Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation –Imperatives for Socio-Economic Development Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRSFederal Minister/Chairman Higher Education Commission Islamabad, Pakistan PhD (Cambridge), ScD (Cambridge)
Living in a Changing World Science and Technology are the great dividers ---the rich are getting richer and the poor, poorer World is inflicted with poverty, hunger, disease, conflicts, violence, & economic uncertainty
Innovation Determines Progress Socio-economic development is no longer dependent on natural resources (eg.Japan, European countries) KNOWLEDGE is now the main driving force of world economies INDUSTRIALIZATION is the key to high GDP growth (through innovation / production of high value-added goods (engineering goods, pharmaceuticals, IT, Biotechnology, Agro-food industry etc.)
GovernanceNew Law approved----Federal Ministerresponsible for Higher Education will NOTbe an elected politician but an educationistof international eminence appointed by thePrime MinisterAn 18 member board of eminent experts ---members of “Higher EducationCommission” will oversee the programsLaw allows flexibility to avoid bureaucratichurdles
Pakistan---A Promising Program 85 million below age 19 !! ( 54% population) A demographic opportunity---and challenge !! Higher Education Commission set up October 2002 ---- a focused program to strengthen higher education sector
Key Challenges in Higher Education Financing Reforms
HEC StrategyFaculty DevelopmentInfrastructure (Free Access to LiteratureFree Access to Sophisticated Instruments,Technology Assisted Learning)Focused Support in Key AreasLinkages to the EconomyQuality Assurance
STRATEGY1) BASIC SCIENCES Physics,Chemistry,Mathematics,Biology)2) APPLIED SCIENCES (Engineering, Agricultural sciences, Biotecnology, Information Technology, Pharmaceuticals, New Materials, Communications, Renewable Energy)3) SOCIAL SCIENCES4) ECONOMICS, FINANCE, MANAGEMENT 5) LINKAGES WITH INDUSTRY 6) EMPHASIS ON “K-ECONOMY”---HIGH TECH INDUSTRY!!
Challenge: How do we attract ourbrightest to Education/Research ?Pakistan has 85 million below age 19(54% of population) !Both a Challenge and an OpportunityIt is the brightest among them who mustprovide the leadership in all fields---education, S&T, Government HOW ??
Huge Budgetary Increases6000 % Increase in S&T Development Budget2300 % Increase in Higher EducationDevelopment BudgetSalaries of University Professors raised to 5Times the Salaries of Federal Ministers (overUS $ 5,000 per month, with tax of only 5%---equivalent to US$ 7,000 per month!!)
Attracting the Brightest!Change in Salary Structures---under “TenureTrack” system salaries of Professors raised buthard selection processResearch Productivity Allowance----based onCumulative Impact Factors during the precedingyearReversing the Brain Drain----under “ForeignFaculty Hiring Program” about 500 eminentexpatriate/other scientists attracted to return toPakistan
Attracting the Brightest!Research Funding (upto US$ 600,000per international linkage program)Guaranteed Jobs to fresh Ph.D.s withhigher salary structures under tenure tracksystem75% Reduction of Income Tax for allacademics
Training the Brightest!Massive Foreign scholarship programsinitiated---over 1000 students being sentabroad annually to top universities inEurope, USA, China with guaranteed highsalary jobs and research grants of US $100,000Indigenous Ph.D. programs---expansion ofthe existing Ph.D. output to 1500 per yearHuge Local Scholarship Programs forUndergraduate level studies initiated---US $20 million
Training the Brightest!Local Ph.D.s being offered opportunitiesfor postdoctoral training in top foreigninstitutions (hundreds being sent)Linkages being established with topWestern Institutions---50 with BritishUniversities alone, many othersUS$ 150 million Fulbright program forMS/Ph.D. level training in top universitieswith USA---largest in world!
Using Technology to Leap-Frog! Pakistan Educational Research Network Digital Library Program PAKSAT 1 (Pakistan’s Educational Satellite) Pakistan’s International Video- conferencing Network
The IT Strategy… Service to the CitizensHigh capacity, reliable and s and Eabling enviromentaccessible communications Laws and enabling environment IT Education And an environment that stimulates creativity and welcomes advances in the use of Information Technology
China From 40 to 1,000 2002 Cities on Optical Afghanistan Fibre (2000-2005) SDH/PDH (525/622 Mb/s) backbone being upgraded toIran DWDM India 10 Gb/s 822 cities on the Internet
Information TechnologySpread of Internet Services in Cities & Towns of Pakistan 2500 2000 2000 1500 1050 1000 580 500 29 0 93 96 99 02 91 92 94 95 97 98 00 01 03 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 Year
Internet user growthJune 2000: 130,000 Oct 2006: >12 million Internet users Actual users more than 12 1,000,000 Million! 800,000 Dial up 600,000 Internet users 400,000 200,000 Start point - Today Ja 5 Ja 6 Ja 7 Ja 8 99 00 01 02 -9 9 9 9 n- n- n- n- n- n- n- n Ja Ja Ja Ja
Plummeting costs….June 2000: US$ 87,000/E1 August 2001: US$ 6,000 October 2004 : US$ 3,800 Now US$ 950 per month/2 Mb/s ! Cost /E1 Start point 100,000 80,000 Today 60,000 US $ Cost /E1 40,000 20,000 - 1 00 0 0 1 0 0 1 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 p- l n ay ay v ar ar Ju Ja Se No M M M M
Bandwidth Available August 2000: 32 Mb/s Mar 2002: 265 Mb/s 2006: 10 Gb/s Loops Operative Data bandwidth 300 250 200M b /s 150 Operative Data bandwidth 100 today 50 - Start point Ja 6 Ja 7 Ja 8 Ja 9 Ja 0 Ja 1 Ju 6 Ju 7 Ju 8 Ju 9 Ju 0 01 02 l-9 l-9 l-9 l-9 l-0 l-0 9 9 9 9 0 n- n- n- n- n- n- n- Ju Ja
PERNPakistan Education & Research Network Core Network Nodes 03 Total Universities 56 (16 OFS, 22 DXX, Abbottabad 17 DRS, 1 VSAT) Topi D.I.Khan ne bo ck Ba E3 Khuzdar Nawab Shah ne Tandojam bo Khairpur k ac Jamshoro B E3
Pakistan Education and Research NetworkInformation highway exclusively foruniversities---Internet 2, Canarie, GeantPromote collaborative research and thesharing of domain knowledgePlatform for launching aggressive distanceeducation programsPlatform for Digital Library service for alluniversities
Digital Library23,000 full text journals—nation-wide,free-of-charge!!!45,000 text books from 220 internationalpublishers (down loadable)Over 16 million articles downloaded in 2007 !Almost 300,000 end users trained nationwideOne Window Search EngineWeb of Science, Scifinder Scholar, EMBASE,IEEE, Chem/Biol.Abstracts etc.
Virtual University4 Digital Satellite (PAKSAT-1) TVChannels for content delivery (Licensefor 2 granted)Satellite Earth Station2 Recording StudiosPotential for providing high qualitytraining in remote areas of Pakistan
International Video-lecturing ProgramHigh quality video-conferencing equipmentinstalledSeries of international lectures (nation-wide) by Nobel Laureates and topprofessors from leading universities inUSA, Europe, Japan etc. from November20062000 Lectures arranged !!!
Video Conferencing FacilityLaunched in 2006 2007 2008 TotalDec 2006Universities 4 14 10 28EquippedEvents organized 14 532 122 668 Cost in 5.344 98.960 13.264 117.568 Rs. millionSavings Time in man- 2120 51044 7916 61080 hours 32
A Focus on Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance Structure Defining QA Procedures / StandardsStatistics Compilation & Ranking of UniversitiesLiaison with International QA AgenciesEligibility Criteria for Appointments of FacultyEligibility Criteria for award of MPhil/PhDDegreesFour Year Undergraduate program
Innovation/Entrepreneurship Innovation/ Entrepreneurship in UniversityprogramsJoint Projects with IndustryTechnology Parks/Business IncubatorsIslamabad Technology City
Universities ofEngineering, Science and Technology of Pakistan
UESTP ConceptNine Engineering degrees from top foreignUniversities in Pakistan (Savings—Rs 25Bln spent annually in UK alone, Rs 80 Blnworld-wide !!!)Rectors, Deans, Heads of Departmentsand 75%-25% faculty from partner countryExamination /Quality assurance controlledby foreign universities (Foreign degrees!)Foreign industries in Technology ParksClasses commence in 2008/2009 !!
Establishment of Engineering, Science & Technology Universities (UESTP)• Germany• Austria• Italy• China Phasing Agreed : 4 +3 +2 (Islamabad, Lahore, Multan, Sialkot, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta)• France• Sweden International University• South Korea• Japan
‘Engineering Pakistan’ Anticipated Outcomes after 10 years : Manpower Generation 10,000 graduates/annum 2,000 PhDs/annum High-Tech Industry Creation 50 global companies operating in Pakistan200 Joint-Venture Small & Medium Size Enterprises 100 Entrepreneurial Start-ups/annum
Development FundingAllocation of Budget in Approved Projects Others Infrastructure 1% 21% Research HRD Enhancement 59% 15% Access to Information 4%
Results400% in ISI abstracted publications overlast 5 yearsYoung men and women have startedopting to adopt careers in S&T subjectsas first choiceLandscape of Universities has begun tochange
Investment in HRD Pays Back a Million fold ! 12 Students trained under our scholarship program formed an IT company in Islamabad---won a contract of US $ 250 million in competition to major international companies Innovation determines Progress----but you must create and nurture the Innovation Workers ! Sow the seeds today---the fruits will come 10 -15 years later !!
Glowing International Reviews-- -A Silent Revolution World Bank USAID British Council “Nature”--27th November 2007---- “The Paradox of Pakistan”
12 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROMETERS AT ICCBS
MASS SPECTROMETER (ELECTRON BOMBARDMENT SYSTEM)
Real Wealth--Our Children----with a population of 156million, about a 100 million below the age of25, Pakistan is blessed with a huge pool ofcreativityChallenge is to empower them with qualityeducation and skills----and provide themopportunities to contribute to the process ofsocio-economic development