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Student Mobility: Measuring
 trends in and out of Africa
                 Roshen Kishun, Executive-Director
    International Education Association of South Africa (IEASA)
                  Chair: ANIE Steering Committee
                     With acknowledgement to
                     New Generation Scholars
          Mathias Bwanika Mulumba, Abdulkarim Obaje,
                          Kagiso Kobedi
INTRODUCTION
• Higher Education in Africa: The
  International Dimension Project
• African Network for the
  Internationalisation of Education
  (ANIE)
• Network of Emerging Scholars for the
  Internationalisation of Higher
  Education Africa (NESI) – regarded
  as a SIG
CHALLENGES
• From the 12 papers presented Project
  meetings it seemed that there was
  very little research done on student
  mobility
• It was also evident that there a lack of
  reliable data
• Definitions – “Who is an African
  student?”
• Rationale for mobility
GOALS
• Collection of reliable data for the
  higher education sector in Africa
• To propose that Pan African
  statistics on the mobility of African
  students are consistent with those
  collected elsewhere in the world.
DATA SOURCES
Analyses of trends uses data from
   two main sources:
a. “External sources” - this is data
   from UNESCO, OECD, and
   Open Doors.
b. “Internal sources” – data from
   the ANIE Project papers.
INTERNAL DATA
Analysis of trends from papers
   presented by the authors of 4 of the
   country reports as follows:
a. Students from Africa who are
   pursuing studies in these countries
b. Non-African students studying in
   these countries from outside the
   continent
c. Regional trends – these are
 influenced by historical and local
 factors
EXTERNAL DATA
GENERAL MOBILITY TRENDS

a. UNESCO data (2005) shows that over
   300000 African students travelled to
   various destination in 2004.

b. Top four sending countries were: Nigeria
   (15138); Kenya (14123); Senegal
   (10677); and Botswana (9471)
COLONIAL LEGACY MOVEMENT
         –outbound
• A striking feature of the mobility on the African
   continent is the link with its colonial history:
a. Inter-country mobility reproduces patterns of
   colonisation.
b. Southern and Eastern Africa - UK colonial
   influence.
c. West Africa – largely French influence.
d. Central and North Africa – France and
   Germany.
EXAMPLES
• FRANCE: Benin, Gabon, Congo, DRC
  Congo, Cote d”Ivoire, Madgascar, and
  Senegal: each of these countries send
  more that 2000 students every year.
• PORTUGAL: Angola, Cape Verde, and
  Mozambique
• There are of course exceptions – these
  include students from Cameroon, Eritrea,
  and Ethiopia.

• This is also seen in the pattern of those
  who study in the USA as seen in Figure 1.
African students studying in the
               USA.
• Figure 1. African Students in the United
  States by Country, 2005 (minimum of
  1,000 students)
          Kenya
          Nigeria
         Ghana
     South Africa
       Zimbabwe
       Cameroon
        Morocco
        Morocco
         Ethiopia
        Tanzania

                    0   1000   2000   3000   4000   5000   6000   7000
UNIQUE MOBILITY TRENDS
The outward bound patterns of student
   movement from sub-Saharan Africa
   demonstrate two unique characteristics:
a. The high level of mobility – UNESCO
   reports that I in 16 students study
   abroad
b. Several countries have more students
   abroad than at home. These students
   are not counted in the national statistics.
INTERNAL DATA MOBILITY
            TRENDS
Focus on inbound mobility to the following
   countries:

a.   Egypt
b.   Nigeria
c.   Botswana
d.   South Africa.
•   The data was collected by the authors of 4 country
    reports.

•   The analyses was categorized as follows in relation to
    the 4 countries:

a. Inbound mobility: Students from African countries
b. Inbound mobility: Students from outside of Africa
c. Regional mobility: Students from within the continent
INBOUND MOBILITY
          TO EGYPT

Figure 2.      Scholarship students from
other African countries studying in Egypt,
                1995-2005
        2500



        2000



        1500



        1000



         500



           0
               1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005
• The Egyptian practice of giving
  scholarships has been institutionalised.
• Generally stable but numbers tend to
  fluctuate depending on budgetary
  constraints.
NIGERIA
 Table: Nigeria

Year 1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005
Total 365    243    160    331    304    261   395     67     200
• Nigeria has a policy of attracting
  international students but this has not
  been pursued systematically.
• In 1997-2005 the numbers did not exceed
  400.
BOTSWANA

              1995    1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005

•   SADC        590    665    650   685    728    786    624     760    800    773    632
•   Rest of     160    158    164   151     157    154   148    175    160     140    136
    World
    TOTAL       750    823    814    836    885    940   772     935    960    913   768
• Botswana reserves a percentage of its
  enrollment slots for international students
  but the numbers are small.
• The numbers fluctuated between a
  minimum of 750 and a maximum of 960.
• It is interesting to note that Botswana
  attracts more students from “rest of the
  world” than from its African neighbours.
SOUTH AFRICA
Region/    1995 1996     1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005
    Year
           7497   7876   7822   9800   14987 21318 25546 31724 36207 36302 35218
SADC

REST OF    1769   2021   2079   2593    3314   4263   4854   6317   6664   6874   7200
AFRICA
REST OF    4858   5399   5268   4736    4496   5568   5648   6156   7108   7836 7839
WORLD
TOTAL      14124 15296 15169 17129     22797   31149 36048   44197 49979 51012 50257
• South Africa represents the most dramatic
  increase in the numbers of students
  coming to study at its institutions in the
  short period since 1994.
• The numbers more than quadrupled from
  around 12,500 in 1994 to 53,000 in 2005.
• SADC number growth is most impressive
  – from 7500 to 35000.
INBOUND MOBILITY FROM
        OUTSIDE OF AFRICA
• African Universities have not attracted large
  numbers full-time, degree seeking non-African
  students from outside the continent.
• Most of those who come are in short term
  programmes.
• Egypt and South Africa may be the exception in
  that they do attract numbers of full time students
  as seen the tables presented.
REGIONAL MOBILITY
• The regional nature of mobility is evident
  by observing that:
a. West African Students – go mainly to
  Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, and Senegal.
b. East African Students - go mainly to
  Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Tanzania.
c. Southern African Students – go mainly to
  South Africa
• The “colonial legacy movement” is evident
  by the continued collaborative relationship
  of colonial institutions that had affiliated
  colleges but which were now independent
  universities.
• These collaborations took the form of
  student and faculty exchanges.
CONCLUSION
• Study is limited but presents enormous
  opportunities for further research.
• Study demonstrates that African countries are
  hampered by the crippling lack of reliable data to
  develop an effective strategy to attract
  international students and manage brain drain,
  etc
• That African students may be motivated by an
  entirely different set of reason for studying in
  another country.

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Utrecht sb- roshen kishun

  • 1. Student Mobility: Measuring trends in and out of Africa Roshen Kishun, Executive-Director International Education Association of South Africa (IEASA) Chair: ANIE Steering Committee With acknowledgement to New Generation Scholars Mathias Bwanika Mulumba, Abdulkarim Obaje, Kagiso Kobedi
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Higher Education in Africa: The International Dimension Project • African Network for the Internationalisation of Education (ANIE) • Network of Emerging Scholars for the Internationalisation of Higher Education Africa (NESI) – regarded as a SIG
  • 3. CHALLENGES • From the 12 papers presented Project meetings it seemed that there was very little research done on student mobility • It was also evident that there a lack of reliable data • Definitions – “Who is an African student?” • Rationale for mobility
  • 4. GOALS • Collection of reliable data for the higher education sector in Africa • To propose that Pan African statistics on the mobility of African students are consistent with those collected elsewhere in the world.
  • 5. DATA SOURCES Analyses of trends uses data from two main sources: a. “External sources” - this is data from UNESCO, OECD, and Open Doors. b. “Internal sources” – data from the ANIE Project papers.
  • 6. INTERNAL DATA Analysis of trends from papers presented by the authors of 4 of the country reports as follows: a. Students from Africa who are pursuing studies in these countries b. Non-African students studying in these countries from outside the continent
  • 7. c. Regional trends – these are influenced by historical and local factors
  • 8. EXTERNAL DATA GENERAL MOBILITY TRENDS a. UNESCO data (2005) shows that over 300000 African students travelled to various destination in 2004. b. Top four sending countries were: Nigeria (15138); Kenya (14123); Senegal (10677); and Botswana (9471)
  • 9. COLONIAL LEGACY MOVEMENT –outbound • A striking feature of the mobility on the African continent is the link with its colonial history: a. Inter-country mobility reproduces patterns of colonisation. b. Southern and Eastern Africa - UK colonial influence. c. West Africa – largely French influence. d. Central and North Africa – France and Germany.
  • 10. EXAMPLES • FRANCE: Benin, Gabon, Congo, DRC Congo, Cote d”Ivoire, Madgascar, and Senegal: each of these countries send more that 2000 students every year. • PORTUGAL: Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique
  • 11. • There are of course exceptions – these include students from Cameroon, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. • This is also seen in the pattern of those who study in the USA as seen in Figure 1.
  • 12. African students studying in the USA. • Figure 1. African Students in the United States by Country, 2005 (minimum of 1,000 students) Kenya Nigeria Ghana South Africa Zimbabwe Cameroon Morocco Morocco Ethiopia Tanzania 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
  • 13. UNIQUE MOBILITY TRENDS The outward bound patterns of student movement from sub-Saharan Africa demonstrate two unique characteristics: a. The high level of mobility – UNESCO reports that I in 16 students study abroad b. Several countries have more students abroad than at home. These students are not counted in the national statistics.
  • 14. INTERNAL DATA MOBILITY TRENDS Focus on inbound mobility to the following countries: a. Egypt b. Nigeria c. Botswana d. South Africa.
  • 15. The data was collected by the authors of 4 country reports. • The analyses was categorized as follows in relation to the 4 countries: a. Inbound mobility: Students from African countries b. Inbound mobility: Students from outside of Africa c. Regional mobility: Students from within the continent
  • 16. INBOUND MOBILITY TO EGYPT Figure 2. Scholarship students from other African countries studying in Egypt, 1995-2005 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  • 17. • The Egyptian practice of giving scholarships has been institutionalised. • Generally stable but numbers tend to fluctuate depending on budgetary constraints.
  • 18. NIGERIA Table: Nigeria Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total 365 243 160 331 304 261 395 67 200
  • 19. • Nigeria has a policy of attracting international students but this has not been pursued systematically. • In 1997-2005 the numbers did not exceed 400.
  • 20. BOTSWANA 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 • SADC 590 665 650 685 728 786 624 760 800 773 632 • Rest of 160 158 164 151 157 154 148 175 160 140 136 World TOTAL 750 823 814 836 885 940 772 935 960 913 768
  • 21. • Botswana reserves a percentage of its enrollment slots for international students but the numbers are small. • The numbers fluctuated between a minimum of 750 and a maximum of 960. • It is interesting to note that Botswana attracts more students from “rest of the world” than from its African neighbours.
  • 22. SOUTH AFRICA Region/ 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year 7497 7876 7822 9800 14987 21318 25546 31724 36207 36302 35218 SADC REST OF 1769 2021 2079 2593 3314 4263 4854 6317 6664 6874 7200 AFRICA REST OF 4858 5399 5268 4736 4496 5568 5648 6156 7108 7836 7839 WORLD TOTAL 14124 15296 15169 17129 22797 31149 36048 44197 49979 51012 50257
  • 23. • South Africa represents the most dramatic increase in the numbers of students coming to study at its institutions in the short period since 1994. • The numbers more than quadrupled from around 12,500 in 1994 to 53,000 in 2005. • SADC number growth is most impressive – from 7500 to 35000.
  • 24. INBOUND MOBILITY FROM OUTSIDE OF AFRICA • African Universities have not attracted large numbers full-time, degree seeking non-African students from outside the continent. • Most of those who come are in short term programmes. • Egypt and South Africa may be the exception in that they do attract numbers of full time students as seen the tables presented.
  • 25. REGIONAL MOBILITY • The regional nature of mobility is evident by observing that: a. West African Students – go mainly to Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, and Senegal. b. East African Students - go mainly to Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Tanzania. c. Southern African Students – go mainly to South Africa
  • 26. • The “colonial legacy movement” is evident by the continued collaborative relationship of colonial institutions that had affiliated colleges but which were now independent universities. • These collaborations took the form of student and faculty exchanges.
  • 27. CONCLUSION • Study is limited but presents enormous opportunities for further research. • Study demonstrates that African countries are hampered by the crippling lack of reliable data to develop an effective strategy to attract international students and manage brain drain, etc • That African students may be motivated by an entirely different set of reason for studying in another country.