INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES13th GENERAL CONFERENCEUTRECHT, THE NETHERLANDS 15-18 JULY 2008 Higher Education and Research Addressing Local and Global Needs
2 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE Contents2-3 IAU at 604-5 Opening dialogue6-7 Higher education – serving and shaping society W Wieke Eefting8-9 Higher education and ith a backdrop of Europe innovation emerging from a devastating conflict, the10 Public and private – can university leaders who they work together? met 60 years ago in the historic Hall of Utrecht University knew they had11 Regional Centres of the potential to shape the future. Expertise Driven by the wish of the newly created UNESCO to elaborate a12-13 Institutional reform forum through which the combined knowledge and wisdom of the14-15 International mobility world’s universities could be channelled, their task was to lay the16-17 IAU speaks out for access foundations for the creation of the and success International Association of Universities.18 Action plan 2008-2012 It was not an easy task, as Leen Dorsman and Annemarieke19-21 League tables and rankings Blankesteijn have painstakingly described.* There were complex22 IAU Board 2008-2012 differences of outlook and of opinion; there was scepticism23 IAU President elected about the initiative. But IAU’s inaugural conference took place in Goolam Mohamedbhai, former Nice, France, two years later. President, International Six decades later, the world at Association of Universities. large may be unrecognisable. But all those who were in Utrecht in common future in which they August 1948 – with one or two helped each other to improve their obvious exceptions – would have performance, to serve societies felt familiar with many of the issues better and to improve the quality of under discussion at the 13th IAU life of the world’s people to ensure General Conference in 2008. a sustainable future. As the higher education leaders He called on participants in the gathered in the transept of Conference to address the many Utrecht’s Gothic Dom Church for issues universities – and the the opening ceremony, Hans van societies that created and support Ginkel, former Rector of both the them – face in an open-minded way. United Nations University and “In our globalised world we will Utrecht University and former have to prepare for increased President of the International mobility and competition, but also Association of Universities reflected for cultural diversity locally and that the pioneers had envisaged a globally, for a strengthening of
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 3research, the innovative capacity of “Taking into consideration theuniversities and role for the mission of IAU, I think we must behumanities in higher education, for very glad that increasing numbersthe many opportunities that come of students all over the world andwith complementarities, which can from all layers of our society findbe realised through co-operation, their way to universities and higherwhich come with creating an education institutes. The moreinformation society, which is really students we can teach these goals‘open to all’, with open standards, and principles, the better it will be,open software, and open not only for them, but for ourcourseware.” society as a whole.” UNESCO’s Assistant Director- Ending the Inaugural Ceremony,General for Education, Nicholas IAU Secretary-General Eva Egron-Burnett, took stock of IAU’s role as a Polak called on participants to playglobal platform for universities and an active part in the Generalother higher education institutions Conference and underlined the factto meet and debate on their that they represented highermissions and functions, reflect on education institutions from thechanges that influence their largest number of countries everdevelopment, strengthen co- gathered by the Association. Sheoperation and share good practice. urged participants to acknowledge “In its 60 years of existence, IAU the past achievements but, morehas witnessed the significant importantly, to plan the future ofchanges that are shaping higher higher education and of theeducation as well as the increasing Association as well.pressure placed on higher In the Welcome Session, theeducation systems and institutions following morning, Professorto change so that they meet Mohamedbhai returned to thenational development objectives theme, reminding delegates thatand individual aspirations,” he said. the issues at the heart of IAU at its“This pressure has probably never foundation 60 years ago – humanbeen as great as it is today. and academic freedom, “I am particularly pleased that 60 responsibility and responsiveness,years after its creation at the respect for diversity, the oppositioninitiative of UNESCO, the IAU to all forms of discrimination, andcontinues to be one of our main of adult education and the need to promotion of access – remainedpartners in higher education.” make full use of the modern essential to IAU now, and in the Out-going IAU President Goolam communication media, which in future.Mohamedbhai, who completed his those days were mainly radio and He was followed by Ronaldfour-year term of office at the end of film.” Plasterk, the Dutch Minister ofthe General Conference, told the Hans Stoof, Rector of Utrecht Education, Culture and Science,Inaugural Ceremony participants University, told the opening who – in a video presentation tothat the themes discussed in 1948 ceremony: “The goals of IAU are still delegates – said universities werewere as relevant today as they were as they were formulated in 1948. searching for the balance betweenthen. “IAU will and has to continue its ivory tower status and a closer “Issues which came up for tradition of promoting the ideal of involvement with society and thediscussion at the conference, and universities and other higher training of future generations.which are equally pertinent today, education institutes as guardians ofwere the comparative neglect of intellectual life and intellectual *Leen Dorsman and Annemariekehumanities in favour of the natural freedom. In addition universities Blankesteijn, “Work withsciences, the role of universities in should be conscious of their Universities: The 1948 Utrechtthe development of nations, rising responsibilities and obligations to conference and the birth of IAU”,student numbers, the importance our society. Uitgeverij Matrijs, Utrecht 2008 “The goals of the IAU are still as they were formulated in 1948” Out-going IAU President Goolam Mohamedbhai
4 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCEOpening dialogueT Wieke Eefting he opening session of the “The Bank provides support for 13th General Conference of governments in Latin America but the IAU – organised as a not in the same way for the moderated debate – gave institutions. We would like morean opportunity to compare and direct contact.”contrast perceptions on the role of Professor Sonni Gwanle Tyoden,higher education shared by Vice-Chancellor of the University ofinternational agencies including Jos in Nigeria, called on the Worldthe World Bank, UNESCO and Bank to be more sensitive to “localOECD, and by leaders of higher peculiarities” when consideringeducation institutions. research. The widely held view that higher Nicholas Burnett, Assistanteducation was neglected by the Director-General for Education atBretton Woods institutions was UNESCO, accepted that withoutdated, Jamil Salmi, Co-ordinator Education for All high on its agenda,of the Network of Tertiary “UNESCO does have a focus onEducation Professionals at the basic education – this is notWorld Bank, assured delegates. something we are ashamed of. “The World Bank has been “How can we not have when 10%supporting higher education for 20 of the world’s primary school-agedyears and more. There has been a children do not go to school, ordisconnect between some of our (left) out-going Secretary-General of when one in five adults still cannotcommunications and the views the Association of African read or write...?expressed by former colleagues, Universities, IAU Board member, “There is nothing to be ashamedand what has happened on the described the effects of a “period of of – we are very proud this is ourground.” neglect of higher education in priority.” Instructively, a turning point in Africa”. He conceded that in the past itthe perception had been the And Juan Alejandro Tobias, had appeared that UNESCO’s focuspublication in 2000 of Peril and Rector of the University of Salvador on higher education’s role in EFAPromise, the report by the joint in Argentina, said: “In Latin America had been limited to trainingWorld Bank-UNESCO Task Force on Akilagpa higher education is important and teachers.Higher Education and Society. Sawyerr growing. But it lacks the necessary “This is important but perhaps At its launch, the then president Secretary-General support from the World Bank and more important is the strategic roleof the Bank, John Wolfensohn, of the Association similar organisations to improve the of higher education and higher of African breadth of our research and education institutions.”expressly said that the report’s call Universities, IAUfor an emphasis on all sectors of Board Member. capacity. He told the conference:education reflected existing policy, “Universities and other higherand added that the perception that education institutions need to bethe Bank shunned highereducation was mistaken. “Our task is not only to more inclusive. “There are many efforts under So the frequently heard view thatthe Bank in particular still favours educate our students way to include students from poorer backgrounds, but,basic education at the expense ofhigher education remains a but to make sure they realistically, these are not all that successful. have a sense ofconcern for Bank leaders. “The majority of students come For example, Akilagpa Sawyerr, from better-off families. More responsibility for their future role in our global society” Yvonne van Rooy (above) President of Utrecht University
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 5 Wieke Eefting effort has to be made with regard to exclusion. ” It was Tricia Jenkins, Head of Educational Opportunities at the University of Liverpool in the United Kingdom, one of the Conference participants, who pointed out that although increased numbers of young people were attending university, the social mix was largely unchanged. Yvonne van Rooy, President, Utrecht University, turned to another international institution. She told the conference that as a well-developed university in a developed country, the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development had been of major importance in taking her university to where it now was. “My wish for the future is that OECD keeps up its high quality education department. OECD is well-known as an organisation giving quality advice on economic policies, but from the beginning education has been a vital element of policy. We have benefited enormously from the high-quality link with OECD. “Our task is not only to educate our students but to make sure they have a sense of responsibility for their future role in our global society. This is the major role we have to fulfil in the years to come.” Aart de Geus, Deputy Secretary- General, OECD, was explicit: “The economics of the world rely more and more on human capital. Education is the key investment. “We expect universities and institutions of higher education to provide equal access but differentiated outcomes.” Georges Haddad, Director of the Division of Higher Education at UNESCO, said that in time it was possible to imagine the World Bank, OECD and other organisations working together, just as universities were becoming more individualistic.“The World Bank has been supporting higher education for 20 years and more” Jamil Salmi (above) co-ordinator, Network of tertiary education professionals, World Bank
6 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE time for leadership, and particularly a time for university leadership. “The issues that have to be addressed are complex, they go beyond national and regional preoccupations, they have long time horizons and call for actions and mobilisation across the world.” She drew on her own experience in South Africa under apartheid to illustrate how universities could produce qualified graduates who lacked the understanding and awareness needed to challenge an unfair society. The universities omitted to comment on the fact that graduatesPlenary Session I: Higher Education – serving and shaping society were exclusively white and almost exclusively male. She argued that traditional waysI f universities are unable to of teaching and learning would not respond to the crucial issues change the “deficit” sufficiently. facing the world, it is difficult to Alternatives might include ‘service imagine who would, Professor learning’ – a movement whichBrenda Gourley, Vice-Chancellor of seeks to engage students in realthe Open University and an IAU work in the communities both localBoard Member, told the first Plenary and further afield in an attempt toSession on Higher Education’s role not only locate learning but also toin serving and shaping society. emphasise the importance of “Indeed if universities cannot students becoming involved inrespond it is difficult to understand making the world a better place.how they could be defended. We One university-based initiative,would, in my view, be in dereliction the Talloires Network, is seeking toof our main purpose – and in harness student power to addressconflict with our main claim to illiteracy.universality,” Professor Gourley “With millions of studentssaid. between us, we can truly make a While the world enjoys difference and contribute tounprecedented prosperity, health, achieving one of the United Nations“dazzling” technology and levels of Millennium Development Goals. Iteducation, never before have so is also an opportunity formany people lived in such poverty, universities, as institutions, to reachdied from preventable diseases, hard-to-reach potential students asmore needed education and lived in we seek to widen participation insuch a threatened planet. higher education. “It is education that fuels “This generation will collectivelysustainable development, determine whether our planeteducation that is fundamental to survives, or not. As educators weenlightened citizenship, to the have a critical role in fostering,peace and harmony – and even supporting, encouraging and, abovecontinued life – of this planet we all, equipping our students with theinhabit.” values and skill-set necessary to She told the conference: “It is a drive forward such initiatives. Have “This generation will collectively determine whether our planet survives, or not” Brenda Gourley (above) Vice-Chancellor, The Open University
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 7the stakes ever been higher?” facing simultaneously an era of the main value of higher education In the same session, Monte global competition and should be to serve the commonCassim, President of the “unparalleled” opportunities for co- good even though what wasRitsumeikan Asia Pacific University operation. understood by “good” and byin Japan, warned: “One of the “I am convinced we can achieve “common” was difficult to define.greatest dangers for any university win-win situations if we go forward Universities should rethink theis to become utilitarian.” to the high ground of co-operation.” social value of higher education He expressed disappointment at In a parallel workshop on with a shift from a system thatcolleagues who were “trying to Teaching and Learning for Cultural emphasises the individual andmake corporate entities out of Diversity, Cristina Escrigas of the competitiveness to one that[their] universities”. Global University Network for emphasises the social and He suggested universities were Innovation (GUNI) suggested that collectiveness. “We can achieve win-win situations if we go forward to the high ground of co-operation” Monte Cassim President, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
8 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCEPlenary Session IIT Wieke Eefting he relationship between innovation was delivered by Wayne universities and the world of Johnson, Vice- President for industry and commerce has university relations worldwide of the never been easy. computer giant Hewlett-Packard. But it has never been as complex Speaking first, he characterisedas it is now. Many universities have the present state of university-recognised the commercial value of industry relations in the area ofknowledge and the need to protect innovation as Innovation 2.0. In thistheir intellectual property while at phase, industry, universities, andthe same time acting as commercial government make investments,entities in the provision of some create partnerships, buildservices. infrastructure, and add capability in In turn, the “real” world has a fragmented way. Programmes arerecognised universities’ role in narrowly focused and optimisedresearch and as providers of around what they can get out of theessential services and skilled system, and serve local interestsemployees. and stakeholders. As the boundaries have become “Attempts at collaboration areblurred, the only certainty is that increasingly mired in complexneither one can ignore – nor survive issues including intellectualwithout – the other. property, legislative hurdles, The common ground is in the institutional silos, etc.”area of innovation. One of the most His vision for Innovation 3.0highly-charged sessions of the involves industry, universities andthematic programme of the General governments working together toConference explored universities’ identify and amplify key patterns;role in this area. A chilling presentation in a Parallel Workshop on steer investments; manage the Three speakers presented the sustainable development by Hans van Ginkel, complexity and solve the problemsphilosophical model and graphic former Rector, United Nations University and and issues that emerge.case studies. But, as some Utrecht University, Former President of IAU, Citing Thomas L.Friedman’s 2005participants pointed out, while amply demonstrated the urgent need for description of the reducedthere was much about the good, universities to monitor human activity to ensure relevance of historical, regional andthere was nothing about the bad that development was sustainable. Universities geographical divisions, he said: “Weand little about the unknown that can act both as a watchdog – ensuring that need to adapt to the Flat World.”the session’s description promised. decision-makers have all relevant information “Industry and universities must A roadmap for universities and before committing to a course of action that work together to be relevant,industry to move beyond the current may have unforeseen consequences – and as a innovate in meaningful ways andconfines on the way they approach driving force, he said. positively impact on society. “To paraphrase Darwin -- it is not the strongest who survive but those best able to adapt” Wayne Johnson Vice-President, University relations worldwide, Hewlett-Packard
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 9 Wieke Eefting “To paraphrase Darwin – it is not or Chief Technical Officers, universities to avoid the risk that anthe strongest who survive but those President of Technion Yitzak excessive orientation towardsbest able to adapt.” Apeloig told the session. business gradually deprives them of Delegates heard details of two But the presentations prompted their long-term research projects,innovative universities, one in China a number of critical interventions – which would simply mean of theand one in Israel. principally that little of the bad or source of their identity and of the Zhejiang University was the unknown referenced in the title unique equipment necessary todescribed by Jun Zhu, the of the session had been heard. recharge their cultural batteries anduniversity’s Vice President for And, in a Workshop on the future to conceive the prospectiveInternational Affairs, as an example of research, Pier Ugo Calzolari, education we have spoken about.”of an innovative new university. A Rector of the University of Bologna, Universities’ potential to act asjoint construction scheme with the Yitzak Apeloig warned that universities were faced drivers of regional development wasHangzhou Municipal Government, it President of with a strategic challenge: to avoid demonstrated in OECD researchopened in its present form in 1998 Technion switching university-type research across 14 regions in 12 countriesand is already building a reputation for industry-type research. presented in a Parallel Workshop byfor itself with the second-highest “To protect the strategic resource Jaana Puukka, Analyst with theresearch income of any Chinese of creativity, our society, already so OECD’s Programme in Institutionaluniversity and an impressive record largely controlled by the Management in Higher Educationfor publications. instrumental thought, must maintain and Francisco Marmolejo, Executive Bill Gates reportedly said that its intellectual autonomy, its director of the Consortium for North“Israel is like a bit of Silicon Valley”. If freedom of research, its awareness American Higher Educationso, the Israel Institute of Technology of the problematic nature of Collaboration (CONAHEC).in Haifa, has an illustrious record as knowledge and the primacy of The research found that regionala key player in the country’s ethical over utilitarian reasoning: engagement of universities wastechnology industry. Some 80% of those things which are, as a whole, often based on short-term projectIsraeli NASDAQ-listed companies the true raison d’être of the funding and generic growth, andhave Technion graduates as university. lacked systematic processes andfounders, Chief Executive Officers, “We have to watch over our structures.
10 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE Wieke EeftingPublic and private –can they worktogether?O ne area of reform discussed in a Parallel Workshop focused on public/privatepartnerships in higher education. In one example from SouthAfrica, Piyushi Kotecha, Chiefexecutive of Southern AfricanRegional Universities Association(SARUA), described howcollaborative arrangements sprangup between public and privateproviders in the distanceeducation arena between 1994 and2002. These effectively pre-emptednational quality assurance andhigher education restructuringplans. “South Africa followedinternational trends around privatehigher education growth and inter-institutional public-privatepartnerships – but unintendedconsequences followed in theabsence of a proper policy interfacewith, for example, a perpetuation ofinstitutional historical advantage viamarket initiative, geographicallyskewed access to higher education,and uneven quality. “The South African governmentset curbs on these public-private Cooperation between the public and private sectors can work if the two can findpartnerships in 2002 via re- ways to speak the same languageaccreditation requirements andfunding determinations – a linkage International Finance can benefit all parties.to national imperatives is a key Corporation(IFC) in Washington “These projects can efficientlycondition for successful inter- D.C. put the case for public-private increase public access to basicinstitutional and other public- partnerships at the same session. services such as health andprivate partnerships,” she said. “Parallel systems (exclusively education and improve quality of “Public-private partnerships have public or private) do not make best these services.”a high potential for higher use of scarce resources in any She acknowledged there wereeducation and regional country, she told the same concerns from both sides butdevelopment in the Southern workshop. suggested these could be met by aAfrican Development Community “The Millennium Development sound regulatory framework fromregion – provided they occur in a Goals and economic targets will not the outset, clear objectives for theco-ordinated way in line with be achieved by the public sector relationship, sound economic andregional priorities.” working alone and new project financial structures, transparent Svava Bjarnason, Senior structures for the private provision processes, and quality and serviceEducation Specialist with the of public services, including PPPs, standards for measurement. “Parallel systems (exclusively public or private) do not make best use of scarce resources in any country” Svava Bjarnason Senior Education Specialist with the International Finance Corporation(IFC)
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 11CASE STUDYKenya’s regionalcentres of expertiseT he United Nations University/ Institution for Advanced Studies initiative of RegionalCentres of Expertise has been inexistence for three years and nowhas 55 centres. Each RCE is a network of existingformal, non-formal and informaleducation organisations, mobilisedto deliver education for sustainabledevelopment (ESD) to local andregional communities. A network of RCEs worldwide willconstitute the Global LearningSpace for Sustainable Development.RCEs aspire to achieve the goals ofthe UN Decade of Education forSustainable Development (2005-2014), by translating globalobjectives into the context of thelocal communities in which theyoperate. Director, Dr A. H. Zakri, toldparticipants: “The initiative shouldbe understood as a UNU/IASmobilisation mechanism to “Understanding and Creating Regional Centers of Expertise: on Education for Sustainablecommend high aspirations and Development – Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development”spirits of commitment to promoteeducation for sustainable “This should be sustainable, RCE Greater Nairobi’s goal is todevelopment on the part of local inclusive and participatory in nature promote public awareness,actors. ultimately fostering solidarity and education and training to build the “It is not an official mechanism to equity in sustainable development.” capacity of Greater Nairobirecognise superiority of local Universities involved in the community to achieve sustainablepractices, local institutions or the Greater Nairobi Regional Centre of development. Expected outcomesenvironmental quality of the local Expertise include Kenyatta include “appropriate innovations”region.” University, University of Nairobi, the for socially critical research Dorcas Otieno, Executive Director Catholic University of East Africa programmes developed throughof the Kenya Organisation for and Daystar University. universities.Environmental Education, drew Universities in the area areattention to the potential role for conducting research on wateruniversities working with public and quality and monitoring as part of aprivate sector bodies through the project to rehabilitate the NairobiRegional Centres of Expertise. River basin. “Universities require viable UNITED NATIONS About 56% of city residents live instrategic partnerships to support UNIVERSITY slum settlements encroaching onthe process of integrating and the river reserve, leading toenhancing compliance to UNI-IAS pollution problems.environmental requirements,” she Institute of Avancedsaid. Studies www.ias.unu.edu/default.aspx
12 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCEPlenary Session III: Institutional reform to meet new goalsN o university in the world is dramatically in a short period. immune from the pressure He said that “the trajectory, for institutional change – nature, pace and outcomes of sometimes in reaction to change are the products of thedramatic external events such as combination and interaction ofconflict, or more usually in given and changing conditionsresponse to demands for greater within and without higher educationefficiency and accountability. and the ‘purposeful orientations’ In other countries, the imperative and ‘cognitive and political praxis’is to equip universities to drive of social and human agency.”development, as in the case of He warned of two dangers inPakistan. A plenary session on undertaking institutional changeInstitutional Reform to Meet New that would be universally familiar toGoals was devoted to the effort in higher education leaders. One is toPakistan to push forward change recoil from tackling stubborn andthrough the entire higher education Graduation at An-Najah University in Palestine persistent given structures,system. practices and attitudes or seek The country’s Higher Education Together with a massive accommodation with them. TheCommission was set up in 2002 investment in information other danger is an attempt to effectspecifically to strengthen the sector technology, the government is immediate, rapid and sweepingthrough improved quality, better pressing ahead with a programme changes with a possibleaccess and greater relevance to the of new Universities of Engineering consequence of great flux, seriouscountry’s socio-economic needs. Science and Technology of Pakistan contestation and conflict, Atta-Ur-Rahman, Chairman of the (UESTPs), designed to transform demoralisation of academic andHigher Education Commission in engineering and applied science support staff, erosion of existingIslamabad, presented figures education and to lead the way academic strengths and quality anddemonstrating an immense towards the rapid development and grave debilitation of the nationalgovernment commitment. The technological advancement of the system and institutions.science and technology country. Contestation and conflict ofdevelopment budget increased by While Pakistan’s challenge was to differing degrees and varying kinds6,000%, the higher education wrestle with poverty and under- was unavoidable. “It is perhaps indevelopment budget by 2,300%, development, South Africa’s after the judicious and paradoxical mix ofand professorial salaries rose to five 1994 was more complex. adherence to values and goalstimes those of Government Saleem Badat, Vice-Chancellor of combined with flexibility ofMinisters, equivalent to more than Rhodes University in South Africa is approach; purposeful, bold andUS$5,000 a month with tax no stranger to the process of resolute leadership and actions andconcessions lifting pay to US$7,000 change in higher education. The concomitant deliberate, considereda month. first chief executive of the Council and sober management and Under a Foreign Faculty Hiring of Higher Education, he was at the planning, conservation andProgramme, some 500 eminent centre of the process of mergers continuities and dissolution andscientists had been attracted back that has reduced the number of discontinuities of structures,to their home country. higher education institutions policies and practices as “Pakistan has attracted back 500 eminent scientists” Atta-Ur-Rahman chairman of the Higher Education Commission
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 13 Wieke Eefting involves 46 European nations, is being closely observed in other parts of the world as it nears the key date of 2010. The Process involves the creation of the European Higher Education Area with the aim of easier movement across Europe through the convergence of national systems. Lesley Wilson, Secretary-General of the European University Association (EUA) told a Parallel Workshop on Bologna that 2010 was less a deadline for creating the European Higher Education Area, and more a time to reflect and move on. There had been considerable progress in raising theLigia Deca, President of the profile of European higherEuropean Students Union education and overcoming fragmentation, but she said thereappropriate to the given and was still work to be carried out.changing conditions and, above all, Bologna had been a catalyst foriterative and interactive planning new reform thinking and ways ofinvolving key actors and the working.willingness to monitor, critically But it now had to respond toevaluate and rapidly learn from the increasing global pressure fromprocesses and outcomes of change rankings, international competition,that the greatest prospect of and the brain drain.successful institutional change in Ligia Deca, President of thehigher education and universities European Students Union (ESU),lies.” which has 49 member organisations As a pioneer of structured in 38 countries, appealed torelationships between universities university leaders to make studentssince its inception in 1999, the Lesley Wilson, Secretary-General of the part of the change process so thatBologna Process, which now European University Association (EUA) they could believe in it.CASE STUDY link and connect with the rest of the formation of partnerships withEFA – a goal for higher education system and to play a vital national governments, civil societyeducation too role in national development, groups and development agencies especially with regard to bringing were other key strategies for higherW hile the focus of Education the benefits of education to “every education’s contribution to the for All and the education- citizen in every society”. attainment of Education for All’s related Millennium All three roles of higher education goals.Development Goals is on basic – teaching and learning, research However the workshopeducation, higher education has a and community engagement – recognised the danger of higherrole to play in delivering them - a were identified as central to education research uncriticallyrole that stretches beyond teacher promoting EFA, with research supporting agendas of fundingeducation. emerging as the major instrument agencies and other international A strong emergent theme was for higher education’s contribution. agencies that might not be in thethe need for higher education to Expansion of access and the interests of the developing world.
14 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCEParallel workshops on internationalisation and cross-border education Wieke EeftingNew patterns emerging – an IAU delegate looks at a work of art during the conference’s cultural programmeI nternationalisation is no new Universities see the recruitment emerging markets such as Vietnam phenomenon for universities. of international students as a core and the Middle East, and the They have always been of their search for financial stability maturing of markets in Singapore, international institutions, as funding from public sources is Malaysia, and Hong Kong.encouraging the movement of reduced. Campuses in other In a Parallel Workshop on thestudents and academics across countries are no longer a novelty. emerging opportunities in cross-national and cultural boundaries, And the private sector is making border higher education, she toldseeking knowledge and its presence felt through institutions participants that the choice ofperspectives from near and far. that complement or compete with partner was crucial to success. But the pace of established public universities. “There are considerable risksinternationalisation has increased Rosa Brecker, Research Officer at involved in developing internationaldramatically and, as was found by OBHE, predicts that cross-border collaborations, and if universities dothe IAU 2005 Global Survey, higher education is likely to grow not do their homework properly,universities now perceived both further. But it is also likely to change their partners may be capable ofbenefits and risks from the process. in form and geography, with gaining more from the “Choice of partner is crucial to success” Rosa Becker Research Officer, OBHE
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 15 Lingnan University, Hong Kong‘partnerships’ than they do.” One European dream is to createa rival to the US as a destination forstudents from outside the EU. Asthe US domination of the marketfaltered, it seemed that this taskwould be easier. Rajika Bhandari, Director ofresearch at the US-based Instituteof International Education,produced figures suggesting thatthe number of internationalstudents choosing the US hadbounced back after a period ofdecline. The total international enrolmentincreased by 3% in 2006/07, whilenew enrolments increased by 10%. The top five places of origin wereall in Asia - 48% of all internationalstudents. Notable increases wereseen from Saudi Arabia, Nepal,India, and China with declines fromJapan and Indonesia. Dayanand Dongaonkar,Secretary-General of theAssociation of Indian Universities,confirmed that numbers of Indianstudents in the US had recovered toan all-time high of 83,833 afterdipping to 76,503 in 2005-06. Sub-Saharan Africa also has ahigh level of outward studentmobility with one in every 16students studying abroad. However, Roshen Kishun,Executive Director of theInternational Education Associationof South Africa, points to evidencethat the tide is turning. South Africa represents the mostdramatic increase in the numbers ofincoming students, up from 12,500in 1994 to 53,000 in 2005. Of those,numbers from the Southern AfricanDevelopment Community rose from7,500 to 35,000. But, with theexception of universities in SouthAfrica and Egypt, few Africancountries had attracted largenumbers of full-time, degree-seeking non-African students fromoutside the continent.
16 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCENew policy statement approved in UtrechtT King Saud University in Saudi Arabia he International Association higher education. Admission of Universities Conference criteria must move away from a adopted a significant policy primary focus on each learner’s statement on equitable achievements and entryaccess, success and quality in qualifications towards thehigher education. recognition of his/her potential. The statement, accepted with Targeted strategies and policiesminor amendments in Utrecht, are suggested to increase accessexpressed the Association’s to, and success in, higher educationcommitment to the twin goals of by individuals who are traditionallyequitable access to, and successful Only robust and collective action will achieve aims under-represented because of theirparticipation in, higher education of equitable access and broadened participation social background, economicfor all members of society. status, gender, ethnic origins, Elaborated by an international to act on the promise and potential [dis]abilities, low quality of priortask force of experts, the of these principles and schooling or for other reasons.Statement’s preamble reads: “The recommendations. Different institutional models,IAU believes that equitable access “Only robust and collective flexible programmes of study asto quality learning contributes action, based on ongoing research, well as a variety of delivery modessignificantly to the development of data analysis and the systematic must be available to allownational human resources, monitoring of progress, will help individuals at all stages of life topromotes social justice and achieve these goals. move through higher education in acohesion, enhances personal “Access and participation in manner that suits their needs.development, employability and, in higher education are essential for International mobility, exchangesgeneral, facilitates sustainable the empowerment of all, especially and cross-border educationdevelopment. those often excluded.” activities must integrate the twin “The Association urges higher The Statement recognises the goals of increased access andeducation institutions and differences in context and equitable participation.government decision-makers at all conditions across the world butlevels to adopt the following says it is inevitable that these two Higher education institutionsprinciples and recommendations goals of equitable access to, and should:on equitable access and successful successful participation in, higher • Integrate the goals of equitableparticipation in higher education education will be pursued by all access and successfuland to act, with some urgency, on sooner or later. participation for all learners intotheir implementation.” A key principle of the statement the institutional mission and It concludes: “Equitable access is that “the goal of access policies develop specific objectives andand broadening participation in should be successful participation strategies for achieving them;higher education are fundamental in higher education, as access • Work in partnership withto ‘knowledge societies’ in all parts without a reasonable chance of government, representatives ofof the world. success is an empty promise”. other educational sectors, “The IAU calls for all stakeholder Equitable access and academic professional associations andgroups, especially governments excellence are seen as essential employers to address issues ofand higher education institutions, and compatible aspects of a quality access and successful “Access and participation in higher education are essential for the empowerment of all” IAU Policy Statement
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 17 Wieke Eefting participation in a holistic manner, taking into consideration the outcomes of secondary level schooling, labour market trends and national development needs;• Develop or strengthen admission policies and practices that emphasise the potential of each applicant and address equity of access and successful participation by offering a variety of flexible learning pathways for entry and exit. Governments are advised that they should:• Set out an integrated educational, social and economic agenda to promote equitable access, broadened participation and success in higher education;• Demonstrate a commitment to equitable access and success by providing adequate funding using models that are sensitive to, and appropriate for, local conditions and that support higher education institutions and students with financial need.• Reward higher education institutions that successfully serve individuals from under- represented groups. Cross border education should reflect the IAU’s goals of increased access and equitable participationThe full text is available at: www.unesco.org/iau/access_he/ CASE STUDY courses; and faculty estimated thataccess_statement.html Access policy 42% of first-year students were unprepared. DThe General Conference in r Jacqueline E. King, Assistant If academic barriers were notNumbers Vice-President of the enough, Dr King produced data to438 participants from some American Council on show that with tuition ranging from100 countries. 340 Universities. Education (ACE), illustrated the US$0 to over US$40,000, universityMore than 150 Presidents and barriers to participation in the US entrants were faced with hundredsRectors. 51 International that stem from inadequate high of federal, state, institutional andAssociations and Organisations. school preparation. private grant and loan programmes,35 National Associations and Addressing a Parallel Workshop all with unique criteria and manyOrganisations. 8 National Bodies. on “keys to equitable access and with their own application systems.4 Private Company Representatives. successful retention strategies”, The main form of financial aid,1 Opening Dialogue & 3 Plenary she produced survey data showing she said, had more than 100Sessions. 16 Parallel Workshops. that 40-45% of recent high school questions and required information3 IAU Business Sessions. graduates reported significant skill from parents income tax forms.82 Speakers from around the world gaps; 30% of first-year college “Affordability is a real problem –2 Cultural evenings. students required remedial but it is not the only one”, she said.
18 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE Wieke EeftingOutline for an action plan for 2008-2012W ith part of the General Conference devoted to IAU business sessions, there was anopportunity for delegates to vote inkey elections for the Presidency andBoard, and to comment on anaction plan for IAU for the next fouryears. Eva Egron-Polak, Secretary-General IAU The plan’s specific objectives • Reinforce cooperation, solidarity that the next four years will allow are: and all actions that lead to IAU to carry on in a ‘business as• Top priority to themes of assessment and implementation usual’ manner. The notion of importance to higher education of reforms that strengthen the ‘steady state or status quo’ today institutions, to topics on which a quality and availability of higher includes continuous and indeed global forum for debate and education and reduce inequities rapid change, which requires the sharing of experiences was likely between people, institutions and Association to act and react quickly to bring innovation and systems. to challenges and opportunities. improvement and remaining at • Expand external project funding For this reason, this proposed the vanguard of emerging and, through increased benefits Plan of Action presents an outline challenges. and activities, consolidate and that only offers a glimpse at what• Emphasis on activities which develop the Membership of the IAU is already planning to do. offered scope for increased Association. The General Conference was membership services and direct invited to consider this proposed involvement of Members. IAU has introduced numerous new Plan of Action carefully and to• Continue to play a central and initiatives, increased its activities provide feedback and comments facilitating role in the creation of a and expanded its outreach in the immediately or later, in writing. global higher education space for recent past. This direction will be dialogue and networking among continued in the future. www.unesco.org/iau/association/ higher education organisations. At the same time, it is unlikely pdf/Plan_2008_2012.pdf
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 19 Special Forum N o issue generates more heat than university league tables and rankings. They have long ceased to be a curiosity for the higher education community – an unwelcome intrusion from the grittier world of the consumer market. A Special Forum on the final day of the IAU General Conference gave participants the opportunity to explore their impact on institutional strategies and to hear the latest developments, not only in one of the key international rankings, but in initiatives that may eventually supplant them. The view that “league tables are here to stay” was expressed by critics and supporters of league tables alike, though some participants challenged this view, arguing that rankings may be just a passing fad. At the moment though, while university heads contest their value and question their methodology, they will enthusiastically embrace the results for their marketing strategies when the outcomes are positive. Now there is evidence that universities are responding to rankings in their decision-making and strategic development. Ellen Hazelkorn, Director of Research and Enterprise, Dublin“The assertion that rankings provide useful comparative information about performance is an urban myth” Ellen Hazelkorn (above) Director of Research and Enterprise, Dublin
20 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE “63% of higher education leaders took One of the best known international rankings was strategic organisational, managerial or represented at the Forum by Dr Ying Chen, lecturer at the Institute academic actions in response to of Higher Education at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) in China. Despite its methodological rankings” shortcomings, candidly acknowledged by Dr Chen, the Survey Academic Ranking of World Universities is recognisedInstitute of Technology, Ireland, told internationally.the Special Forum of the He discussed its origins in theconference of her research into the Chinese dream for a world classimpact of international rankings on university, which led directly to theinstitutional decision-making. SJTU exercise. The answer to her rhetorical Among the limitations of this nowquestion, “are Rankings Reshaping annual exercise is the historicalHigher Education?”, was an nature of a number of its indicators,emphatic “yes”. its limited relevance to the quality of She found that 70% of all teaching and education and torespondents wished to be in the top social sciences. He accepted too10% nationally, and 71% wanted to that the diversity of universitiesbe in the top 25% internationally. might not be properly reflected.Critically, 63% of higher education Future plans included an annualleaders who were surveyed had or biennial report on World-Classtaken strategic organisational, Universities, not limited to the topmanagerial or academic actions in 100 but which could include 500 orresponse to rankings. more research universities. For Only 8% indicated that they had 2009, there was a possibility oftaken no action. detailed data analysis rather than a Among high-ranked, composite ranking, Dr Chen toldinternational-facing institutions, her participants.research found that 65% had formal The agenda for the Special Forummechanisms to review rank and made a distinction betweenthat 60% used rankings to set goals rankings and classifications, andfor strategic planning. In contrast, Professor Frans van Vught,only a fifth of low or non-ranked, Emeritus Professor of Higherregionally-focused universities had Education Policy Studies at thea formal mechanism to review rank, University of Twente in thebut 86% used rankings to set goals Professor Frans van Vught, Emeritus Professor Netherlands, gave a progress reportfor strategic planning. of Higher Education Policy Studies at the on the project to classify European There were some positives University of Twente in the Netherlands universities.derived from rankings – greater The proposed classification isurgency for the modernisation hierarchical differentiation – were quite distinct from – but will beagenda and more public positive. open to integration with – theaccountability and transparency, And she confidently dismissed as Carnegie Classification in the Unitedfor example. an “urban myth” the assertion that States. It is open to question whether rankings “provide useful As well as aiding governmentother trends she noted – for comparative information about the policies and institutional strategies,example the creation of an elite performance of different the multi-dimensional classificationgroup of global universities through institutions, facilitating student will, Professor van Vught suggested,the process of greater vertical or choice and benchmarking”. act as a much sounder base for the
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 21Dr Ying Chen, lecturer at the Institute of Higher Education at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) in Chinacompilation of rankings. systems. Instead, it is intended to evidence to justify moving towards A different approach was produce evidence for policy and a full-scale pilot.outlined by Richard Yelland, Head of practice. So a solid evaluation of outcomesthe Education Management and The process will start with across the developed world is still aInfrastructure Division at the Engineering and Economics – two long way off. In the meantimeOECD’s Directorate for Education. disciplines that are less dependent universities have to cope with the He presented the OECD’s on occupational and cultural commercial rankings that areinitiative on Assessing Higher contexts, and applicable across springing up in many countries –Education Learning Outcomes institutions. and with international rankings.(AHELO) as an alternative to The idea faces a large number of One delegate’s solution was tointernational rankings that captured practical challenges. A feasibility encourage so many rankings thatlearning outcomes. study in up to 40 higher education they rendered themselves useless. Without such measures, he institutions across three to four Another had a harsher solution – toargued that judgements about countries will determine whether it ban them altogether. While somehigher education outcomes would is scientifically possible to make universities did withhold their datacontinue to be made on the basis of reliable cross-national comparisons from the agencies compiling therankings derived from inputs or of higher education learning rankings – in Canada and a handfulresearch-driven outputs. outcomes and whether wider in the UK – this was unlikely to be The project, he suggested, was implementation is feasible. welcomed by university heads whonot a ranking, nor would it lead to It will be late 2010 before use them as marketing tools – or tostandardisation across national countries decide if there is enough drive internal change. “The project was not a ranking, nor would it lead to standardisation across national systems” Richard Yelland (above) Head of the Education Management and Infrastructure Division at the OECD’s Directorate for Education
22 IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCEPRESIDENT MEMBERS DEPUTY MEMBERS HONORARY PRESIDENTSJuan Ramón de la AFRICA / AFRIQUE Mohammad Huss AFRICAFuente Piyushi Kotecha Sorouraddin Is-haq Oloyede Guillermo SoberonFormer Rector CEO Former Chancellor Vice-Chancellor President 1980-1985National Autonomous Southern African Tabriz University University of Ilorin Former RectorUniversity of Mexico Regional Universities Iran Nigeria National University of(UNAM) Association Jun Zhu MexicoMexico Clifford Nii Boi Tagoe Vice-President AMERICAS Blagovest Sendov Vice-Chancellor Zhejiang University Rafael Cordera Acting President 1984VICE-PRESIDENTS University of Ghana China Campos Former RectorAbdul Razak Dzulkifli Ghana Secretary-General University of SofiaVice-Chancellor EUROPE UDUAL BulgariaUniversity Sains AMERICAS Metin Lufti Baydar Union of Universities of Justin ThorensMalaysia, Malaysia Manuel J. Fernós Rector Latin America and the President 1985-1990Pier Ugo Calzolari President Suleyman Demirel Caribbean Former RectorRector Interamerican University University Stephen Freedman Université de GenèveUniversity of Bologna of Puerto Rico Turkey Vice-president SwitzerlandItaly USA Agneta Bladh Fordham University Wataru MoriTreasurer IAU Janyne Hodder Rector USA President 1995-2000Madeleine Green President University of Kalmar Juan Tobias Former PresidentVice-President The College of The Sweden Rector University of TokyoAmerican Council on Bahamas Norbert Kis University of Salvador JapanEducation The Bahamas Vice-Rector Argentina Hans Van GinkelOlive Mugenda Pierre Moreau Corvinus University of President 2000-2004Vice-Chancellor President Budapest ASIA & PACIFIC Former RectorKenyatta University Université du Québec Hungary Dayanand Utrecht UniversityKenya Canada Patricia Pol Dongaonkar Netherlands; Suely Vilela Vice-President Secretary-General Former RectorIMMEDIATE PAST President Université Paris Association of Indian United NationsPRESIDENT University of Sao Paulo 12 - Val de Marne Universities UniversityGoolam Brazil France Carmen Lamagna JapanMohamedbhai Alvyda Pumputis Vice-Chancellor Dr. Juan Ramón de laSecretary-General ASIA & PACIFIC Rector American International FuenteAssociation of African Makoto Asashima Mykolas Romeris University Former Rector of TheUniversities (AAU) Managing Director & University Bangladesh National Autonomous Executive Vice- Lithuania Pornchai University of Mexico President Mongkhonvanit (UNAM) University of Tokyo SECRETARY-GENERAL President Will Chair The IAU Board Japan Eva Egron-Polak Siam University Until 2012 Walid Moussa IAU Thailand President International Notre Dame University Universities Bureau EUROPE Louaize Antonio Marques Lebanon Vice-Rector Deepak Pental University of Porto Vice-Chancellor Portugal University of Delhi India
IAU 13TH GENERAL CONFERENCE 23 D r. Juan Ramón de la Fuente cabinet to become rector of UNAM. was elected President of As of 2008 he is a member of the the IAU at the 13th General Council of the United Nations Conference in Utrecht. University. Dr. de la Fuente has He was Rector of UNAM from served as Vice-President of the 1999 to 2007. UNAM, with more World Health Assembly and as than 279,000 students, is one of the President of the Board of the United largest in the world. Nations Programme on AIDS. Dr. de la Fuente is a psychiatrist He is also President of the Net of who graduated with a bachelor’s Macro-Universities of Latin America degree in Medicine from the UNAM and the Caribbean, a member of in 1976 and went on to specialise in the Board of the Cervantes Psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic in Institute, Spain, and of the Rochester, Minnesota, United Administrative Council of UNESCO’s States. International Institute for Higher He returned to Mexico to found Education for Latin America and the the Clinical Research Unit of the Caribbean (IESALC). Mexican Institute of Psychiatry He has published extensively on while lecturing at UNAM’s School of health, education, and scientific Medicine, of which he was elected research, and is the recipient of Director in 1991. numerous national and In 1995 he became President of international awards and honours. the Mexican Academy of Sciences. He also sits in the board of From 1994-99 he served as directors of El Universal, the most Secretary of Health by President widely-read newspaper in Mexico Ernesto Zedillo before leaving the City.