highly multidisciplinary and complex, one could feel easily overwhelmed or might consider it as an opp...
Complexity
A Definition of Complexity“Complexity is that property of a model which makes it difficult to formulate its overall behavi...
Complexity•  These factors are having another very important effect,   consisting of a very sharp increase of complexity: ...
Negative aspects
It can be reduced
People get used to complexity – It can work
But complexity is a Sciencehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ad/Complexity-map_castellani.jpg
Pathways and regulatory networks in biology
Complex diseases, environmental and geneticrisk factors                             Ashley et al. The                     ...
Clinical utility gene cards
From GWAS to EWAS                      Environment-Wide                      Association Study                      on Typ...
Our projects  Information retrieval - DiseaseCard     Knowledge Management 2.0 - BIKMASGenetic–CPGs – With UPM - Infogenme...
Interdisciplinarity
Amazing news!!!
Disciplins in Biomedicine•  It’s not the object of study, but how we look at it.•  Physics (radiation, ultrasound, materia...
“The Nanoscope”   i.e.:                                                                   i.e.:   DNA                     ...
Nanomedicine and regenerative medicine•  Data on patient (MI)     –  (in ePHR): Data on loss of function, status of immuno...
Interdisciplinarity•  Intradisciplinary analysis involves work within a single   discipline•  Crossdisciplinary activity v...
Measuring interdisciplinarity•  It can be measured, mapped and compared•  18 macro-disciplines of Science, from ISI (2007)
Measuring interdisciplinarity•  It can be measured, mapped and compared      Rafols, I., Porter, A.L. and Leydesdorff, L. ...
The value of interdisciplinarity•  Probably the major disservice that experts provide in confronting the problems of manki...
Biomedical Informatics: Biomedical Information                                               processing from particle to p...
HBI and the Convergence of technologies
HBI and the Convergence of technologies
From reductionism to integrative thinking                              Molecules                              Cells       ...
Conclusions•  One of the main challenges for our discipline in the  coming years is to facilitate and promote interdiscipl...
Thank you for your attention!© Copyright The University of Melbourne 2011
Interdisciplinarity and complexity as opportunities for research innovation in health and biomedical informatics
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Interdisciplinarity and complexity as opportunities for research innovation in health and biomedical informatics

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In June this year, Prof Martin-Sanchez traveled to Heidelberg, Germany to represent HBIR and University of Melbourne participating in a three day scientific symposium "Biomedical Informatics: Confluence of Multiple Disciplines”.
These are the slides from the presentation he gave to the symposium.

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Interdisciplinarity and complexity as opportunities for research innovation in health and biomedical informatics

  1. 1. Interdisciplinarity and complexity asopportunities for research innovation in Health and Biomedical Informatics 50 years MIM Symposium – 10 June 2011 Fernando J. Martin-Sanchez Professor and Chair of Health Informatics Melbourne Medical School Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences &Director, Centre for Health and Biomedical Informatics Research (CeHBIR)
  2. 2. Health & Biomedical Informatics Challenges•  Medicineincreasingly relies on advances in other scientific and technological disciplines (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Engineering, Nanotechnology..)•  Thereare trends in biomedical research that pose new challenges in terms of information processing•  Newdata types (extremely complex and heterogeneous) are being generated at an unprecedented pace
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. New trends in Medicine•  Genomic (molecular, personalized) medicine•  Regenerative medicine/tissue engineering seeks to develop functional cell, tissue, and organ substitutes to repair, replace or enhance biological function that has been lost due to congenital abnormalities, injury, disease, or aging. NIH Definition, NIBIB, June 2004•  NanoMedicine – Use of nanoscale tools and components for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and for understanding their pathophysiology. European Science Foundation, Nov. 2005
  5. 5. Partnership
  6. 6. •  In this context, highly multidisciplinary and complex, one could feel easily overwhelmed or might consider it as an opportunity for research innovation in HBI.
  7. 7. Complexity
  8. 8. A Definition of Complexity“Complexity is that property of a model which makes it difficult to formulate its overall behaviour in a given language, even when there is reasonably complete information about its atomic components and their inter-relations”. Bruce Edmonds, Univ. of Manchester , 1999
  9. 9. Complexity•  These factors are having another very important effect, consisting of a very sharp increase of complexity: –  available knowledge about diseases, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, –  the environment in which we work (health care levels, jurisdictions, management models), –  multiple stressing forces (aging population, increasing number of chronic patients, sustainability of the system, legal regulation).•  All these elements are also reflected in the complexity of the information space in which we have to carry out our work as well as in the systems that we have to design and develop.
  10. 10. Negative aspects
  11. 11. It can be reduced
  12. 12. People get used to complexity – It can work
  13. 13. But complexity is a Sciencehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ad/Complexity-map_castellani.jpg
  14. 14. Pathways and regulatory networks in biology
  15. 15. Complex diseases, environmental and geneticrisk factors Ashley et al. The Lancet, Volume 375, Issue 9725, Pages 1525 - 1535, 1 May 2010
  16. 16. Clinical utility gene cards
  17. 17. From GWAS to EWAS Environment-Wide Association Study on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 266 environmental Factors Future: combined GWAS-EWAS? Patel et al. 2010 PloS One
  18. 18. Our projects Information retrieval - DiseaseCard Knowledge Management 2.0 - BIKMASGenetic–CPGs – With UPM - Infogenmed Education – Genome Game
  19. 19. Interdisciplinarity
  20. 20. Amazing news!!!
  21. 21. Disciplins in Biomedicine•  It’s not the object of study, but how we look at it.•  Physics (radiation, ultrasound, materials, electrical signals)•  Chemistry (Molecules)•  Biology (Genes and proteins)•  Histology (Images from cells and tissue)•  Anatomy (organs and the whole body)•  Clinical Sciences (Symptoms, effect of treatments)•  Psychology (behaviour, cognitive signs)•  Public Health (aggregated data from populations, environmental factors)
  22. 22. “The Nanoscope” i.e.: i.e.: DNA Transdermal ultrasequencers glucose level monitoring i.e.:Martín-Sanchez et al. “A primer in knowledgemanagement for Nanoinformatics in Medicine”. IOS- Nanosensors forPress Proceedings 12th International Conference onKnowledge-Based Intelligent Information & Radiation, contamination,Engineering Systems KES2008. Toxicity)
  23. 23. Nanomedicine and regenerative medicine•  Data on patient (MI) –  (in ePHR): Data on loss of function, status of immuno-compatibility, tissue characteristics, –  Genomic data through next generation sequencing - whole human genome. –  How to access the complete genome sequence so that it can be part of the EMR. –  Data about the family history of the donor for stem cell therapies•  Data on biomaterials (NI) –  Tissue, material or nano-particle, relevant references about the topic –  Chemical information such as molecules, or –  Physical information such as electromagnetic waves, optical information, electrical signals, acoustic waves, mechanical information (mass, speed, acceleration…).•  Data on biological processes (BI) –  Metabolic pathways, genes, gene expression, protein structure and post-translational changes. –  Genes, hormone and growth factors involved in disease and in regenerative process. –  Optimization of appropriate vectors for specific cell types, including stem and progenitor cells and their use in bioengineered scaffolds and implants;
  24. 24. Interdisciplinarity•  Intradisciplinary analysis involves work within a single discipline•  Crossdisciplinary activity views one discipline from the perspective of another•  Multidisciplinary analysis draws on the knowledge of several disciplines, each of which provides a different perspective on a problem or issue. Each discipline makes a contribution to the overall understanding of the issue, but in a primarily additive fashion.•  Interdisciplinary analysis requires integration of knowledge from the disciplines being brought to bear on an issue. Disciplinary knowledge, concepts, tools, and rules of investigation are combined in such a way that the resulting understanding is greater than simply the sum of its disciplinary parts. Interdisciplinarity: An Introduction Michael Seipel, Ph.D., Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri
  25. 25. Measuring interdisciplinarity•  It can be measured, mapped and compared•  18 macro-disciplines of Science, from ISI (2007)
  26. 26. Measuring interdisciplinarity•  It can be measured, mapped and compared Rafols, I., Porter, A.L. and Leydesdorff, L. (In press, 2010) Overlay Maps of Science: Their Potential Usage in Science Policy and Research Management. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.
  27. 27. The value of interdisciplinarity•  Probably the major disservice that experts provide in confronting the problems of mankind is dividing the problem in little pieces and parceling them out to specialists. . . .•  Although it is undeniable that each specialty has much of importance to say, it is very doubtful that the sum of all these specialized utterances will ever add to a coherent solution, because the problems are not independent and sequential but highly interrelated and simultaneous.•  Someone has to look at the whole, even if it means foregoing full knowledge of all of the parts. Could this be a role for the next generation Herman Daly, Economist of HBI scientists?
  28. 28. Biomedical Informatics: Biomedical Information processing from particle to populationMultilevel modeling, ontologies, data integration, datamining, … Altman RB, Balling R, Brinkley JF, Coiera E, Consorti F, Dhansay MA, Geissbuhler A, Hersh W, Kwankam SY, Lorenzi NM, Martin-Sanchez F, Mihalas GI, Shahar Y, Takabayashi K, Wiederhold G. "Commentaries on Informatics and medicine: from molecules to populations". Methods Inf Med. 2008;47(4):296-317. PMID: 18690363
  29. 29. HBI and the Convergence of technologies
  30. 30. HBI and the Convergence of technologies
  31. 31. From reductionism to integrative thinking Molecules Cells Physiome Tissues Project Organs Systems Biology Physics Convergent By discipline Engineering technologies Nano Chemistry Medical Informatics Biomedical Informatics BioinformaticsReduce complexity Understand systemsby subdividing … Nanoinformat. by integrating knowledge
  32. 32. Conclusions•  One of the main challenges for our discipline in the coming years is to facilitate and promote interdisciplinary work and convergence, but also at the same time reducing complexity.•  Our discipline is in a privileged position to address these challenges from their current central role in the processing of information and knowledge management.•  This perspective can certainly affect the design of educational programs, as well as how we define, develop, implement and evaluate our projects.
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention!© Copyright The University of Melbourne 2011

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