Beijing a. charon wauters 2


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Beijing a. charon wauters 2

  1. 1. Internationalization in European Higher Education Trends and Tools Antoinette CHARON WAUTERS University of Lausanne, Switzerland European Association for International Education IAU International Conference Internationalization of HE New Directions, New Challenges Beijing - October 12-15, 2006Beijing, October 15, 2006
  2. 2. Internationalization of European Higher Education SUMMARY I. Some World Figures II. European Specific Trends III. Three European Tools Erasmus Mundus, ECTS, Diploma supplement IV. Impact on International Relations V. Role of Associations (EAIE) VI. ConclusionsBeijing, October 15, 2006
  3. 3. I. Some world figures/1 Education outside home country • In 2004, 2.7 million HE students were enrolled outside their country of citizenship = 8% increase since 2003 • France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, receive more than 50 % of all foreign students worldwide. (OECD and UNESCO)Beijing, October 15, 2006
  4. 4. I. Some World Figures/2 Top destination countries 0% United States Other 23% 27% China United Kingdom 5% 12% Japan 5% Australia Germany 3 European 7% France 11% 10% countries: 33% Source: IIE, UNESCOBeijing, October 15, 2006
  5. 5. I. Some World Figures/3 Foreign students as % of students in HE Australia Switzerland New EU 25 Norway USA Japan Russia Korea Zealand 18.7 17.7 13.5 6.2 5.2 3.5 2.2 0.8 0.2 2003 (Eurostat and OECD)Beijing, October 15, 2006
  6. 6. I. Some World Figures/4 Where does European HE stand? • In the 2006 ranking of the ‘Times Higher Education Supplement’ last week, among the 100 best HE institutions worldwide, there are 41 European institutions: • UK 15 • Netherlands 7 • France 5 • Switzerland 5 • Germany 3 • Belgium 2 • Denmark 1 • Russia 1 • Ireland 1 • Austria 1 and many challengers!Beijing, October 15, 2006
  7. 7. II. European Specific Trends/1 Some of the European Universities challenges (a reminder) • Be more local / more European / more global • Increase mobility within Europe / attract more students and scholars from outside Europe • Improve academic quality / be more responsive to labour market by providing more employable skills • Provide compatible curricula across Europe / maintain cultural diversity • Etc… ...and, of course, do all of it with decreasing /freezed public funds!Beijing, October 15, 2006
  8. 8. II. European Specific Trends/2 The 2 main inputs - at least for the continental Europe - have been given by the European Union and by the Bologna Process • The Bologna process forces the European HE institutions to restructure their degrees but they are moving at different speed which is not always easy to follow mainly for non-Europeans partners • This harmonization facilitates the vertical mobility from Ba to Ma but not necessarily the horizontal mobility • Vertical mobility leads to the development of an HE market attempting to attract MA students but this was not a tradition in the majority of our continental, non-English speaking universities • The European Credit Transfer System is a real benefit for recognition but also a potential hindrance as not all European institutions are using ECTS in the same way.Beijing, October 15, 2006
  9. 9. II. European Specific Trends/3 • Many institutions introduce English taught courses but also- for some institutions – exists a willingness to develop a multilingual tradition, even if this is difficult and runs against the current stream • Budget cuts create an increasing competition between universities to attract fee paying students but in many countries the universities are forbidden by law to raise fees from the students; some are presently changing the law for non-European students and • Many institutions are receptive to having graduates -Beijing, October 15,and staff - with an improved knowledge of other 2006
  10. 10. III. Three European Tools/1 On the 3 tools, 1 is a ‘closed shop’ the 2 others are opened to anyone willing to use them. The ‘external dimension’ of European Higher Education is the las wheel of the ‘Bologna’ carriage, but is now the subject of increasing interest and activity and in the European Union context this leads to an increasing programme activity ERASMUS MUNDUS Programme launched to make European HE more attractive and enhance its quality, accessibility and visibility by having - among other actions - international master degrees attracting third countries students and partnership with third countries institutions for European student and faculty mobilityBeijing, October 15, 2006
  11. 11. III. Three European Tools/2 ERASMUS MUNDUS(academic years 2004-6) (1) INWARD MOBILITY • 57 Masters Courses, wide variety of disciplines (hard, soft and life sciences) 21 European countries for inward mobility 170 third-country scholars and 950 third-country students from nearly 100 countries, selected for scholarships 56.7% Asians 16.8% North or South Americans 12.6% Africans 12.4% Europeans 1.5% from Oceania. (2) OUTWARD MOBILITY • Partnership with 3rd countries institutions for outward mobility 17 European countries (strongest : UK, France, Germany, Norway) 17 third countries (strongest : Brazil, USA, Australia, China, SAfrica) Mobility for 570 EU-students and 120 scholars to third countriesBeijing, October 15, 2006
  12. 12. III. Three European Tools/3 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and accumulation System) Curriculum transparency tool Common recognition tool 1. Make study programmes easier to read and compare 2. Facilitate mobility and academic recognition 3. Help universities to organize and revise the study programmes 4. Allow application to all types of programmes 5. Serve both mobile and non-mobile students 6. Utilize for accumulation within an institution and for transfer between institutions And, of course, 7. Make European Higher Education more attractive !Beijing, October 15, 2006
  13. 13. III. Three European Tools/4 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and accumulation System) • ECTS is a student-centred system based on student workload required to achieve the objectives of a programme of study • 60 credits feature the workload of a full-time student during one academic year to complete all planned learning activities. It amounts to around 1500-1800 hours per year, which corresponds to 25-30 student work hours per credit • Credits can only be obtained after successful completion of the work required and appropriate assessment of the learning outcomes achieved. Source: ECTS Users GuideBeijing, October 15, 2006
  14. 14. III. Three European Tools/5 DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT Diploma transparency tool (UNESCO, Council of Europe and EU) Supplement to the diploma, gives a full description of a successful achieved study programme and contains: • Information on the place of the diploma delivering institution in the national higher education system • Information identifying the holder of the qualification • Information identifying the qualification • Information on the level of the qualification • Information on the contents and results gained • Information on the function of the qualification • Any additional information • Certification by the national higher education system.Beijing, October 15, 2006
  15. 15. IV. Impact on International Relations Organization/1 The role and scope of an effective European international relations office Classical Missions: Development and management of institutional partnerships Development of student and staff mobility European programmes Internal coordination of international activities Etc.Beijing, October 15, 2006
  16. 16. IV. Impact on International Relations Organization/2 New tasks Develop institution promotion abroad, marketing and recruitment strategies Renegotiate agreements after the implementation of the Bologna new cycles and play a role in recognition of the new qualifications Develop activities beyond student and staff mobility: common research projects, joint diplomas, post-graduate and continuous education courses Play an advisory role towards the university leadership Develop professional skills and knowledge to face new challenges etc.. These tasks always depend on the institution profile and international strategyBeijing, October 15, 2006
  17. 17. V. Role of associations: the EAIE/1 The European Association for International Education through its annual conference, information market, seminars, publications and training courses: Disseminates information on HE developments worldwide Collaborates with associations worldwide to circulate information, facilitate exchanges and create new international activities Promotes students, faculty mobility programmes, joint degrees Facilitates meetings between partners and networking Trains the internationalization actors Fosters exchanges of ideas on HE internationalization Facilitates the HE institutions internationalization not only for Europeans but also for non-European partners (1/3 of the >2,000 conference participants)Beijing, October 15, 2006
  18. 18. V. Role of International Education Associations: the EAIE/2 «REACHING FOR NEW SHORES » Trondheim Norway, 12-15 September 2007 www.eaie.orgBeijing, October 15, 2006
  19. 19. VI. Conclusions The observed trends and existing tools have a positive Impact on European HE internationalization 1. EHE is now forced to reinvent the internationalisation of its higher education systems 2. EHE has developed/has to develop an improving knowledge of the higher education world 3. EHE institutions have to improve or are improving the quality of their exchanges using the existing tools, inventing new ones 4. trust and understanding are developing and to be developed among HE institutions even if this this not only the time of cooperation but also the time of competition!Beijing, October 15, 2006