UNESCO presentation of EFA


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An overview of EFA in Kenya from the perspective of UNESCO at the IAU Workshop on higher education for EFA, in Nairobi, Kenya.
Presented by Yayoi Segi-Vltchek, UNESCO

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  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • These are the Six Goals of Education for All to which Kenya committed to achieving by 2015 at the 2000 World Education Form held in Dakar, Senegal. In the context of Kenya, Goal 1 is commonly referred to as Early Childhood Development or Early Childhood Development and Education, while for the purpose of this assessment, Kenya has looked at the progress of Universal Basic Education under Goal 2, as opposed to Universal Primary Education. The first four goals are main education themes, while the Goals 5 and 6 are cross-cutting. Also I wish to mention here that the Goals 2,part of the Goal 4 and also Goal 5 correspond to MDG Goals 2 and 3. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Starting at the beginning, ECCE is vital to give a child a good start in life. However, even this first goal is clearly way off track. In 2010, less than half of children of pre-primary school age went to pre-school. The poorest are worst affected of all - Less than one in six children went to pre-school in low-income countries Children who are hungry, malnourished or ill are not in a position to gain the skills they need for later learning and employment. However, 171 million children were affected by stunting in 2010. 2011 saw vicious hunger crisis spread across Africa. By 2015 it is estimated that around a quarter of children under five years old will be suffering from stunting. INDEX: Understanding the importance of all three dimensions of this goal , Child health, Nutrition and Education, the GMR 2012 has designed a new index bringing them together. The results showed only one country is ensuring the minimum conditions of nutrition, health and education for children. All countries, regardless of income, must invest in integrated approaches that give equal importance to all aspects of early childhood development. As for Goal 2 – we can now say with assurance that, despite global attention, the world will not reach UPE by 2015. In 71 countries, fewer than 80% of children of official school age entered school in 2010. Even if they do enter in the next 3 years, they will now be unable to complete. However, it is unlikely that they will complete – 47 out of 100 are expected never to enrol Aside from enrolment, there is a problem of drop-outs from primary school too. In half of low income countries, four out of ten children drop out before the last grade. Late entry is a key reason for early dropout – in SSA 38% start late, with late entry and early dropout most common amongst poorest [SEE NEXT SLIDE]
  • GOAL 3 Despite huge advances since 1999, progress in reducing the number of out of school adolescents has also stagnated since 2007. 71 million adolescents were out of school in 2010, three-quarters live in South and West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent improvements in measuring skillls, data will not be available to fully assess progress towards goal 3 before the 2015 deadline. This is the subject of the second half of our report which I will go into in more detail later. GOAL 4 The fourth goal on adult literacy is likely to be missed by most countries, and some by a large margin. 775 million adults still cannot read or write, 2 in 3 of whom are women – a proportion that has remained unchanged Only 9 out of 10 young people meanwhile are literate, meaning that adult illiteracy is unlikely to be eradicated in the near future. Poor literacy skills are a problem in richer OECD countries too, where 160 million adults do not have sufficient literacy skills to fill in a job application form
  • GOAL 5: Gender parity is the biggest success of the EFA goals, but the Arab States and Sub-Saharan Africa are still lagging behind the target. More progress is needed to ensure girls and young women have equal opportunities : At primary school, 68 countries have still not achieved gender parity, and girls are disadvantaged in 60 of them. Extreme disparities are on the wane in primary education. The number of countries with fewer than nine girls per ten boys in primary school has almost halved since 1999. Today 17 countries have extreme gender disparity, including 12 from sub-Saharan Africa. At secondary school, meanwhile, 97 countries have not achieved gender parity. In more than half of these – predominantly in upper middle and high income countries - boys are more disadvantaged than girls. GOAL 6: While quantity has increased in many countries over the past decade, quality has lagged behind. The reality is that millions of children who go to school do not learn the basics: Of the 650 million children of primary school age, at least 250 million cannot read or count whether they’re in school or not. This includes the 120 million who do not reach grade 4, but also the additional 130 million who are in school but failing to learn the basics. Our evidence shows too that learning achievements are largely determined by socio-economic status. The higher the socio-economic level of a student, the better their performance, with a similar pattern for boys and girls. Teachers are the most important resource for improving learning. There was a small improvement in the number of primary school pupils per teacher in the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa and South West Asia, however, teacher numbers have not been able to keep pace with enrolment and pupil-teacher ratios have worsened since 1999. In a third of the one hundred countries with data, at least a quarter of teachers at primary schools were not trained to the national standard.
  • A key determinant of whether countries improve access and learning is the amount they spend on education. Eg Tanzania increased from 2% of GDP in 1999 to 6.2% in 2010 and reduced out of school numbers dramatically, while Pakistan continues to spend just 2.3% of its GDP on education and out of school numbers have only slightly reduced in comparison Despite fears of the impact of the economic downturn on national education budgets, few low and middle income countries made cuts to education. Low income countries increased education spending by 7.2% per year on average between 1999 and 2010 When the 164 governments met in Dakar to commit to the six Education for All Goals, they also committed to ensuring that no countries working towards the goals would be held back by a lack of financing. Overall, US$16 billion is needed for education in low income countries every year to reach the EFA goals. However, in 2010, less than $2 billion in aid went to basic education in low income countries. In addition to that, the Global Monitoring Report has calculated that $8 billion is needed to get all the young people who have completed primary school into secondary education New analysis for this Report identifies the extent to which some of the poorest countries have benefited from aid showing it is crucial that donors and the private sector step up to fill the financing gap. In nine countries, all in sub-Saharan Africa, donors fund more than a quarter of public spending on education. For example, in Mozambique, numbers out of school declined from 1.6 million in 1999 to less than 0.5 million in 2010. During much of this period, aid made up 42% of the total education budget.
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • The education budget has been steady, on average of 21.5 percent of the public expenditure over the period 2005/2006 – 2010/2011. The percentage share of Education Budget to GDP has been steady as well, with an average of 7 percent share (international benchmark is 6 percent). Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • There is an improved participation levels as evidenced in Gross Enrolment Rate (includes underage and overage), Net Enrolment Rate (excludes underage and overage) and transition rates. The challenge, however, is that Kenya has more overage children. For NER, this indicates approximately 9 percent of the school-age children are out of school. Improved transition rates demonstrate that more children are going to secondary school. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • You can note here that there has been an increased participation in secondary education as well. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • When it comes to equal participation of both genders, Kenya has nearly achieved the party as can be seen here in the net enrollment and gross enrolment rates in primary education Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Expansion is not only limited to basic education. The assessment has revealed a significant expansion in TIVET sub-sector as can be seen in this graph. The male and female enrolments have improved almost at the same rates. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • There are two foci of the Dakar Framework for Action, an umbrella document for the EFA Goals: lifelong learning and quality education. In Kenya, the assessment has revealed that there has been a greater recognition of the quality dimension. These are some key achievements made during the past one decade. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • It has been the whole government efforts to provide quality education for all. This is an example of the Economic Stimulus programme in Machakos County. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Another important dimension of quality is utilization of ICT to facilitate teacher training and student learning. This photograph shows a well equipped ICT lab used for learning at the State House Girls High School in Nairobi County. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • This graph is just to show that performance of gender-disaggregated performance in KCPE have been tracked on an annual basis. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Because early years are so critical to cognitive, physical and psychological development of the child, early childhood development must focus on the well being of each and every child, such as this photograph shows a ECD teacher inspecting cleanliness of her students’ nails in an ECD Centre in Nairobi County. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • In one of our field visits to an ECD Centre in Nairobi County, we came across a permanent register of Vitamin A Supplementation. This permanent register was empty, and growth monitoring records were not up to date. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • We acknowledge that gender concerns both girls/females and boys/men. While the most recently discussed topic is the performance of girls in science and mathematics education, we have noted gender variation in favor of girls when it comes to their performance in English subject as measured by the KCPE. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • This graph, taken from Kenya Adult Literacy Survey conducted in 2006, shows significant regional disparities both in literacy and numeracy rates. Providers of non formal education and/or access to literacy centers have been one of the major challenges that has affected literacy rates in the country. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • A case in point: HIV and AIDS. Although awareness on HIV and AIDS in Kenya remains high according to Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2009, the evidence shows that this has not translated into behavior change. The evidence presented in this figure shows  that the rate of infections is picking up from the age bracket of 15 to 24 and culminating in the peak at the age group 30-34 which is followed by a declining trend . This trend explains the fact that the knowledge gained in formal institutions does not necessarily guarantee prevention due to behavioral change. This calls for more innovative educational strategies.   Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • These major challenges have been carefully analyzed in order to recommend the so-called Priority Action Points. As the Technical Working Group finalized the assessment, we had the opportunity to present the assessment findings and recommendations to the then process of preparing the Basic Education Bill and Sessional Paper to realign the sector to the Constitution. Because urgent actions must be taken without delay, these Priority Action Points were elaborated, presented and endorsed by the senior managers of the Government of Kenya responsible for education and training. These are action points categorized into 11 themes. Seven of them are system-related, while the four are content-related. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • Thank you very much for your kind attention. Higher Education and Research for EFA Workshop 24-25 January 2013
  • UNESCO presentation of EFA

    1. 1. Education for All Yayoi Segi-Vltchek Programme Specialist UNESCO Multi-sectoral Regional Office for Eastern AfricaIAU-UoN Workshop on Higher Education and Research for EFA 24-25 January 2013
    2. 2. Contents• Six Goals of Education for All• Global EFA Progress (2012 EFA GMR)• The Kenyan Experience: EFA End Decade Assessment - 5 Major Achievements, 8 Major Challenges, and 11 ‘Priority Action Points’• Food for Thought: Contribution of Higher Education and Research to EFA 2015 and beyond 2
    3. 3. Six Goals of Education for AllGoal 1: Early Childhood Care and EducationGoal 2: Universal Primary EducationGoal 3: Life Skills & Lifelong LearningGoal 4: Adult Literacy & Continuing EducationGoal 5: Gender Equity and EqualityGoal 6: Quality of Education 3
    4. 4. Progress towards EFA is stagnating Goal 1: Early childhood care and education  171 million children under 5 were affected by moderate or severe stunting in 2010.  Less than half went to pre-school in 2010; less than 1 in 6 in low-income countries. Goal 2: Universal primary education  Number out of school stagnated at 61 million in 2010, half live in sub-Saharan Africa.  Of 100 children not in school, 47 expected never to enter.  More than 4 in 10 drop out in half of poor countries.  41% in sub-Saharan Africa start 2 or more years late.
    5. 5. Progress towards EFA is stagnating Goal 3: Youth and adult learning needs  In poorer countries, only one half of young people enrol in lower secondary school.  71 million adolescents are out of school, remaining unchanged since 2007. Goal 4: Adult literacy  775 million adults could not read or write in 2010, two-thirds of whom are still women.  Even in rich countries, 160 million adults have poor literacy skills.
    6. 6. Progress towards EFA is stagnating Goal 5: Gender parity and equality  In 17 countries, there are fewer than 9 girls in primary school for every 10 boys.  Boys are disadvantaged in over half the 97 countries that have not achieved gender parity in secondary school. Goal 6: Quality of education  Of 650 million children of primary-school age, at least 250 million could be failing to read or count.  In 33 countries, less than three-quarters of primary school teachers were trained to the national standard.
    7. 7. Financing Education for AllMost poor countries have maintained or increased their education spending.These countries also need aid: In 9 Sub-Saharan African countries, donorsfund more than a quarter of public spending on education.BUT donors are not keeping their promise in Dakar in 2000 to ensure nocountries seriously committed to Education for All will be thwarted by a lack ofresources. There is a big funding gap:  $16 billion needed for basic education in low income countries – but only $1.9 billion provided in aid in 2010.  An additional $8 billion needed to send all young people to lower secondary school.
    8. 8. The Kenyan Experience: Education for AllEnd Decade Assessment (2001-2010)5 Major Achievements, 8 Challenges, and 11 Priority Action Points 8
    9. 9. 5 Major Achievements• Sustained commitment to, and investment in, education and training• Major policies, frameworks, standards and curricula in place• Investment in the teaching force• Significant expansion, in particular in basic education, as a result of Free Primary Education and Free Day Secondary Education• Greater concern for quality of education 9
    10. 10. Budget Provision to Education Average 21.5 % of the publicexpenditure, and 7% Share of GDP 10
    11. 11. GER, NER and Transition Rates in Primary Schools (2000-2010) 11
    12. 12. Trends in GER and NER inSecondary Education (2000-2010) 12
    13. 13. Gender Parity Index:NER and GER in Primary Education Gender parity benchmark Gender parity
    14. 14. Enrolment in TIVET Institutions by sex (2000-2010) 14
    15. 15. The Teaching Force• Number of Teachers as at 2012: 286,000 as at 2012 (Primary: 219,000 and Secondary: 67,000)• Teacher shortage as at 2012: 38,468 teachers for primary schools and 36,574 for post- primary institutions 15
    16. 16. Investment in the teaching force 16
    17. 17. Moving towards quality education• Establishment of National Assessment Center and monitoring of pupil performance through NASMLA and SACMEQ• Provision of in-service training for teachers• Investment in school infrastructure• Provision of instructional materials• Introduction of ICT in teacher training and learning 17
    18. 18. Investment in school infrastructureKatelembo Centre of Excellence Boys High School, Machakos County 18
    19. 19. Introducing ICT to Facilitate Learning State House Girls High School, Nairobi County 19
    20. 20. Monitoring Performance of Female and Male Candidates in KCPE 20
    21. 21. 8 Issues and Challenges• Expanded vision of education and learning: from early childhood and adulthood• Data harmonization and coordination• Significant disparities (geographical, gender, socio-economic)• Emerging issues (HIV and AIDS, peace, refugee education, etc.) 21
    22. 22. 8 Issues and Challenges, cont’d• Goals that are still a challenge to monitor & measure – ECCE, Lifeskills & Literacy (data and indicators)• Inter-sectoral and –ministerial coordination and partnership with the civil society (ECCE, life skills and Literacy)• Implementation capacities at all levels• Governance and management issues 22
    23. 23. i An ECD teacher inspecting cleanliness of her pupils’ nails in an ECD Centre 23
    24. 24. Keeping permanent register of Vitamin A Supplementation in an ECD Centre 24
    25. 25. Gender variation in KCPEPerformance in English Subject 25
    26. 26. Literacy and Numeracy Rates by Province 26
    27. 27. Emerging Issue: HIV and AIDS 27
    28. 28. 11 Priority Action Points System-related:1.Policy Development/Review, Harmonization andImplementation2.Monitoring and Evaluation3.Resource Mobilization and Allocation4.Governance and Accountability5.Coordination and Partnerships6.Capacity Development7.Infrastructure Development 28
    29. 29. 11 Priority Action Points Content-related:8. Curriculum Relevance and Implementation, andInstructional Materials9. Teacher / Facilitator Development and Management10. Quality and Outcomes11. ‘Reaching the Unreached’All the Priority Action Points have informed thenew Sessional Paper No. 14 and form basis ofthe new Five-Year National Education SectorSupport Programme (NESSP) in Kenya 29
    30. 30. Food for Thought? Contribution of HE to Accelerating EFA Progress and Beyond!• Linking research and evidence with policy and planning (quantitative and qualitative)• Institutional capacity building• Teacher and instructor development and professionalization• Curriculum and instructional material development and review• Emerging and cross-cutting issues (peace, HIV, etc.)• Foresight (post 2015 agenda) 30
    31. 31. Thank you! 31