Rather than simply being “a mechanism for churning out a handful of elites and perpetuating social inequality” (Ederer, 2008, 2) – we should be interested in “ how well a nation’s higher education system educates all its students, possessing different interests, abilities and backgrounds” (U21, 2012, 8)
The scope of research . Some research questions deal with universal phenomena, others have a clear local dimension. While history, ethnography, literary studies, sociology, pedagogy or linguistics address global theoretical questions, they also have strong local or regional dimensions. The scope of research inevitably influences the incentive to publish internationally. This can affect ‘national’ disciplines, e.g. studies on Portuguese history, literature, language, law, which may not receive fair and equal treatment from the assessors in comparison with ‘global disciplines’. An alternative view argues that scientific-scholarly research work, regardless of discipline, should produce universal knowledge and/or explain phenomena or concepts on the basis of general laws or principles – and thus step across a purely local or national viewpoint. Interdiscipliinarity: Today, it is widely recognised that the major ‘grand challenges’ of humankind are not bound by borders or discipline. Complex global problems require interdisciplinary, collaborative solutions and inter-locking innovation systems. The United States Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research (2004) stated: Interdisciplinary thinking is rapidly becoming an integral feature of research as a result of four powerful ‘drivers’: the inherent complexity of nature and society, the desire to explore problems and questions that are not confined to a single discipline, the need to solve societal problems, and the power of new technologies (p2). As one participant in OECD study Developing Research in New Institutions (Hazelkorn, 2005) ' […] there is an immense amount of interesting and possibly important things to investigate, things that may be studied with scarce equipment and current expensive budgets […] It would be very good for universities, i.e. for students and the quality of their education, that a system to fund non-expensive research was implemented at a large scale'.
University – refers to all HEIs undertaking research and awarding higher degrees, irrespective of their name and status in national law. In the last century has seen the role of universities changing dramatically, from that of institutions attended by a small intellectual or social elite to one where attendance has become more or less obligatory for a wide range of occupations and social classes. Classical University: influenced by ideas of Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835, founder University of Berlin, 1810) formulated basis of teaching-research nexus - origins based primarily on the humanities and acted as a training ground for professionals Cardinal John Henry Newman ( 1801-1890, inspiration for establishment of Catholic University, Ireland, 1852-58 ) place of teaching universal knowledge ; emphasis on the intellectual and the diffusion and extension of knowledge rather than the advancement. Idea of University (1852) US Graduate School: knowledge was sought for the “public good” or knowledge-sake and research agendas were set by individuals. fachhochschulen, advanced colleges of education, institutes of technology etc Education first (universitas magistrorum et scholarium), then scientific research (universitas litterarum), recently innovation
Global Education Digest, 2009 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) p. 11, http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/ged09-en.pdf At least “ one sizeable new university has to open every week” over the next decades (Daniel, 1996).
Source: IMHE/OECD, from World List of Universities and other HEIs , IAU, 1995, 1971-72, 1988-89, 2004; Universities Worldwide http://www.univ.cc/ published in Hazelkorn, 2012, Everyone wants to be Harvard... One new university of size per week to meet forthcoming demand. This chart is very much an approximation. This shows growth in universities in OECD countries from 1955-2010. Rather than group all types of HEIs together, it looks solely at universities. I first tried gathering information on each country, and then tried grouping all forms of HEIs together but the inconsistencies made it very difficult to get any clear picture of the real numbers. Finally I focused solely on universities and went back to the original univ.cc search you sent me to count universities in all OECD members in 2011. Though it is clear this search does not give totally accurate results, I felt it would be more reliable than the individual tallying I had been doing. Another point on this chart: as I did not have the figures behind the original chart you sent me, I had to judge the numbers that were being conveyed by each bar on the chart – so again, these are an estimation.
from simplistic differentiators (e.g. academic/professional; basic/applied; binary/unitary) to ‘diversification in institutions and programmes with different profiles” Greater diversity at undergraduate level in response to rising demand; Greater specialisation at postgraduate level. Many countries are considering a portfolio of different university models for the future. Increasing attention on horizontal differentiation w/ equal value attributed to different types of institutional profiles/missions. terms “unitary” and “binary” are similarly becoming out-dated. What was once decried as mission creep may more accurately be described as mission evolution (Guri-Rosenblit et al, 2007).
evolved in response to what Neave (2000) has called a further step in the democratisation of the “Humboltian ethic”.
“ Worldwide, resources such as universities and researchers are concentrated in urban areas. So why do so many scientists ignore the needs of our cities? It is time to encourage scientists and universities to pay more attention to urban areas, and Nature this week includes a package of articles about researchers and cities .” http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v467/n7318/full/467883b.html) Researchers who benefit from opportunities in cities should ask what they can give back. More than half of the world's people live in cities, and that number is growing rapidly. So if scientists want to help the majority of the population, they need to turn their attention to urban areas (Editorial, 2010). From EH doc : Research is characterised simply as an activity which starts with the identification of a question or problem – the solution to which is new knowledge, thus adding to the general body of human understanding as exemplified by the idem: ‘standing on the shoulders of giants’. In contrast, work which is motivated by self-interest, in other words, the individual did not himself/herself know about the issue or the issue might be original to the individual is not considered research in the sense of being new-to-the-world (Biggs, 2006, p. 189). This also includes material gathered in preparation for a lecture or a report; this is not research in the sense normally understood, albeit people may colloquially refer to doing research for a lecture. Regardless of the discipline, research is undertaken in order to advance our understanding of issues and problems; thus, in order to advance human knowledge, it must be communicated and capable of being challenged and tested. The basic definition is taken from the OECD Frascati Manual (1963, 1 st ed): It says research “comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications". Over the past number of decades, the debate around knowledge creation/production has focused on broadening “research” beyond simply “basic” or “curiosity-driven” activity – but the substance of “what is research” remains.
Clark Kerr (Bodkin Lectures 1963) challenged previous view of a single community of scholars: The “multiversity” that had been born was a congeries of communities—“the community of the undergraduate and the community of the graduate; the community of the humanist, the community of the social scientist, and the community of the scientist; the communities of the professional schools; the community of all the nonacademic personnel; the community of the administrators.” These various communities, with their often-conflicting interests, reach out in turn to other communities, of alumni, government officials, town neighbors, business leaders, foundation heads, NGOs, and many others.
Dr. James J. Duderstadt is President Emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. http://milproj.dc.umich.edu/home/biography.html
It is possible to “envisage a larger and still more varied array of providers, both public and private, national and international, global and corporate, campus-based and virtual” (Skilbeck, 2003; Skilbeck, 2001, 58-71) ” or identify institutions which may straddle the line between categories – specialist art schools which also award masters degrees and conduct research or dual-sector institutions of Ireland, Australia, Africa, and Canada which offer both further and higher educational programmes .
Because peer review reinforces ‘pecking orders’ and confers ‘status’, those at the top of the academic league table have vested interest; http://www.nap.edu/webcast/webcast_detail.php?webcast_id=294) Campus Community Partnerships for Health: http://www.ccph.info/ The critical issue facing colleges and universities today is how do we institutionalize and sustain them as core values and practices? Having a cadre of faculty with the commitment and competencies to link their scholarship with communities is central to answering this question. Faculty for the Engaged Campus seeks to address these persistent challenges: There are few professional development pathways for those who seek community-engaged careers in the academy Peer reviewers in a given faculty member's discipline or profession who can understand and assess the rigor, quality and impact of their CES are not readily identifiable There is no accepted method or vehicle for peer reviewing, publishing and disseminating products of CES that are in forms other than journal articles (e.g., technical reports, resource guides, handbooks, policy briefs, etc.) There are no clearly defined or accepted roles for community partners in the faculty development, review, promotion or tenure process.
governments and HEIs are drawing simplistic connections between excellence and exclusiveness Institutional hierarchy has tended to be ignored in discussions about widening access, “as if all institutions were equivalent and interchangeable, obscuring the fit between the social hierarchy of students and the producer hierarchy of institutions” (Marginson, 2004, 234; Schindler and Reimer, 2011). But, rankings are exposing that myth while promulgating deeper inequalities, arguably exchanging traditional inequalities based on birth and privilege for “new inequalities” based upon the assumptive status of a small elite group of “world-class universities” and their graduates. Since there is “no absolute measure of competency...sufficient for success”, performance is compared relative to other candidates (Bastedo and Jaquette, 2011, 320). And because, national status within the world-order has become a by-product of university rankings, government policy is balanced precariously between pursuit of excellence and pursuit of equity. At a time when the demand for higher education is rocketing, research suggests growing hierarchical differentiation and social stratification between privatised , selective, research , elite universities and public , recruiting, teaching, mass HEIs, educational systems – and their respective nations. The effect is to reward a “narrow band of students” (Lucido and Thacker, 2011, 2) attending a select few “world-class” or flagship universities rather than nurture all talent.
Tendency to portray diversity as a simple binary between: academic vs. vocational; teaching vs. research, regional vs. international – and simplistic definitions of institutional mission or type; “ When used in reference to higher education, systemness is the coordination of effort by a collective of multiple institutions such that the actions of the collective are less costly, more powerful and deliver greater impact than would similar actions undertaken by several disparate institutions each acting alone. In moving toward systemness, higher education systems need to find ways to 1) promote the vibrancy of individual institutions, by supporting their unique missions; 2) focus on smart growth by coordinating the work of each institution to improve access, control costs, and enhance productivity across the system; 3) leverage the collective strengths of institutions to benefit communities served by the system; and 4) find ways to support system to system collaboration and advance shared research agendas.” (SUNY conference brochure)
Limitations to Diversity: Small nations face particular challenge to maximise capability beyond individual capacity ; Mission spread can become ‘mission stretch’ (Scott 2007) or even ‘mission overload’ that can threaten system and institutional coherence, integrity and efficiency; Cost – diversity depends on providing diverse reward/funding options; The quality factor is a critical element in the analysis of possibilities – what to keep, what to grow, what to phase out. inter-institutional competition the advent of strategic alliances, the synergy of which forms differentiation with other providers financial reduction, forcing a definition of institutional niches the role of HEI in this region - economic and social development the blurring of the binary line is often the issues of government policy - PRTLI
Adapted from Gavin Moodie, correspondence 7 June 2009 Mission Distinctive/Field Specialisation Offer a “re-imagined” network of colleges and universities and a plan for “Smart Growth.” I paint a picture that builds on California’s existing institutions, predicated on a more diverse array of institutional types, and rooted in the historical idea of mission differentiation. This includes setting educational attainment goals for the state; shifting more students to 4-year institutions including UC and CSU; reorganizing the California Community Colleges to include a set of 4-year institutions, another set of “Transfer Focused” campuses, and having these colleges develop a “gap” year program for students out of high school to better prepare for higher education. It also encompasses creating a new Polytechnic University sector, a new California Open University that is primarily focused on adult learners; and developing a new funding model that recognizes the critical role of tuition, and the market for international students that can generate income for higher education and attract top talent to California.. From http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs/ROPS.Douglass.ReImaginingCalHE.10.25.10.pdf
Taking a broader view of diversity
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseRe-imaging Higher Education: Taking aBroader View of DiversityProfessor Ellen HazelkornVice President of Research and Enterprise, and Dean of theGraduate Research SchoolHigher Education Policy Research Unit (HEPRU)Dublin Institute of Technology5thGlobal Meeting of Associations (GMA V), Manchester, April2013
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseWhat are we trying to achieve?
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseA World-Class Higher Education System• Coherent portfolio of horizontally diverse and distinctive high performing,complementary and actively engaged institutions:• Providing a breadth of educational, research and student experienceswhich offer the widest chance to the broadest number of students; ;• Working collaboratively to maximize capacity beyond individualinstitutional capability.• Developing knowledge and skills that citizens need to contribute to societythroughout their lives, while attracting international talent;• Graduates able to succeed in the labour market, fuel and sustain personal,social and economic development, and underpin civil society;• Operating successfully in the global market, international in perspectiveand responsive to change.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseOverview of Presentation• What is Meant by Diversity• 21stCentury Diversity• Valuing and Strengthening Diversity
www.dit.ie/researchandenterprise1. What is Meant by Diversity
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseWhat is diversity?Diversity a basic norm of HE policy because:• Considered a “necessary consequence of the rapid growth in tertiary educationenrolments and the movement of many tertiary education systems from elite tomass systems” and beyond (Santiago et al, 2008, 76);• Permits the combination of elite and mass higher education – the former beingdependent upon the latter (Trow, 1979);• Increases level of HEI effectiveness;• Offers opportunities for experimenting with innovation;• Best meets educational and societal requirements (Birnbaum, 1983) by:• Providing opportunities for social mobility;• Meeting the needs of different labour markets (via an increasing variety ofspecialisations);• Serving the political needs of interest groups.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDiversity is Broad• Institutional core tasks: teaching; research; engagement; innovation; continuingeducation; professional development; services; outreach;• Distinctive Descriptors: traditional, civic/engaged, liberal arts, technological,entrepreneurial, metropolitan, regional/community, specialist, etc.• Programme and pedagogical profile: comprehensive disciplines/specialisation byfield; academic, technological, professional orientation; pedagogical profiles.• Research: spectrum from basic/fundamental, use-inspired basic, goal-oriented,problem-solving, national/policy relevance; multi/inter-disciplinary;• Student profile: ethnic, religious, or social background, gender, qualifications;• Staff profile: ethnic, religious background, gender, previous academic andprofessional qualifications, functional emphasis, e.g., time spent on education,research, continuing education, innovation services;• Internal organisation: governance, functional orientation of different units, fundingmechanisms, reward structures. (adapted from Hazelkorn, 2011)
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseChanging Idea of the “University”• Medieval University: focused around the seven liberal arts: grammar,astronomy, rhetoric (or speech), logic, arithmetic, geometry and music, in beliefsociety would benefit from scholarly expertise generated from university;• Modern European University: influenced by the scientific revolution and vonHumboldt led to the rise of the research university, with an emphasis on theteaching-research nexus;• US Land Grant University: focused on the teaching of agriculture, science, andengineering as a response to the industrial revolution, and changing social classrather than higher educations historic core of classical studies;• Polytechnics and New Generation Universities: built on the tradition ofWorkingman’s Colleges, they cater for wider range of socio-economic groups,learner groups and educational requirements;• New Providers and HE Models: public, for-profit and open-access; franchising,over-seas campuses; global networks; MOOCs; joint and dual awards.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDrivers of Change• Traditionally, HEIs reflected basic understanding of knowledge, socialclasses, and skill/labour market requirements;• University taught the classical canon of subjects, including philosophy,medicine and theology – or basic knowledge;• Hochschule, etc. taught natural and engineering sciences – or appliedknowledge.• Over time, institutional boundaries have blurred:• Demand for higher education has risen exponentially;• Labour markets evolved, and disciplines have moved up the value chain;• Bologna Process and harmonisation of educational quality;• Knowledge more complex and divisions between fundamental and appliedless meaningful: “applied and not yet applied” (Boulton and Lucas, 2008, 9);• Growing focus on global challenges and the need for interdisciplinaryresponses.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseTertiary Enrolment by Region, 1970-2007
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseHEI growth in OECD countries, 1955-2011
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseFrom Elite to Universal ParticipationElite0-15%Mass16-50%UniversalOver 50%Functions of highereducationShaping mind and characterof ruling class; preparation forelite rolesTransmission of skills;preparation for broaderrange of technical elite rolesAdaptation of "wholepopulation" to rapid socialand technological changeCurriculum andforms ofinstructionHighly structured in terms ofacademic conceptions ofknowledgeModular, flexible and semi-structured sequence ofcoursesBoundaries and sequencesbreak down; distinctionsbetween learning and lifebreak downInstitutionalcharacteristicsHomogeneous with high andcommon standards; smallresidential communities; clearand impermeable boundariesComprehensive with morediverse standards; "cities ofintellect" – mixed residential& commuting; boundariesfuzzy and permeable.Great diversity with nocommon model; aggregatesof people enrolledbut...many rarely oncampus; boundaries weak ornon-existent.Research andknowledge transferPursuit of understanding offundamental principlesfocused on "pure disciplines"and arising from curiosity,with no (direct or immediate)commercial benefits.Pursuit of understanding ofprinciples in order to solvepractical problems of themodern world, rather thanto acquire knowledge forknowledge’s sake.Research is democratised,co-produced with andresponsive to wider society,with an emphasis on impactand benefit.(Hazelkorn, 2011 – Adapted from Brennan, 2004 and Trow, 1973, 1974, 2006; Gibbons et al, 1994)
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseWhen systems and institutions evolve(1)• In the 20thC, diversity was “solved” by a binary system – but this ischanging.• Hungary has replaced its binary with more varied range of programmes;• Netherlands has replaced its binary with a three-way differentiation;• Finland and Norway are encouraging mergers between different institutions;• South Africa, UK and Australia have adopted a unitary system;• Many developing countries are encouraging different models of private and for-profitHEIs.• 21stC knowledge economies require citizens who are motivated, dedicatedlearners able to overcome unforeseen challenges of tomorrow – more“versatilists” and fewer specialists & generalists (Schleicher, OECD, 2010):• This has implications for HE and HEIs.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseWhen systems and institutions evolve(2)• Mission evolution rather than simply mission creep/drift (Guri-Rosenblit et al,2007):• HE has evolved to take on a diverse range of functions and niches within andbetween institutions (Clark, 1978);• Some of today’s most well-known universities began life as more modestinstitutions (Marcus, 2011);• Terms such as “unitary” and “binary” are becoming out-dated.• There has been a “gradual shift in meaning of diversity” from simplisticdifferentiators to “diversification in institutions and programmes withdifferent profiles” (van der Wende, 2009, p323).• Greater breadth of programmes and study opportunities at undergraduate level toenable/support universal access and democratisation of knowledge;• Greater specialization and professionalization at postgraduate level to supportadvanced learning and research.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDiverse Research Missions• Traditionally, research is usually interpreted/measured simply as:• Binary between fundamental and applied research, e.g. R&D;• Intensity, e.g. no. of researchers, researcher students, publications, researchincome;• Today, policy is promoting engagement as learning beyond the campuswalls, discovery which is useful beyond the academic community andservice that directly benefits the public – but there remains muchconfusion.Knowledge ceasing “to be something standing outside society, a goal to bepursued by a community of scholars dedicated to the truth, but is shaped bymany social actors under the conditions of the essential contestability of truth”(Delanty, 2001, 105);• Research-innovation spectrum is a dynamic “continuum”.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseThe “multiversity”Today, higher education is a vast complex organisation:• Provides education from associate degree to PhD level, conductsresearch, participate in outreach initiatives, and a source of innovationand entrepreneurship;• Emblem of nation-building, the engine of the economy and the source ofhuman capital;• Actively engages with a diverse range of stakeholders through knowledgeand technology transfer, and underpinning the global competitiveness ofnations and regions;• Medical schools, museums, theatres, galleries, sports facilities and cafes –all of which play a significant role in their community, city and nation;• Meets needs of demographically, ethnically and culturally diversepopulations, and responds to complex and challenging political-economicenvironments.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterprise21stC.University?Vocational InstituteTraditionalUniversityEducation/LearningInnovation/EngagementResearch/DiscoveryThe Knowledge TriangleSpecialist Research Institute
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseUniversity for 21stCentury (Duderstadt, 2000)10 possible models:• The world university – international focus;• The diverse university – social/ethnic diversity, pluralistic learning community;• The creative university – university of the arts, media, architecture;• The divisionless university – interdisciplinary approach to learning;• The cyberspace university – open and distance learning;• The adult university – advanced education and training;• The university college – undergraduate provision;• The lifelong university – programme provision throughout lifetime;• The ubiquitous university – new “life-form” linking/connecting social institutions;• The laboratory university – new “green-field” site ‘experiment’ in learning.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterprise6 University Models (OECD, 2004)Post-secondary system: collection of specialised HEIs carrying out severalmissions/functions for different population groups and kinds of knowledge:•Tradition – catering to relatively small share of youth for credentials;•Entrepreneurial - teaching, research and service are well balanced;•Free Market – market forces drive specialisation by function, field, audience;•Lifelong Learning and Open Education – universal access for all ages w/ less research;•Globally networked – teaching/training institution in partnership with other orgs.;•Diversity of Recognised learning – disappearance of formal institution – distance,‘open course’ education.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseResponding to SocietyWedgwood, 2004, 10.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDiversity Examples (1)Name Keywords DescriptionDanubeUniversityKrems,AustriaProfessional; Problem Solving/Goal-oriented;Specialist Disciplines; MA/PhD; Mature/Part-time;Young; City; Single-campus; InternationalPostgraduate continuing education studies in health/medicine,communication/globalization, business/law, education and media aswell as of arts, culture and building.OpenUniversity,UKClassical/Professional; Use-inspired Basic AndProblem Solving/Goal-oriented; Research-informed; Open Access; ODL; Dual-sector; Young;International;Dedicated to modern distance learning with programmes across thearts, social sciences, business and science. It promotes interdisciplinaryresearch, and new modes of teaching and learning. Emphasis on openaccess.Franklin W.Olin CollegeofEngineering,USProfessional/Technological; Problem Solving/Goal-oriented; Specialist/Entrepreneurship;Undergraduate; Private Not-for-profit; Young;Selective; Single-campusFounded in 2002, to prepare “students to become exemplaryengineering innovators who recognize needs, design solutions, andengage in creative enterprises for the good of the world”.AsianInstitute ofTechnology,ThailandProfessional/Technological; Problem Solving/Goaloriented research focused on the regionssustainable development and its integration intothe global economy; postgraduate education;Promotes technological change and sustainable development in theAsian-Pacific region through higher education, research and outreach.Established 1959, AIT has become a leading regional postgraduateinstitution, working with public and private sector partners throughoutthe region and with some of the top universities in the world.RMITUniversity,AustraliaProfessional/Technological/Vocational; ProblemSolving/Goal-Oriented; Mass; Meritocratic; DualSector; Old; Public Dependent; Managerial; Multi-campus/International Campuses; LargeFrom 1887, is a university of technology and design, providingeducational pathways between vocational and higher education or theoption of qualifications combining the best of both. Has 3 campuses inMelbourne, Australia, and two in Vietnam.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDiversity Examples (2)Name Keywords DescriptionAlbukharyInternationalUniversity,MalaysiaPrivate; non-fee paying; priority to disadvantagestudents; undergraduate specialist;Established 1996. Programmes offered in business and ICT. Allstudents required to undertake planned social and communityengagement activities throughout period of study. The objective isto inculcate in them the passion to serve and contribute to others.University ofthe Arts,London, UKProfessional/Vocational; Specialist Disciplines;Problem-solving/Goal-oriented Research;Selective; Dual Sector; Old; Managerial.Developed from 5 independent art, design, fashion and mediacolleges in 1986. Provides professional education from foundationto PhD, with focus on practice-based research.EarthUniversity,Costa RicaPrivate international institution, non-profit;undergraduate; student centred and experientiallearning environment.Founded 1986 by Act of Government, offers four-yearundergraduate in agricultural sciences and natural resourcesmanagement. Focus on scientific education and techniques whichemphasizes ethical values, entrepreneurship and environmentaland social commitment.University ofthe WestIndies,CaribbeanComprehensive; public; multi-campus across 16countries; BA-PhD;Established 1948 to provide innovative, internationallycompetitive, contemporary university committed to enhancingevery aspect of Caribbean development and improving the well-being of the people of the Caribbean. Originally an extension of Uof London, aim to help "unlock the potential for economic andcultural growth“ allowing for improved regional autonomy.WarsawUniversity ofTechnology,PolandTechnological; Problem Solving/Goal-orientedand Pure Application; Technology Transfer;Specialist Disciplines; Metropolitan; BA-PhD; Old;Residential/Commuter; Multi-campus;Government/Public controlled; Large.Began as Warsaw Institute of Technology, there are 28 fields ofstudy primarily in science and technology. Research is focused onindustrial and commercial applications.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseMulti-dimensional Diversity• As knowledge has become more complex and society more demanding,diverse higher education models have developed – giving birth to multi-dimensional diversity;• HE sits at the intersection of an expanding and multifaceted set ofobjectives and stakeholders, interpreted and prioritised in different waysrather than in a bipolar world of teaching and research;• Possible to “envisage a larger and still more varied array of providers,both public and private, national and international, global and corporate,campus-based and virtual” (Skilbeck, 2003; Skilbeck, 2001, 58-71) or identifyinstitutions which may straddle the line between categories;• Higher education systems are increasingly horizontally differentiatedaccording to distinctive missions or field specialisation.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseAligning Diversity with Performance• Academic recruitment and promotion reflects traditional disciplines andpatterns of knowledge production and accountability;• Yet, advances in knowledge – solving global challenges – increasinglyrequires the collaboration of scholars from many fields and perspectives:• Interdisciplinary research impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure,and resource allocation (US National Academies, 2004);• Academic norms and values can be a road-block to diversity (van Vught, 2008).• Tension between public policy objectives and official methodologies ofresource allocation and academic recruitment/promotion;• We need to institutionalise new forms of academic credentialism andassessment, including defining the appropriate peer.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDifferentiation vs. Stratification• Increasing concern about rising demand and costs of higher education vs.declining national budgets is leading to policy trade-offs;– Governments finding it difficult to provide all the higher education its citizenswant and its society requires;– Rankings have pushed up the status premium of elite universities, theirhosting nations, and graduates from those institutions.• Differentiation of mission: excellence vs. equity; talent vs. access:“...following expansion and democratisation of higher education,...our ability tomaximise the talents of the intellectually gifted have diminished...” (Murphy, 2011)• Growing distinction between world-class research universities and massteaching HEIs– Institutional differentiation obscures relationship between social hierarchy ofstudents and hierarchy of institutions.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterprise3. Valuing and Strengthening Diversity
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseValuing Diversity• Around the world, policymakers realise sustainable prosperity in theglobal economy requires greater diversity of educational and researchopportunities and perspectives – and people to work in jobs we don’t yetknow about (Porter, 2002; IHEP, 2010);• The idea of the university as a stand-alone “ivory tower” has faded.• There is greater recognition that a higher education system requiresdiverse and distinctive HEIs, each contributing valuable knowledge andskills, with mutual respect, for in the interests of the success of the overalleco-system –• Strategy of institutional collaboration and alliances, and geographicalclustering;• System coherence = Maximising capacity beyond individual capability.
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseA Dynamic Eco-systemBiodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem. Used byecologists, it refers to the totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of aregion. Within the eco-system, each species plays a critical role, mutuallysupporting each other, without which the entire system may collapse (Rosen,Wilson).Research is conducted increasingly through bi-lateral, inter-regional andglobal networks, with inter-locking innovation systems because complexproblems require collaborative solutions (Gibbons et al, 1994; Nowotny et al., 2001).“With rapid technology changes, single universities or research institutes maynot be able to accommodate the needs of business development for skills,knowledge and innovation....[T]he most successful high-science locationstoday are those that take a multiple form, rather than a link between firmsand a single university.” (OECD, 2006, 119).
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseDrivers of Diversity• Governance• Reward system and public/policy values should support wider range ofinstitutional missions – and research activity and outputs;• Quality assurance and rankings can be a process of homogenisation.• Competition – for students, staff, socio-economic changes, reputation• High levels of autonomy or inter-institution competition do not encouragediversity if there is insufficient funding;• Reward structures• Financial reduction – forcing definition of institutional niches• “Underfunded institutions will tend to scrounge for funds no matter wherethey find them” and ignore institutional identify and mission (p155);• Policy needs to take into account “whole array” of actions to be effective– including parity of esteem.(adapted Reichart, 2009)
www.dit.ie/researchandenterprise“Diversity has been identified in the higher education literature as one of themajor factors associated with the positive performance of higher educationsystems” (van Vught 2008: 154).“Diversity is not necessarily desirable particularly if, in the name ofdifferentiation of resources, one lets slide into penury those institutionswhich bear the brunt of mass teaching and learning whilst creating poles ofexcellence for the fortunate few. How does diversity of resources forinstance, square with the notion of equality of access to public service acrossthe national territory?”(Neave, 2000: 19)
www.dit.ie/researchandenterpriseHigher Education Policy Research Unit (HEPRU)Dublin Institute of Technologyellen.firstname.lastname@example.org://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/rankings