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Impact Of India Mark II Hand Pump Water Utilization And Sanitary Practices On Prevalence Of Water Borne Illnesses Among Under Five ChildrenRa.Pirabu1, J.V.Singh2, M.Agarwal3, J.Masood4, V.K.Singh5, M.K.Mannar51-Junior Resident, 2-Professor, 3-Associate Professor, 4-Assistant Professor,5-LecturerDepartment of Community Medicine and Public Health, CSMMU UP, Lucknow
IntroductionApproximately 88% of diarrhoeal diseases are attributed to unsafe water supply and inadequate sanitation and hygiene.1972-73: Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) was introduced by the GOI to assist states and union territories to accelerate the pace of coverage of safe drinking water supply.India Mark II Hand pumps were introduced during the year 1975-76 for satisfying the need for a sturdy deep borewell hand pumps where in the water level is low below the hard rock shield or the impervious layer.
ObjectivesTo study the availability and utilization of water facilities from India mark II hand pump.To assess the practices followed by the people in relation to safe water facilities.To compare the prevalence of water borne illnesses in the under five children of those households utilizing India mark II hand pumps with those who are not utilizing.
Materials and MethodsStudy Population- Rural areas of Lucknow districtStudy period- 1 year between Oct-09  to Sep-10Study design- cross-sectional community based field studySampling units- Primary, secondary and tertiary units were the Community development blocks, villages and households respectivelySample size- 303 Households including 488 under five childrenSampling technique- Multistage random sampling1st stage: 2 community blocks amongst the 8 blocks were selected using simple random sampling2nd stage: 20% of villages among the 150 villages distributed in the 2 blocks were selected using simple random sampling3rd stage: Households were selected using systematic random sampling with a random start
Materials and Methods cont..Inclusion criteria- Any adult member of the household present at the time of survey and who responded.The members of the household should be residing in that house for a minimum period of six months. The household should have at least one child aged less than five years old present at the time of survey.Exclusion criteria- Those members who didn’t respond and cooperate were not included in the study.The children of household members who stayed away from their normal dwelling place for a period of six months.
ObservationsTable 1: Sources of drinking water in the surveyed households (N= 303)
Table 2: Water storage and Purification Practices adopted by the households (N=303)*n= 210
Table 3: Prevalence of water borne illnesses in children with respect to the water source utilized in their households. (N= 488)
Table 4: Multinomial logit regression analysis of predictors influencing the prevalence of water borne illnesses in under five children
Conclusions75% households derived drinking water from India Mark II hand pumps. Two third stored and covered drinking water. 96.7% households didn’t treat water before drinking. Diarrhoea prevalence in children utilizing India mark II hand pumps was less (59.8%) than those using other sources (62.1%). Prevalence of dysentery was significantly related to the source of water supplyThe odd of getting dysentery or infested with worm are 0.06 and 0.13 times less likely to occur in children utilising India mark II hand pump respectively whereas diarrhoea is 1.1 times more likely to occur in children utilising India mark II hand pump.
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Dr Prabhu

  • 1. Impact Of India Mark II Hand Pump Water Utilization And Sanitary Practices On Prevalence Of Water Borne Illnesses Among Under Five ChildrenRa.Pirabu1, J.V.Singh2, M.Agarwal3, J.Masood4, V.K.Singh5, M.K.Mannar51-Junior Resident, 2-Professor, 3-Associate Professor, 4-Assistant Professor,5-LecturerDepartment of Community Medicine and Public Health, CSMMU UP, Lucknow
  • 2. IntroductionApproximately 88% of diarrhoeal diseases are attributed to unsafe water supply and inadequate sanitation and hygiene.1972-73: Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) was introduced by the GOI to assist states and union territories to accelerate the pace of coverage of safe drinking water supply.India Mark II Hand pumps were introduced during the year 1975-76 for satisfying the need for a sturdy deep borewell hand pumps where in the water level is low below the hard rock shield or the impervious layer.
  • 3. ObjectivesTo study the availability and utilization of water facilities from India mark II hand pump.To assess the practices followed by the people in relation to safe water facilities.To compare the prevalence of water borne illnesses in the under five children of those households utilizing India mark II hand pumps with those who are not utilizing.
  • 4. Materials and MethodsStudy Population- Rural areas of Lucknow districtStudy period- 1 year between Oct-09 to Sep-10Study design- cross-sectional community based field studySampling units- Primary, secondary and tertiary units were the Community development blocks, villages and households respectivelySample size- 303 Households including 488 under five childrenSampling technique- Multistage random sampling1st stage: 2 community blocks amongst the 8 blocks were selected using simple random sampling2nd stage: 20% of villages among the 150 villages distributed in the 2 blocks were selected using simple random sampling3rd stage: Households were selected using systematic random sampling with a random start
  • 5. Materials and Methods cont..Inclusion criteria- Any adult member of the household present at the time of survey and who responded.The members of the household should be residing in that house for a minimum period of six months. The household should have at least one child aged less than five years old present at the time of survey.Exclusion criteria- Those members who didn’t respond and cooperate were not included in the study.The children of household members who stayed away from their normal dwelling place for a period of six months.
  • 6. ObservationsTable 1: Sources of drinking water in the surveyed households (N= 303)
  • 7. Table 2: Water storage and Purification Practices adopted by the households (N=303)*n= 210
  • 8. Table 3: Prevalence of water borne illnesses in children with respect to the water source utilized in their households. (N= 488)
  • 9. Table 4: Multinomial logit regression analysis of predictors influencing the prevalence of water borne illnesses in under five children
  • 10. Conclusions75% households derived drinking water from India Mark II hand pumps. Two third stored and covered drinking water. 96.7% households didn’t treat water before drinking. Diarrhoea prevalence in children utilizing India mark II hand pumps was less (59.8%) than those using other sources (62.1%). Prevalence of dysentery was significantly related to the source of water supplyThe odd of getting dysentery or infested with worm are 0.06 and 0.13 times less likely to occur in children utilising India mark II hand pump respectively whereas diarrhoea is 1.1 times more likely to occur in children utilising India mark II hand pump.