Vilnius pres lesleyanne hawthorne


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Vilnius pres lesleyanne hawthorne

  1. 1. The Ethical Dimensions of InternationalStudent Recruitment and International Research Cooperation Professor Lesleyanne Hawthorne International Association of Universities Vilnius - 2010 International Conference 24-26 June 2010
  2. 2. Decision to Study Internationally:Stage 1 of a Global Career Trajectory?Key drivers (sending and receiving countries):1. Demography2. Capacity-building3. Addressing workforce maldistribution and under-supply4. Domestic skills base versus knowledge economy needs5. Compensation for out-migrationCase studies: ‘Indigenisation’ of Gulf State and select African workforces
  3. 3. Declining Fertility Rates by Select Country2.2: Mexico2.1: US1.9: France1.8: Norway, Australia, UK1.7: Netherlands1.5: Canada1.51.4: Switzerland1.3: Germany, Italy, Spain, Czech Republic, Japan1.1: Republic of Korea0.9: City of Shanghai (recent Asian fertility declines….)Japan: Set to experience a 70% population reduction in 40 years, with more than 40% of citizens aged 65 years or overCanada: Scale of reliance on skilled migrationSource: Health At A Glance 2007 – OECD Indicators (2008), OECD, Paris; Matsutani, M (2008), ‘Radical Immigration Plans Under Discussion’, The Japan Times, 19 June, Tokyo
  4. 4. Top 10 Global Destinations for International Students by 2008 (Higher/ Vocational Education)Destination Country International Students Enrolled in Higher/ Vocational Education1. US 623,805 (2008)2. Australia 389,373 (2008)3. UK 389,330 (2008)4. France 260,596 (2008)5. Germany 246,369 (2007)6. China 223,499 (2008)7. Japan 123,829 (2008)8. Canada 113,996 (2007)9. Singapore 86,000 (2007)10. Malaysia 72,000 (2008)11. South Korea 63,952 (2008)12. New Zealand 39,942 (2007)Source: Compiled from data provided in International Student Mobility: Status Report 2009, V Lasanowski, TheObservatory on Borderless Higher Education, UK, June 2009
  5. 5. FOCUS 1: International Student Demand forBiomedical Training1. Source countries: Prioritisation by field - medicine Scale of government sponsorship Global destinations Risks – return? Outcomes on return - bonded service/ skills transfer? Malaysia medical student case study: Private versus public international flows (Bumiputra policy) Length of service on qualification Medical practice location
  6. 6. International Student Demand forBiomedical Training: The Ethical Context….2. Receiving countries: Differential selection procedures (eg public versus private students) Academic readiness (‘need’ versus ‘merit’) Access and progression (English ability/ academic transition) Student motivation (retention) Source country opportunity (migration) Case studies: Botswana student repatriation (eg from Ireland) Select Gulf States’ scholarship student preparedness (eg New Zealand) Retention (eg private medical students in Australia)
  7. 7. International Student Demand forBiomedical Training: The Ethical Context….3. Third country opportunity: Student motivation for international study Global choices The issue of ‘individual agency’ Private versus sponsored student choices Case study: Singaporean recruitment of private Malaysian medical students qualifying in Australia Pathways to internship and permanent resident status
  8. 8. Select Ethical Challenges –International Medical Student RecruitmentMajor immigrant-receiving countries: Canada Australia UK Issues: Better to recruit and use international students? Better to import fully-qualified migrant professionals? Risk of skills wastage Greater loss to countries which fully-resourced their training
  9. 9. EXAMPLE: Australia’s Level of Reliance on Migrant Professionals by Field (2001 & 2006) Compared to Canada (2001)Occupation 2006 2001 % Overseas-Born % Overseas-Born In Australia In Australia (cf Canada)Engineering 52% 48% (50%)Computing 57% 48% (51%)Medicine 45% 46% (35%)Science 37% (36%)Commerce/ business 40% 36% (27%)Architecture 36% (49%)Accountancy 44% 36% (35%)Arts/ humanities 31% (24%)Nursing 25% 24% (23%)Teaching 25% 20% (15%)Source: 2001 and 2006 Census data analysis, Australia and Canada; The Impact of Economic SelectionPolicy on Labour Market Outcomes for Degree-Qualified Migrants in Canada and Australia, LHawthorne, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Vol 14 No 5, 2008, Ottawa
  10. 10. Australia’s Policy Transformation 1999+:Selection Criteria Favouring International Students g g ion stin nin ect te ee sel age l scr dent ngu ntia l stu and La d e a e ation al dem Cr rn A e Int upa tion RALI T O cc A US CANADA
  11. 11. International Student Response to Skilled Migration Opportunity by 200418,00015,000 Other occupations12,000 Tradespersons 9,000 6,000 Professionals 3,000 Managers 0 Offshore Onshore
  12. 12. International Students as a Migration Resource All Sectors:474,389 (October 2008) Rising to 620,000 (March 2010) 2008 Growth on YTDNationality Enrolments % of Total August 2007China (38% migrate) 112,172 23.6% 18.8%India (66% migrate) 80,291 16.9% 47.4%Republic of Korea 31,667 6.7% 3.6%Malaysia 20,449 4.3% 6.3%Thailand 18,564 3.9% 9.8%Hong Kong 16,827 3.5% -5.0%Nepal 14,605 3.1% 101.8%Indonesia 14,071 3.0% 4.1%Vietnam 13,367 2.8% 62.7%Brazil 12,493 2.6% 26.4%Other Nationalities 139,883 29.5% 9.2%Total Enrolments 474,389 100.0% 18.5%
  13. 13. International Medical Students and Australia’sMigration ‘Critical Skills List’ (2009)ASCO Number Occupation Shortages - Professional2312-11 Anaesthetist2381-11 Dentist4315-11 Electronic Equipment Trades2312-15 Emergency Medicine Specialist2129-17 Engineer - Chemical2124-11 Engineer - Civil2125-11 Engineer - Electrical2125-13 Engineer - Electronics2126-11 Engineer - Mechanical2127-11 Engineer - Mining2126-13 Engineer - Production or Plant Engineer4114-15 Aircraft Maintenance Engineer - Avionics4114-11 Aircraft Maintenance Engineer - Mechanical4431-13 Gasfitter2311-11 General Medical Practitioner2391-11 Medical Diagnostic Radiographer2312-17 Obstetrician & Gynaecologist2383-11 Occupational Therapist2382-11 Pharmacist (Hospital)2382-15 Pharmacist (Retail)2385-11 Physiotherapist2388-11 Podiatrist2312-27 Psychiatrist2122-11 Quantity Surveyor2325-11 Registered Mental Health Nurse2324-11 Registered Midwife2323-11 Registered Nurse2413-11 Secondary School Teacher2312-79 Specialist Medical Practitioners NEC2312-25 Specialist Physician
  14. 14. The Study-Migration Nexus: Outcomes forInternational Medical Students in AustraliaPotential resource:Number (2009): Around 3,000Major sources: Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, Botswana…Sponsorship: Around 30% Ineligible for migration to Australia (ethical bar)Retention: Around 70%
  15. 15. Ethics and Global Policy Experimentation: ‘Two Step’ Student MigrationThe growing OECD model (in the context of demographic shift):1. Facilitating international student entry2. Work rights during study3. Certainty of access to stay on qualifying (with family)4. Liberalisation of field of qualification and sector5. (In select countries) Uncapped immigration categories6. Global promotion (eg British Council, IDP Australia)Finessing ‘the package’: Fast-track access to permanent residence / citizenship
  16. 16. Comparator Countries: Canada’s Level of Relianceon Foreign Health Professionals = 24,315 SkilledCategory Arrivals in 2008Canada 2007 2008Physicians:Temporary 1,498 1,627Permanent 1,137 1,444Nurses:Temporary 576 1,108Permanent 665 853Nurse Assistants/ Live-in Caregivers:Temporary 13,746 12,864Permanent 2,841 4,909Pharmacists/Allied Health:Temporary 218 282Permanent 692 710Dentists:Temporary 69 77Permanent 210 250Dental Technicians:Temporary 84 92Permanent 107 99Source: Table prepared by L Hawthorne based on data purchased from Citizenship andImmigration Canada August 2009
  17. 17. The Canadian Experience Class (September2008+)The new model:1. Prioritises on-shore pathway: Students/ temporary workers2. Category: Skilled class/ all disciplines3. Numbers: Uncapped4. Selection criteria: Tighter than for ‘standard’ skilled migrants (eg English/ French ability)
  18. 18. UK Dependence on Medical and NursingMigration2000: Around 250,000 health and care workers in the UK = foreign- born (nearly six out of ten of foreign nationality) Sixty per cent originated from countries outside the European Economic Area (EEA) 38,560 foreign nurses 27,750 medical practitioners 27,710 care assistantsFive tier migration system: Students – start at Tier 4 Progress to Tier 1 and 2
  19. 19. FOCUS 2: International Student Demand forBiomedical Research Training - The Ethical Context1. Source country priorities: Capacity-building momentum National development funding Sponsorship Demand: University sector, government sector, clinical infrastructure Case study: Singapore: PhD qualified allied health professionals/ hospital needs (eg Changi)/ expansion as global biotech and clinical hub
  20. 20. International Student Demand for BiomedicalResearch Training: The Ethical Context (….)2. Destination countries – capacity to deliver appropriate training? Student selection (‘needs’ versus academic preparedness) English ability Priority fields (driven by home country needs or host country availability?) Differential academic pathways compared to host countries Training mode (onshore versus offshore, split programs) Workplace demands in sponsorship contexts versus study context (skills transferability?) Indonesian case study: Medical education in the context of ‘massification’ Prior training (eg internship access/ nursing clinical training) Work-study pressures (given the necessity to contribute at home) Ethical framework requirements: research projects
  21. 21. International Student Demand for BiomedicalResearch Training: The Ethical Context (….)3. Suitability of PhD training models: Case study: Malaysian split PhD program (UK, Australia) 2+2 years Student selection (versus those awarded ‘full’ overseas PhD programs) Reduced fees (but more complex supervision processes?) Dual supervision (home/ abroad) – availability? adequately matched? Potential challenges: Student movement – beneficial? Research infrastructure - in each country? Work demands in-country - versus study priorities? Supervisory process – potential complexity Host institution - incentives? Students – attraction to stay in more developed research infrastructure?
  22. 22. EXAMPLE: Return Home or Retention? USA and International PhD StudentsOverall international student numbers: 2006- 07: 582,984 ($US14.5 billion industry) 2008-09: 671,616 Top 5 sources: India, China, South Korea, Canada, Japan Growth: +16%, +10%, +10% (past 3 years)Recent policy trends: ‘Claw-back’ New strategic initiatives: China, Morocco, Chile etc ‘Vigorous efforts at the national, state and campus levels…’ including high level global promotional visits Research incentive
  23. 23. Recruitment and Retention of InternationalPhD Students – USADoctoral student enrolments and retention: World PhD student share (13.5% → 28.3% by 2003) Fee access/ cross-subsidisation China, India – 85-95% retention (at least 5 years) Pathways into permanent residence (HIB+ Visa)Case study: National Institutes of Health The demand for lab scientists (‘backbone’) Filling the gap – domestic PhD career trajectoriesSources: Science and Engineering Indicators 2008, National Science Foundation, February, Washington; Marginson, S & Van Der Wende, M (2007), Globalisation and Higher Education, Education Working Paper No 8, Directorate for Education, OECD, Paris; International Students in the United States, Open Doors Report 2007, Institution of International Education (IIE), 13 November 2007, Washington DC; ‘Foreign Scientists at the National Institutes of Health: Ramifications of US Immigration and Labor Policies’, S Diaz-Briquets & C Cheny, International Migration Review Vol 37 No 2, Summer 2003; ‘Immigration in High-Skill Labour Markets: The Impact of Foreign Students on the Earnings of Doctorates’, George J Borjas, Working Paper 12085, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2006; ‘Stay Rates of ForeignDoctorate Recipients From U.S. Universities: 2005’, Michael Finn, Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2007; Open Doors Report (2009), (accessed June 2010)
  24. 24. Ethical Issue 1: Human Resource Use versusWastageEthically better to recruit mature skilled migrants, or train retain students?Case Study: Medical Outcomes for 1996-2001 Medical Migrants to Canada and Australia South Africa: 81% employed in Canada (81% in Australia) √ UK/Ireland: 48% employed in Canada (83% in Australia) India: 19% employed in Canada (66% in Australia) HK, Malaysia, Singapore: 31% employed in Canada (59% in Australia) Eastern Europe: 8% employed in Canada (24% employed in Australia) China: 4% employed in Canada (5% in Australia) Source: The Impact of Economic Selection Policy on Labour Market Outcomes for Degree-Qualified Migrants in Canada and Australia, L Hawthorne, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Vol 14 No 5, 2008, Ottawa
  25. 25. Ethical Issue 2: Individual Agency for GlobalMedical and Health Workers – Limit? Impacts?Ethically appropriate to limit global study/ mobility in select fields?Case Study: Nurses/ doctors in Africa: Rural → urban Public → private Poor → rich Unsafe → secure (disease, law and order) Employment conditions → remuneration, quality of practice, training, workload, facilities, promotion, health service quality etc Living conditions Family choice → children’s education, spouse career (etc) Source: Working Together for Health – The World Health Report 2006, WHO, France
  26. 26. Ethical Issues 3 and 4: Academic Selectionand Progression/ Training OutcomesWhat duty of care is owed by education provider countries?Education challenges: Student versus source country and host country motivations? (aligned or conflicting) Purpose and mode of selection? (sponsored cohorts versus private students/ onshore versus split mode) Relevance of study? (content and mode) Readiness and support for study? (duty of care - academic and language transition needs) Ethical frameworks/ critical reasoning capacity/ use of sources Certainty of academic progression? (if inadequately resourced) Skills transferability on return? Infrastructure, incentivesCareer trajectory challenges: What is the obligation of provider countries?
  27. 27. Certainty - Scale of Future Global Demand: Study and Career Trajectories in High Priority FieldsTraditional population structure Emerging population structure