Dr Ravinder Singh


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Dr Ravinder Singh

  1. 1. Stress<br />and <br />Lifestyle <br />Diseases<br />Dr. Ravinder Singh<br />Jackson Pollock (1948) $ 140 m<br />
  2. 2. Physical Environment<br />Economy<br />Social Environment<br />HRQOL<br />QOL<br />HEALTH<br />FUNCTION<br />
  3. 3. In a little over a decade from now, chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer and AIDS would account for over 65 per cent of deaths in India compared to 53 per cent in 2005. <br />By 2020, chronic diseases (Lifestyle) are expected to claim 7.63 million lives in India, compared to 3.78 million in 1990, a study said.<br />
  4. 4. India that is already home to the largest number of diabetes patients is projected to have 30 million diabetics by 2020, of which 6.6 million or 22 per cent would suffer from complications such as diabetic nephropathy. <br />Similarly, stress both at work and at home is going to take a further toll with the number of people suffering from hypertension estimated to rise 213.5 million in 2025, compared to 118.2 million in 2000 representing an 80 per cent rise in a span of a quarter century.<br />
  5. 5. LIFESTYLES<br />Tobacco Use is Increasing <br /> Diets are Rapidly Changing Physical Activity Reduced <br /> Alcohol Use Increasing <br /> Obesity due to fatty and junk foods<br /> Diabetes <br /> Hypertension are increasing in Most Parts Of the World,<br />While Under-nutrition Remains a Severe Issue<br />
  6. 6. ‘Supersizing’ of French Fries<br />calories<br />610 calories<br />750<br />500<br />250<br />1970s<br />1960s<br />1980s<br />1990s<br />2002<br />
  7. 7. Sodas Then and Now<br />Coke/Pepsi Pitcher 500ml<br />1950 Classic Coke 200 ml<br />
  8. 8. Hamburger in <br />the old days<br />Maharaja Burger<br />Hamburgers Then and Now<br />
  9. 9. Global lifestyle diseases reality<br /><ul><li>Lifestyle disease contribute 60 % of deaths and 43 % of the global burden of disease. Already 79% of these lifestyle diseases are occurring in developing countries.
  10. 10. By 2020 these deaths will account for 73% deaths and 60% of the disease burden.
  11. 11. Half of these deaths are attributable to cardiovascular diseases.
  12. 12. There are more CVD deaths in India or China than in all developed countries added together.</li></li></ul><li>“It makes little sense to expect individuals to behave differently from their peers; it is more appropriate to seek a general change in behavioural norms and in the circumstances which facilitate their adoption.” <br /> – Geoffrey Rose, 1992<br />
  13. 13. Fundamental axiom in Preventive Medicine<br />“A large number of people exposed<br /> to a small risk may generate many <br />more cases than a small number <br />exposed to high risk”<br />
  14. 14. Rose pointed out that wherever this axiom applies, a preventive strategy focusing on high-risk individuals will deal only with the margin of the problem and will not have any impact on the large proportion of disease occurring in the large proportion of people who are at moderate risk.<br />
  15. 15. For example, people with slightly raised blood pressure suffer more cardiovascular events than the hypertensive minority. <br />While a high-risk approach may appear more appropriate to the individuals and their physicians, it can only have a limited effect at a population level. It does not alter the underlying causes of illness, relies on having adequate power to predict future disease, and requires continued and expensive screening for new high-risk individuals.<br />
  16. 16. Lifestyle disease<br /> A disease associated with the way a person or group of people lives. e.g.<br />Atherosclerosis, <br />Heart Disease & Stroke<br />Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes<br />Road Traffic Accidents; and <br />Diseases associated with Smoking, Alcohol & Drug Abuse. <br />Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome, nephritis or chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, acne, depression<br />
  17. 17. Eight of the top nine causes are directly related to behavioral (lifestyle) risk factors (infection is the exception). <br />At least 45 percent of all deaths can be traced to unhealthful behavior. <br />The percentage of day-to-day health problems related to unhealthful behavior is even higher. <br />
  18. 18. Diseases of Longevity or <br />Diseases of Civilization<br /><ul><li>The WHO estimates that mortality from diabetes and heart disease cost India about $210 billion every year and is expected to increase to $335 billion in the next 10 years.</li></li></ul><li>Stress<br />Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment<br />Includes marital and financial problems<br />Eustress (optimum): Good stress (e.g., travel)<br />Distress (Bad and Harmful Stress)<br />Stress Reaction: Physical response to stress<br />Autonomic Nervous System is aroused<br />Stressor: Condition or event that challenges or threatens the person and is considered to be beyond the available resources by the person facing it<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Lifestyle Factors Associated with Stress<br />High Blood Pressure Diabetes <br /> Smoking Alcoholism <br /> Improper Nutrition Obesity <br /> Lack of Activity Drugs<br />
  21. 21. Cardiac Personalities<br />Type A Personality: Personality type with elevated risk of heart attack; characterized by time urgency and chronic anger or hostility<br />Anger and hostility may be the key factors of this behavior<br />Type B Personality: All types other than Type As; unlikely to have a heart attack<br />
  22. 22. Hardy Personality<br />Personality type associated with superior stress resistance<br />Sense of personal commitment to self and family<br />Feel they have control over their lives<br />See life as a series of challenges, not threats<br />
  23. 23. Immunity<br />Immune System: Mobilizes bodily defenses like white blood cells against invading microbes and other diseases<br />Psychoneuroimmunology: Study of connections among behavior, stress, disease, and immune system<br />
  24. 24. Epidemiological model for disease evaluation<br />
  25. 25. Comparison of US Federal expenditure to allocation of mortality according to epidemiological model<br />
  26. 26. Michael Spurlok<br />One month on<br />McDonald’s food:<br />Gained 12 kg<br />Depression, irritation,<br />mood swings<br />
  27. 27. GBD<br />
  28. 28. Distal socioeconomic causes <br />Income<br />education and<br />occupation, <br />all of which affect levels of <br />Proximal factors <br />inactivity, <br />diet, <br />tobacco use and alcohol intake; <br />interact with <br />
  29. 29. Physiological and Patho-physiological causes, such as <br />blood pressure, <br />cholesterol levels and <br />glucose metabolism, <br />to cause cardiovascular disease such as stroke or coronary heart disease. <br />The sequelae include death and disability, such as angina or hemiplegia<br />
  30. 30. Self Analysis related to Stress and Lifestyle Factors<br />1. Are you a non-smoker ? 2. Do you check your BP regularly ? 3. Do you drink within limits ? 4. Do you avoid self –medication? 5. Do you take time off each day to relax ? 6. Do you take minor hassles in your stride ? 7. Are you at your ideal body weight ? 8. Do you eat a balanced diet ? 9. Do you exercise regularly ?<br />
  31. 31. What do your scores indicate ?<br />If the number of your “Yes” falls between <br />7 – 9 Excellent<br />5 - 7 Good<br />3 - 5 Poor<br />0 - 3 V. Poor<br />When your scores are below 7 , you need what is called as “The Lifestyle Modification Plan “<br />
  32. 32. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in the world<br />CVD are heart attacks and stroke.<br />At least 80% of premature deaths from CVD and strokes could be prevented through a healthy diet, regular physical activity and avoiding the use of tobacco.<br />(Source: WHO Global Burden of Disease)<br />
  33. 33. Importance of Changing Health Behaviors<br />Shift from infectious disease to chronic and/or degenerative illnesses emphasizes the need for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention<br />Healthy behaviors lead to:<br />Increased longevity<br />Reduced disability rates<br />Better mental health and cognitive function<br />Lower healthcare costs<br />
  34. 34. Physical Inactivity:A Global Public Health Problem<br />
  35. 35. Why are people inactive?<br />Urbanization has resulted in several environmental factors which may discourage participation in physical activity: <br /> population over-crowding <br /> increased poverty <br /> increased levels of crime <br /> high-density traffic <br /> low air quality <br /> lack of parks, sidewalks and sports / recreation facilities. <br />
  36. 36. Modes of Physical Activity<br />Lifestyle<br />Work<br />Leisure<br />Household<br />Transportation<br />Exercise<br />
  37. 37. The risk factors for diabetes<br />(a) High familial aggregation. (b) Obesity, especially central obesity. <br />(c) Insulin resistance. <br />(d) Lifestyle changes due to urbanization. <br />Moreover, diabetes occurs at a much younger age in India than in the developed countries. Family History of Diabetes, Age, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist to hip ratio and sedentary life-style<br />
  38. 38. Road traffic injuries are projected to rise from the ninth leading cause of death globally in 2004, to the fifth in 2030<br />More than 3500 people die from road traffic crashes every day and millions are injured or disabled for life. <br />There is need to increase awareness of this preventable cause of death by promoting road safety practices such as wearing helmets and seat-belts, and not speeding or driving under the influence of alcohol (WHO).<br />
  39. 39. Mildred Blaxter, Health and Lifestyle (1990) Routletge, London. UK, pp. 208<br />
  40. 40. ‘Mental Capital and Well-Being’(Foresight Report)<br />The project’s aim was ‘to produce a challenging and long-term vision for optimising mental capital and wellbeing in the UK in the 21st Century—both for the benefit of society, and for the individual’<br />Mental capital was defined as a metaphorical ‘bank account of the mind’, which gets enhanced or depleted throughout the life course<br />
  41. 41. ‘Mental Capital and Well-Being’<br />Mental ill-health costs England alone £77 billion (approx. Rs. 5,00,000 cr.) a year; <br />Stress and lack of well-being in the workplace cost around £25.9 billion (Rs. 1,50,000 cr.) per annum in terms of sickness absence, and labour turnover<br />Costs of dementia over the next 30 years will rise from the current cost base of £17 billion to £50 billion<br />
  42. 42. Main Findings of the Foresight Report<br />Catch learning difficulties among children (e.g. dyslexia and dyscalculia) early enough<br />If we do not also identify the common mental disorders such as stress, anxiety and depression early enough, and provide appropriate treatment and support, we will end up with even more than the current one in six adults currently suffering from common mental disorders<br />With work being more insecure, people working longer hours and substantially harder, the problems of stress at work have reached nearly epidemic proportions and are now the leading or second leading cause of sickness absence in most developed countries<br />Ref: Cooper, C.L., Field, J., Goswami, U., Jenkins, R., &Sahakian, B. (2009). Mental capital and wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Wiley/Blackwell<br />
  43. 43. Main Findings of the Foresight Report<br />We need better trained managers who manage people by praise and reward and not by constant fault finding, a less ‘long hours culture’, more flexible working arrangements, etc.<br />Finally, with the doubling of over 65 years and the tripling of over 80 years over the next 30 years, we need to begin to deal with the ultimate consequences of dementia now with preventative strategies, better early diagnosis and more successful treatment regimes<br />
  44. 44. Healthy Lifestyles<br /><ul><li>For Individual: </li></ul> Effective Way to <br /> Prevent Diseases And Promote Health<br /><ul><li> For the Society:</li></ul> A Cost Effective and Sustainable Way <br /> to Improve Public Health<br />
  45. 45. Strategies to Reduce Risk:World Health Report 2002 Messages<br /><ul><li>Very Substantial Health Gains Can be made for Relatively Modest Expenditures on Interventions
  46. 46. Changing Population Distributions of Risk Factors (Like Blood Pressure, Blood Cholesterol) Through General Lifestyle Changes
  47. 47. CVD: Population Wide Strategies to Lower Cholesterol (Quality Of Fat) And Blood Pressure (Salt Reduction) Key</li></li></ul><li>Strategies to Reduce Risk:World Health Report 2002 Messages<br /><ul><li>Tobacco: Higher Taxes, Comprehensive Advertisement Ban
  48. 48. Mix of Population Wide, High Risk And Secondary Prevention Measures, in a Cost Effective Balance
  49. 49. Sustained Policy Action
  50. 50. Strengthening Of National Institutions to Implement and Evaluate Risk Reduction Programmes</li></li></ul><li>
  51. 51. Protective Health Factors<br />Among the psychosocial factors that have been linked to protection in adults are: an optimistic outlook on life with a sense of purpose and direction, effective strategies for coping with challenge, perceived control over life outcomes, and expressions of positive emotion. Epidemiological studies have shown reduced morbidity and delayed mortality among people who are socially integrated. The quality of social relationships in the home (parent–child relations and spousal ties) and the workplace (employer–employee relations and coworker connections) are now recognized as key influences on physical and mental health.<br />
  52. 52. A growing literature underscores the protective health benefits associated with persistently positive and emotionally rewarding social relationships. Positive health behaviours (e.g., proper diet and adequate exercise, and avoiding cigarettes, drugs, excessive alcohol and risky sexual practices) are also influenced by psychosocial factors.<br />
  53. 53. The biological mechanisms through which psychosocial and behavioural factors influence health are a flourishing area of scientific inquiry: investigations in affective neuroscience are relating emotional experience to neural structures, function, dynamics and their health consequences. There is a need for greater emphasis in policy and practice on interventions built around the growing knowledge that psychosocial factors protect health.<br />
  54. 54. Evidence from 25 developing countries, 25 European countries, Canada, Israel and the United States shows that adolescents who report having a positive connection to a trusted adult (parent or teacher) are committed to school, have a sense of spirituality and exhibit a significantly lower prevalence of risky behaviours<br />
  55. 55. Faulty methods of coping with stress<br />Smoking<br />Alcohol<br />Frequent absenteeism from work <br />Anti-Social Activities <br />Irritability / Unjustified Anger <br />Overeating<br />
  56. 56. Stress Management<br />Deep Breathing Exercises / Walking <br />Yoga / Meditation<br />Music Therapy / Take up a hobby<br />Religious Activities / Social Service<br />Laughter Therapy<br />
  57. 57. Steps to handle Stress <br />Say ,” God ,give me the good sense to accept the things that I cannot change, change the things that I can and the wisdom to know the difference . “ <br />Write down the problem<br />Accept the worst that can happen <br />Find out the cause of the problem <br />Find out possible solutions. What is the best solution. <br />Ask your self ,” Is it a problem or is it an inconvenience ? “ <br />Practice the attitude of gratitude. <br />Forgive and forget . <br />Tap all your resources. Take help from family,friends and colleagues.<br />Get a purpose in life. <br />
  58. 58. The 10 Steps to Wellness<br />Early to bed and early to rise<br />Exercise regularly<br />Facilitate the natural body cycles<br />Watch your body weight<br />Organize your life well<br />Be humble to all<br />Spend true quality time with your family<br />Rediscover the hidden and lost “You”<br />Stay away from smoking and alcoholism<br />Learn how to handle stress effectively<br />
  60. 60. Thanks <br />