CS III.5 - J. Laker

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CS III.5 - J. Laker

  1. 1. Social Dimensions of Achieving Gender Equity in Higher Education: Men andMasculinities as Linchpin Issues in Realizing EFA Goals Jason A. Laker, Ph.D. Professor and Chair, Department of Counselor Education Lurie College of Education San José State University, California, USA jlaker.sjsu@gmail.com Higher Education and the Global Agenda: Alternative Pathways to the Future IAU 14th General Conference 27-30 November 2012 Inter American University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico EFA Goal 5 Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality 1
  2. 2. What have we learned from research, applications and reforms for girls/women? Gender Matters  It is a fundamental organizing principle in societies globally. Gendered Strategies work  UNESCOs 2009 Global Education digest  Female students in PSE rose 6x from 1970-2007; Men 4x  PSE graduates-women outnumber men in 75 of 98 nations.  Since PSE gender parity in 2003, women’s par ticipation has been surpassing males  Men continue to outnumber women in engineering, manufacturing, and construction in all countries for which figures were available. We’re not done...  We can and must continue momentum in promoting girls/women’s safety, access, success, employment, leadership, etc. Avoid zero-sum, binar y thinking  We’re all co-conspirators in each other’s problems and solutions (moms and dads raise boys and girls!) 2
  3. 3.  Gender Equity is achievable. Positive Cross-Gender Relations are achievable. If there were a simple solution, it would have been done already. We talk often about gender equity, but rarely about gender, including understanding males as gendered beings. 3
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  5. 5. “…gender is an act which has been rehearsed,much as a script survives the particular actorswho make use of it, but which requiresindividual actors in order to be actualized andreproduced as reality once again." (Butler,1990, p. 272).“…the important fact of men’s lives is not that they are biological males, but that they become men. Our sex may be male, but our identity as men is developed through a complex process of interaction with the culture in which we both learn the gender scripts appropriate to our culture and attempt to modify those scripts to make them more palatable.” -Kimmel, 1998 5
  6. 6.  Discrepancy-strain  Failing to live up to ideal of masculinity Dysfunction strain  Achieving manhood’s requirements hurts/costs the man Trauma-strain  Masculine role socialization is inherently traumatic.Pleck, J. H. The gender role strain paradigm: An update. A newpsychology of men.In Levant, Ronald F. (Ed); Pollack, William S. (Ed), (1995). A newpsychology of men, (pp. 11-32). New York, NY, US: Basic Books, xiv,402 pp. 6
  7. 7. “Men are not exploited or oppressed by sexism, but there are ways in which they suffer as a result of it. This suffering should not be ignored. While it in no way diminishes the seriousness of male abuse and oppression of women, or negates male responsibility for exploitative actions, the pain men experience can serve as a catalyst calling attention to the need for change.” -hooks (1984) 7
  8. 8.  Restrictive Emotionality Socialized Control, Power, and Competition Restrictive Sexual and Af fectionate Behavior – Obsession with Achievement, Work and SuccessAdapted from: ONeil, J., Helms, B., Gable, R., David, L., Wrightman, L.(1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. SexRoles, 14, 335-350. 8
  9. 9. Restrictive Emotionality- A man who has learned to restrict his emotions will need to understand that emotional expressiveness is not a par t of some feminine stereotype but par t of being a full human being. Adapted from: ONeil, J., Helms, B., Gable, R., David, L., Wrightman, L. (1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335-350. 9
  10. 10. Socialized Control, Power, and Competition- A man who validates his masculinity through power and control makes himself vulnerable in many ways. The tragedy of the controlling man is that he for feits interpersonal and emotional flexibility which are essential for open communication, conflict management, and intimacy: all of which help sustain and revitalize interpersonal relationships. Adapted from: ONeil, J., Helms, B., Gable, R., David, L., Wrightman, L. (1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335-350. 10
  11. 11. Restrictive Sexual and Af fectionate Behavior– For men, sex is of ten seen as a means of measuring per formance, achievement, and ones masculinity. Men who demonstrate restrictive interpersonal af fection view sex as an objective-impersonal process and have a dif ficult time expressing af fection in ways other than sex. Adapted from: ONeil, J., Helms, B., Gable, R., David, L., Wrightman, L. (1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335-350. 11
  12. 12. Obsession with Achievement, Work and Success- Preoccupation with work, accomplishments, and eminence can cause conflicts between career and domestic responsibilities. Men who define their self- wor th primarily as career success experience intense pressure to succeed. Adapted from: ONeil, J., Helms, B., Gable, R., David, L., Wrightman, L. (1986). Gender role conflict scale: College mens fear of femininity. Sex Roles, 14, 335-350. 12
  13. 13. by Nancy R. Smith (reprinted from "The Sojourner", a newsletter ofThe Womens Center, Duke Divinity School)For every woman who is tired of acting weak when she knows she is strong, there is a man who is tired of appearing strong when he feels vulnerable;For every woman who is tired of acting dumb, there is a man who is burdened with the constant expectation of "knowing everything;"For every woman who is tired of being called "an emotional female,“ there is a man who is denied the right to weep and to be gentle;For every woman who is called unfeminine when she competes, there is a man for whom competition is the only way to prove his masculinity;For every woman who is tired of being a sex object, there is a man who is tired of being a success object;For every woman who feels "tied down" by her children, there is a man who is denied the full pleasures of shared parenthood;For every woman who is denied meaningful employment or equal pay, there is a man who must bear full financial responsibility for another human being;For every woman who was not taught the intricacies of an automobile, there is a man who was not taught the satisfactions of cooking;For every woman who takes a step toward her own liberation, there is a man who finds the way to freedom has been made a little easier. 13
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