Beijing a. charon wauters


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Beijing a. charon wauters

  1. 1. Internationalization Processes in European Higher Education Antoinette CHARON WAUTERS University of Lausanne, Switzerland European Association for International Education IAU International Conference ‘Internationalization of HE New Directions, New Challenges’ Beijing - October 12-15, 2006Beijing, October 13, 2006
  2. 2. Internationalization Processes in European Higher Education SUMMARY 1. Which Europe? 2. The Role of the European Union Programmes 3. The Bologna Process 4. The HE Europa-wide general trends 5. ConclusionsBeijing, October 13, 2006
  3. 3. 1. Which Europe? A. Geographical Europe • 966 million inhabitants • 49 countries • 41 national languages B. European Union • 457 million inhabitants • 25 countries • 20 national languagesBeijing, October 13, 2006
  4. 4. but also: C. The "ERASMUS-Europe" D. The "Bologna Process Europe" III. 32 countries 45 countries including 7 non-EU states up to VladivostokBeijing, October 13, 2006
  5. 5. 2. European Union HE Programmes: From inside … • During the 80’s, the EU launched and developed an internal Europeanization process in HE institutions through Education Programs • ERASMUS, started in 1987, has forced the European universities to actively internationalize, discover each other and network by fostering mobility of students and teaching staff «the time of cooperation, and Europeanisation»Beijing, October 13, 2006
  6. 6. ERASMUS Program 1987-2006 Achievements • Since 1987: 1.2 million students have benefited from the program for study abroad • A European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is now widely understood and accepted • Joined projects in curriculum development • In 2005: 2,199 HE institutions in 31 countries (+CH) budget 159 Mio €, 144.000 students, 21.000 teachersBeijing, October 13, 2006
  7. 7. Further development of EU-Education programmes: 2007-2012 Life Long Learning 2007-2012 Total budget requested: 7 Billion EUR COMENIUS ERASMUS LEONARDO GRUNDTVIG Pre-school Higher Education DA Adult education and and VINCI School education advanced training Initial and continuing vocational education and training Transversal programme: policy development, language learning, Information and communication technology, disseminationBeijing, October 13, 2006
  8. 8. 2. European Union HE Programmes …to outside. EU-Education programmes worldwide With North America : EU/US, EU/CND With Asia : Asia-Link, EU-Vietnam, et.. With the Mediterranean Area : TEMPUS/MEDA With Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Region : EDULINK With Latin America: ALFA and Alβan And ERASMUS MUNDUS to make European HE more attractive.Beijing, October 13, 2006
  9. 9. 3. The Bologna Process: Internal and external aims “Bologna Declaration” 1999 - Heads of European Governments and States (45 so far) agreed to: - reform their higher education structures to achieve a greater transparency and compatibility (Bachelor min 3 yrs – Master) - assure worldwide competitiveness of the European Higher Education - launch an action programme up to the year 2010 = “the time of improved cooperation … and competition”Beijing, October 13, 2006
  10. 10. 3. The Bologna Process Internal and external aims An ongoing process : Action lines a. introduced in the Bologna Declaration 1999 1. Adopt a system of easily readable and comparable degrees 2. Adopt a system based on two cycles 3. Establish a credit system 4. Promote mobility 5. Promote European cooperation in quality assurance 6. Promote a European Dimension in Higher EducationBeijing, October 13, 2006
  11. 11. 3. Bologna Process: Internal and external aims An ongoing process : action lines b. introduced in the Prague communiqué 2001 7. Develop life-long learning 8. Involve Higher Education institutions and students 9. Promote the attractiveness of the European Higher Education c. introduced in the Berlin Communiqué 2003 10. Develop doctoral studies and synergy between EHEA and ERABeijing, October 13, 2006
  12. 12. 3. Bologna Process: Its impact on internationalization A. Bologna has forced European universities to implement reforms at a local, national and European level – Gain of experience in implementing reforms – Catalyst for new thinking AND – Having implemented or implementing the reforms, institutions discover the external dimension of Bologna – Many universities are rethinking the role of internationalisation. What for ? And with which means ?Beijing, October 13, 2006
  13. 13. 3. Bologna Process: its impact on internationalization B. Bologna has reinforced elements of internationalisation in EHE institutions – Increasing creation of networks, alliances and partnerships for curriculum development, research and innovation – Growing number of joint degrees – Discovering of vertical mobility of students and of the need for new degrees in order to attract good students - and/or fee paying students – Development of marketing and promotion of EHE abroad.Beijing, October 13, 2006
  14. 14. 3. Bologna Process: Its impact on internationalization C. Many of the Bologna features contribute to raise the attractiveness of European HE: – Give better visibility to the University curricula at 3 different levels: 1st cycle (Bachelor), 2nd cycle (Master), 3rd cycle (Doctorate) – Introduce mobility and transparency tools (ECTS credits and Diploma Supplement) – Reduce the legal barriers to international mobility among Bologna countries as well as third countries – Introduce international quality evaluation procedures in all Europe – By its convergence process, help raising the profile of European HE and reflect a search for common answers to common problems.Beijing, October 13, 2006
  15. 15. 3. Bologna Process: Its impact on internationalization D. Spin-offs of reinforced elements of internationalisation in EHE institutions – Improvement (?) of horizontal mobility of students – Improvement of mobility of young researchers – Internationalisation of staff – Internationalisation ‘at home’ – Double degree/co-doctorate (co-tutelle) – Virtual mobility – Cross-border educationBeijing, October 13, 2006
  16. 16. 4. The HE Europa-wide General Trends All universities worldwide face common problems: • A smaller world: increased travel and communication facilities • Increasing need of transnational education • Growing competition between regions and institutions • Stimulating role of international HE rankings and quality evaluation tools • Debate on trade in educational services (GATS) • etc…Beijing, October 13, 2006
  17. 17. 4. The HE Europa-wide General Trends The European Universities face conflicting demands: • Be more local / more European / more global • Increase mobility within Europe / attract more students and scholars from outside Europe • Improve academic quality / be more responsive to labour market by providing more employable skills • Provide compatible curricula across Europe / maintain cultural diversity • Etc… ...and, of course, do all of it with decreasing /freezed public funds!Beijing, October 13, 2006
  18. 18. 4. The HE Europa-wide and Worldwide: general trends Where do we stand? • An increasing number of students and teachers are attracted from abroad to European HE institutions (Unesco UIS) • In the 2006 ranking of the ‘Times Higher Education Supplement’ this week, among the 100 best HE institutions worldwide, there are 41 European institutions: UK 15, Netherlands 7, France 5, Switzerland 5, Germany 3, Belgium 2, Denmark 1, Russia 1, Ireland 1, Austria 1 We still have a long way to go!Beijing, October 13, 2006
  19. 19. 5. Conclusions (1/2) • Since 2 decades, European Higher Education institutions have been submitted to internal and external trends that have forced them to change and organize their internationalisation • The Bologna process, is the biggest educational reform ever undertaken in Europe (and worldwide) and the HE institutions in the Bologna countries are taking into account not only the national and European implication of the process but also its external dimension.Beijing, October 13, 2006
  20. 20. 5. Conclusions (2/2) According to their specific needs and profile, the European HE institutions have now to rethink or develop their internationalisation strategy in order to better target regions and partner institutions : - type of activities - recruitment policy for staff - mobility possibilities for students and researchers - language policy (all English or NOT, …) etc… Which means a lot of work for EHE and…Beijing, October 13, 2006
  21. 21. …increasing extra-European collaborationsBeijing, October 13, 2006