Knowledge Management: Understanding The Creative Process

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  • Apa itu sebenarnya kreativitas? Menurut buku kreativitas tidak sama dengan Problem Solving atau kemampuan memecahkan masalah. Kreativitas itu novel = sesuatu new, tidak bisa, unik dan aneh. Dan harus sesuai dengan masalah.
  • Beberapa ciri dari kreatif solution adalah Satu mesti unik artinya belum pernah ditemukan sebelumnya Mungkin agak aneh dan yang bukan2 tapi bisa menyelesaikan permasalahan. Bersifat heuristic (memungkinkan seseorang untuk menemukan dan mempelajari sesuatu untuk dirinya) daripada algoritmic step by step problem solving & 5 Proses menacapi solusi itu tidak diketahui, bedakan probelm solving yang step-by-step, point A harus diselesaikan terlebih dahulu kalo belum selesai point B tidak bisa dikerjakan, tidak diketahui tapi masih dimengerti.
  • Beberapa penilitian berupaya untuk menjelaskan bagaimana seseorang itu kreatif : Seseorang yang cenderung kreatif dapat dijelaskan berdasarkan ciri kepribadiannya Penilitian lain mengarahkan setiap orang ada semacam otak : mode kreatif Ada juga yang berdasarkan jangka hidupnya Ada juga yang mengatakan itu adalah anugrah/karunia bawaan sejak lahir
  • Ada suatu fakta yang konsisten menyebutkan kreativtias tidaklah sama dengan intelligent, dalam hal ini IQ. Kreativitas itu bisa dilatih beda dengan IQ yang sudah bawaan lahir. There are both general and spesific kinds of intelligence and creativity. Kecerdasan umum itu adalah kemampuan untuk berpikir abstrak, logical dan sistematik Kecerdasan spesifik misalnya bakat dalam bidang musik, seni dan matematika General creative thinking = pintar, elegan atau mengejutkan dan mengarah ke solusi imajinatif. Spesific kemampuan kreatif dimiliki oleh orang yg memproduce novel dan produk yang bervalu diadalam bidang , seni, science dan politic. Dijelaskan bawah hubungan antara IQ dan kreativitas itu sedikit bahkan hampir tidak ada sama sekali. Jika seseorang yang memiliki IQ tinggi dipastikan dia lebih kreatif. Tapi seseorang itu sangat kreatif tidak akan ada pengaruh kepada IQ-nya.
  • Tes kepribadian (Barron, 1955 dan MacKinnon 1962) orang hihgly kreatif yang ditemukan menjadi tidak konvensional. Mereka memiliki 'kemampuan intelektual yang diwujudkan, kejelasan atau bahkan flamboyan karakter, kemurungan dan keasyikan, keberanian dan rasa centredness. Barron (1955: 68) mengemukakan bahwa orang-orang kreatif memiliki keunggulan mereka. Secara umum sangat kreatif ditemukan memiliki kekuatan ego yang tinggi dan fleksibilitas dan keberhasilan yang dicapai melalui usaha independen daripada kesesuaian. Mereka berpikir dan menghubungkan ide-ide dalam cara yang tidak biasa. Orang yang sangat kreatif independen dan signifikan kurang sesuai dalam pengaturan percobaan dibandingkan orang yang kurang kreatif. (Csikszentmilhalyi dan Getzels, 1973, Albert dan Runco, 1986 dan MacKinnon, 1964). Ciri-ciri kepribadian yang berhubungan dengan kreativitas meliputi kemandirian, keterbukaan terhadap pengalaman, kurangnya minat dalam norma-norma sosial dan penerimaan sosial dan menarik, nilai tinggi pada kegiatan itu sendiri bukan pada status ataupun uang. Orang yang sangat kreatif sering melaporkan bahwa mereka telah mengejar ide-ide mereka meskipun saran yang bertentangan. Mereka sering mengatakan bahwa mereka membuang-buang waktu atau sumber daya yang berharga dan mengalami kesulitan mendapatkan dana untuk pekerjaan mereka
  • Uses test diberikan batu bata dan menanyakan people untuk menggunakan batubatu itu untuk apa, dari jawaban mereka bisa dilhat seberapa kreatif mereka. Ada yang buat bangunan -> emang untuk itu. Ada yang buat missile -. Kreatif
  • Ada sebuah ilustrasi dimana seorang captain beserta navigator dan gunnner diminta untuk menyelesaikan sebuah kasus sederhana. Captain menjawab $0, gunner menjawab $10 dollar, navigator menjawab $20 dollar. Terus diminta untuk memutuskan satu jawaban karena pada takut dengan kaptennya semuanya menentukan itu 0$ padahalnya Jawabannya adalah $20 si navigator yang benar.
  • Devil advocate : meminta seseorang untuk berbeda pendapat untuk menciptakan
  • Care in requirements = same value, habits and viewpoints
  • Knowledge Management: Understanding The Creative Process

    1. 1. 1 of 13Understanding the Creative Process:Understanding the Creative Process:Management of the KnowledgeManagement of the KnowledgeWorkerWorkerChapter 4Chapter 4Knowledge Management
    2. 2. 2 of 13IntroductionCreativity ≠ Problem SolvingTwo elements of creativity1.It is ‘novel’2.It has to be appropriate to the problem
    3. 3. 3 of 13IntroductionCreative Solution is1.Unique2.They may even be bizarre or nonsensical3.It be heuristic rather than algorithmic4.The process used to arrive at a solution is not known5.Is not a step-by-step process (but it can still beunderstood)
    4. 4. 4 of 13IntroductionSome studies attempts to explain creativity:1.Described by typical personality traits2.Mode of thinking that leads to creative3.Understand creativity over the human lifespan4.Accomplishments of “gifted children”
    5. 5. 5 of 13Introduction1. General Intelligence = ability to think abstractly, logically and systematically.2. Spesific intelligence = talent in music or art or mathematic.3. The general and the spesific types of intelligence bear some relationship to each other but are not highlycorrelated.4. General creative thinking = clever, elegant or surprising and leads to imaginative solutions.5. Spesific creative ability possesed by people who produce novel and valuable products in the arts,sciences, business or politics.Most studies show a relationship between IQ and creativity there is little or no relationship.Creativity ≠ Intellegent
    6. 6. 6 of 13Personality = Who is Creative• Personality tests (Barron, 1955 and MacKinnon 1962) the higly creative person were found to beunconventional. They had ‘intelectual ability, vividness or even flamboyance of characther, moodinessand preoccupation, courage and self centredness.• Barron (1955: 68) suggested that creative people have an edge to them. In general the highly creativewere found to have high ego strength and flexibility and achieved successes by means of independenteffort rather than conformance. They think and associate ideas in unusual ways• Highly creative people are independent and significantly less conforming in experimental settings thanless creative people.• (Csikszentmilhalyi and Getzels, 1973, Albert and Runco, 1986 and MacKinnon, 1964). Personality traitsassociated with creativity include independence, openness to experience, a lack of interest in socialnorms and social accpetance and interestingly, a high value on the activity itself rather than on status ormoney.• Highly creative people often report that they have pursued their ideas despite advice to the contrary.They were often told that they were wasting their time or valuable resources and had difficulty obtainingfunds for their work
    7. 7. 7 of 13Cognitive Procesesse : a Style of Thinking1. Uses Test, which ask people to name all the uses of a common objectsuch as a brick.2. Circle Test, which ask people to sketch as many different object aspossible using 36 identical blank circles and give each sketch a name.3. Playfulness is also considered a personality trait and tends to becharacteristic of highly creative individuals, who are often described as‘childlike but not childish’.
    8. 8. 8 of 13Learning from the lifespan1. Trying to understand a person over a lifespan is a very complicatedundertaking to understand when and why creative thought turns intocreative accomplishment.2. Interviews with creative people. the real strength was in knowing agood question.3. Knowing the right question may be on of the benefits of having a highlycreative mentor
    9. 9. 9 of 13Social ContextThe problems with majorities and high statusWhen an answer is obvious, people are likely to abandon their own position on a questionwhen presented with a majority position that differs from their own.• As an illustration, Navy Bomber crews consisting of a captain, navigator adn gunner wereasked to solve this following problem : A man buys a horse for $60, sells it for $70, buys it back for$80 and sells it again for $90. How much profit did he make?There is a liner relationship between status acceptance of an opinion
    10. 10. 10 of 13Technique for Improving Creativity1. Giving Instructions (Brainstorming)2. Devil’s advocate/dialectical enquiry: mechanism for dissent3. The positive role of dissent1. Dissent as liberator2. Dissent as stimulator
    11. 11. 11 of 13Lesson for ManagementSome of the practices of those successfull companies include the following:1.Care in requirement2.Socialization into company’s culture3.Use of mottoes, slogans and language4.Dissent is ‘ejected like a virus’All of the mechanism mentioned above are powerful tool for achieving high morale andcohesion and promoting effort on behalf of the company
    12. 12. 12 of 13Videos : Creativity Needs TimeCreativity needs Time.flv - YouTube.FLV
    13. 13. 13 of 13Thanks For ListeningThanks For ListeningMaretMaret 20120133

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