WORK, LIFE AND LEISUREWORK, LIFE AND LEISURE
GROWTH OF THE CITIES
LONDON
AND
BOMBAY
GROWTH OF THE CITIES
LONDON
AND
BOMBAY...
Characteristics Of Cities
 Increase in food supply supported a wide range of non-food 
producers.
 Centre of political p...
A Godly Visit - Kolkata
 In 1880, Durgacharan Ray wrote a novel, Debganer Martye 
Aagaman (The Gods Visit Earth), in whic...
 The city of Calcutta in the nineteenth century was brimming with
     opportunities – for trade and commerce, education ...
 Like Durgacharan Ray, many others in nineteenth-century India
      were both amazed and confused by what they saw in th...
Industrialization And The Rise 
Of Modern Cities – The London
 London-A large city with huge population. Its population 
...
Major employment places in London
     1) London Dockyard
       2) Clothing and Footwear
       3) Wood and Furniture
   ...
Impact of Urbanisation on London
 As London grew crime flourished, 20,000 
criminals in 1870’s.
 People from poor backgr...
Housing and Transport in London
 Change in London city after the industrialization. 
 No housing arrangement by factory ...
The Demands Of Well off city dwellers
 The well off city dwellers  supported the need to build housing for 
the poor and ...
Cleaning London -Variety Of Steps
 Attempts were made to decongest localities.
 To have more “green open spaces” less po...
The Concept Of Garden City
 Congestion in cities required cleaning and
development of green belts.
 An architect and pla...
Transport in the London city
 The underground railway
partially solved housing
crisis by carrying large
masses of people ...
The first underground railway
 Underground railways-first section
of it was opened on 10Jan1863, from
Parrington to Farri...
Massive displacement for Railway line
 To clear the area of construction many houses were knocked down,
streets broken th...
Industrialisation And Life In The
London City
 Ties between members loosened-institution of marriage was
breaking down.
...
The women of Great Britain – Land Lassies (tenderness to work with mutiny)
The Women Movement
 Men and women did not have...
Political movements
 Chartism demanded voting rights for all males above 21 years of age.
 10 hour movement-demanded to ...
Leisure And Consumption of the
London City
 Wealthy Britisher’s - Cultural events, opera, theatre and classical
music per...
The Library
The Opera
The Royal Albert Hall - London
9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
The London Politics
 In 1886- the London poor exploded in a riot demanding relief from
poverty.
 In 1887-similar riot, w...
The City Of Colonial India
The pace of urbanization was slow in
colonial INDIA-11% lived in cities,
especially in three Pr...
The 7 Islands of Bombay - Caloba
9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
 In the 17th century, Bombay was a group of seven is lands under
Portuguese control.
 In 1661 it was passed to British a...
Work in Bombay
 Bombay became a capital
of Bombay presidency in 1819.
 Growth of trade in cotton and
opium, large commun...
Housing in Bombay City
 Bombay was an overcrowded city- 9.4 sq yds per person
in 1840s as compared to 155 sq yds in Londo...
 Rich Parsis, Muslim and upper class traders and industrialists lived
in bungalows and about 70%of the population lived i...
Transportation in the Bombay city
 Trams, Tongas - Horse carts, buses, cars and trains.
Tonga - the horse cart
Tram
9/25/...
Land Reclamation In Bombay
 The seven islands of Bombay were joined as one over a period of
time.
 The Bombay Governor W...
T
H
E
B
O
M
B
A
Y
C
I
T
Y
9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
Bombay “The City Of Dreams
Cinema and Culture
 Bombay appears to many as
a ‘Mayapuri’-a city of dreams.
 Many Bombay fil...
Asiatic Town Hall – the then Asiatic Town Hall – present view
Regal Cinema Hall, one among the oldest
9/25/2012 By: N.Hyma...
 In 1925 Bombay became first film capital.
 Most of the people in the industry were migrants from Lahore,
Calcutta, Madr...
Cities and challenges to the
Environment
 Harm to natural features due to more demand for space by factories,
housing and...
Aamchi Mumbai – Present Bombay
Congested Living – A view of Mumbai Railway Station Platform between two local trainsConges...
Polluted Mumbai – A Dead body found floating in the riverPolluted Mumbai – A Dead body found floating in the river
Ranked ...
Questions and Answers
1) State in brief, How did “The city of Calcutta “ both amazed and
confused the Gods?
2) Discuss the...
6) As London grew, ‘crime flourished’ justify the statement.
7) Why did better-off London city dwellers continue to demand...
11) What were the source of leisure for London city life ?
12) How did Bombay come under the British control ?
13) What is...
ACTIVITY
1) Imagine what would be life without industrialization. Describe in
your own words?
2) Collect information about...
9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
A Project By :
N.HYMAVATHY,
PGT History
JNV Bangalore (U)
A Project By :
N.HYMAVATHY,
PGT History
JNV Bangalore (U)
By: N....
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Work Life & Liesure - CLASS X based upon syllabus of CBSE/NCERT 2012-13

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Hi,

This is a presentation for the concepts based on the syllabus for Class X from CBSE/NCERT.

This is my first presentation on slideshare.
Hoping that you would like it & it will for sure add value for students.

Regards,
N.Hymavathy

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Work Life & Liesure - CLASS X based upon syllabus of CBSE/NCERT 2012-13

  1. 1. WORK, LIFE AND LEISUREWORK, LIFE AND LEISURE GROWTH OF THE CITIES LONDON AND BOMBAY GROWTH OF THE CITIES LONDON AND BOMBAY 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  2. 2. Characteristics Of Cities  Increase in food supply supported a wide range of non-food  producers.  Centre of political power, administrative network, trade and  industry, religious.  Supported various social groups such asartisans, merchants  and priests institutions and intellectual activity.  Cities vary in size and complexity. Densely settled modern-day  cities are called metropolis. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  3. 3. A Godly Visit - Kolkata  In 1880, Durgacharan Ray wrote a novel, Debganer Martye  Aagaman (The Gods Visit Earth), in which Brahma, the Creator in  Hindu mythology, took a train to Calcutta with some other gods.   As Varuna, the Rain God, conducted them around the capital of  British India, the gods were wonderstruck by the big, modern city –  the train itself, the large ships on the river Ganges, factories belching  smoke, bridges and monuments and a dazzling array of shops selling  a wide range of commodities.   The gods were so impressed by the marvels of the teeming   metropolis that they decided to build a Museum and a High Court in  Heaven! 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  4. 4.  The city of Calcutta in the nineteenth century was brimming with      opportunities – for trade and commerce, education and jobs.    But the gods were disturbed by another aspect of city life – its  cheats  and thieves, its grinding poverty, and the poor quality of  housing for many.   Brahma himself got tricked into buying a pair of cheap glasses and  when he tried to buy a pair of shoes, he was greatly confused by the  shopkeepers who accused one another of being swindlers.   The gods were also perturbed at the confusion of caste, religious and  gender identities in the city.   All social distinctions that appeared to be natural and normal  seemed to be breaking down.  9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  5. 5.  Like Durgacharan Ray, many others in nineteenth-century India       were both amazed and confused by what they saw in the cities.  The city seemed to offer a series of contrasting images and       experiences – wealth and poverty, splendour and dirt, opportunities      and disappointments.    Though urbanisation has a long history, the modern city worldwide  has developed only over the last 200 years.  Three historical processes have shaped modern cities in decisive  ways: the rise of industrial capitalism, the establishment of colonial  rule over large parts of the world, and the development of  democratic ideals. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  6. 6. Industrialization And The Rise  Of Modern Cities – The London  London-A large city with huge population. Its population  multiplied four folds in the 70 years i.e.1810-1880 from 1 million  to four million.  It attracted many people from country side. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  7. 7. Major employment places in London      1) London Dockyard        2) Clothing and Footwear        3) Wood and Furniture        4) Metal and Engineering        5) Precision Products as Surgical instruments, Objects of Precious Metals  By First World War… London began manufacturing  motor cars and  electrical goods 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  8. 8. Impact of Urbanisation on London  As London grew crime flourished, 20,000  criminals in 1870’s.  People from poor background turned to  Criminals.  To preserve the discipline amongst the  population, authorities imposed penalties and  offered jobs to deserving poor.  Factories employed women.  Industrialization created unemployment and  forced them to do domestic work, tailoring,  washing and match-box making (a low-paid job). Working WomenWorking Women 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  9. 9. Housing and Transport in London  Change in London city after the industrialization.   No housing arrangement by factory owners for migrant workers.  Housing, became cheap and unsafe. Daily wagers were allowed to  stay in apartments  and multi storey  building which were unsafe &  unhygienic.  Poverty increased due to unemployment and low paid jobs both in  countryside and in cities.  Bad living conditions resulted in early deaths-life expectancy to  29yrs and 55yrs for middle and rich class respectively. Westminster Abbey - London Abbey Lambert - Canterbury 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  10. 10. The Demands Of Well off city dwellers  The well off city dwellers  supported the need to build housing for  the poor and  removal of slums  Reasons:-         1) A serious threat to public health         2) Fire hazards due to poor housing        3) Fear of social disorder So workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the poor  from turning rebellious 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  11. 11. Cleaning London -Variety Of Steps  Attempts were made to decongest localities.  To have more “green open spaces” less polluted-large blocks  of apartments were built.  Rent control was introduced to do with housing shortage.  Between 2WW(1919-1939) housing was taken care by the British  state.   9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  12. 12. The Concept Of Garden City  Congestion in cities required cleaning and development of green belts.  An architect and planner Ebenezer Howard, later Raymond Un win and Barry Parker designed the Garden City of New Ears wick.  The garden city is a pleasant place full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work.  He believed that this would provide better quality of cities and citizens.  There would be common gardens, spaces and beautiful views. Ebenezer HowardEbenezer Howard 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  13. 13. Transport in the London city  The underground railway partially solved housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from London.  People who wanted to live in the garden city and still work in the city could use underground railway.  Thus underground railway besides providing means of transport to thousands of people also solved the housing problem to some extent. Aerial view of London Underground’sAerial view of London Underground’s 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  14. 14. The first underground railway  Underground railways-first section of it was opened on 10Jan1863, from Parrington to Farrington  By 1880 train service carried 40milllion passengers  Earlier people were afraid to travel  Better planned suburbs and a good railway network helped people to live outside central London and travel to work. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  15. 15. Massive displacement for Railway line  To clear the area of construction many houses were knocked down, streets broken through and stopped, deep pits and trenches were dug creating enormous heaps of earth.  It is believed that to make 2 miles of railway, 900 houses were destroyed.  The London railway led to massive displacement of London poor. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  16. 16. Industrialisation And Life In The London City  Ties between members loosened-institution of marriage was breaking down.  Women worked for wages, had some control over their lives.  Social reformers needed that the institution of family be saved.  The city encouraged INDIVIDUALISM among men and women and a freedom from collective values.   Women cleaners & sweepers Motor Ambulances with their female drivers & nurses 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  17. 17. The women of Great Britain – Land Lassies (tenderness to work with mutiny) The Women Movement  Men and women did not have equal access to urban lives.  Male-public space, women –domestic sphere.  Women joined movements; demanded right to vote or right to property to married women(1870).  The family now consisted of smaller units. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  18. 18. Political movements  Chartism demanded voting rights for all males above 21 years of age.  10 hour movement-demanded to limited hours of work in factories. Riots Riots 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  19. 19. Leisure And Consumption of the London City  Wealthy Britisher’s - Cultural events, opera, theatre and classical music performance.  Working class - met in pubs to drink, exchange news and organize political actions.  Libraries, art galleries and museums were established to develop pride in the history and achievement of the British.  Lower classes preferred to go to music halls and cinema.  British industrial workers spend their holidays by the sea. Charles Dickens Charles Dickens 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  20. 20. The Library The Opera The Royal Albert Hall - London 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  21. 21. The London Politics  In 1886- the London poor exploded in a riot demanding relief from poverty.  In 1887-similar riot, which was brutally suppressed by the police- Bloody Sunday of Nov 1887.  In 1889-thousands of dockworkers went on strikes and marched through the city.  A large city population was both a threat and opportunity. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  22. 22. The City Of Colonial India The pace of urbanization was slow in colonial INDIA-11% lived in cities, especially in three Presidency cities – 1) Bombay 2) Madras and 3) Calcutta These were multifunctional cities. There were major ports, warehouses, homes and offices, army, educational institutions, museums and libraries. Bombay –premier city of INDIA 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  23. 23. The 7 Islands of Bombay - Caloba 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  24. 24.  In the 17th century, Bombay was a group of seven is lands under Portuguese control.  In 1661 it was passed to British after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles II to the Portuguese princess as dowry.  At first, Bombay was major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat later large quantities of raw material as cotton and opium would pass.  Later a major administrative and industrial center The 17th Century Bombay 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  25. 25. Work in Bombay  Bombay became a capital of Bombay presidency in 1819.  Growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle.  The first cotton mill established in 1854 led to lot of people migrating to Bombay.  Women formed a part of mill workforce, but by 1930s women’s jobs were taken away by machines and men.  Bombay dominated sea trade of INDIA till 20th century.  Railways also encouraged an even higher scale of migration. Cotton Traders Bombay Harbour - 1915 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  26. 26. Housing in Bombay City  Bombay was an overcrowded city- 9.4 sq yds per person in 1840s as compared to 155 sq yds in London.  London had 8 persons per house as compared to 20 in Bombay.  The Bombay fort area in 1800’s was divided into native towns where Indians lived and there was a European or white section.  A European suburb and an industrial zone was in the north and cantonment was in the south of the Fort.  A racial pattern also prevalent in other two Presidencies.  Water and housing problems were created due to expansion of the city. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  27. 27.  Rich Parsis, Muslim and upper class traders and industrialists lived in bungalows and about 70%of the population lived in congested chawls .  Chawls were also place of exchange of news of jobs, strikes, riots and demonstrations.  Many people lived as tenants in one room(4 to5).In the case of high rent people used to share homes.  People were living in a miserable conditions.  The jobber in a mill used to be neighborhood leader-who settled disputes, organized food supplies and credits. Chawl Ghar 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  28. 28. Transportation in the Bombay city  Trams, Tongas - Horse carts, buses, cars and trains. Tonga - the horse cart Tram 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  29. 29. Land Reclamation In Bombay  The seven islands of Bombay were joined as one over a period of time.  The Bombay Governor William Hornby approved the building of the great wall to prevent the flooding of low lying areas of Bombay.  Need for more space led to reclamation of land from sea.  In 1864, the Back Bay reclamation company reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Colaba.  With increase in population more area was reclaimed from the sea.  To improve the situation of housing “The City of Bombay Improvement Trust” was created in 1898, which cleared poorer homes out of the city center.  In 1918 “Rent Act” was created to keep reasonable rents. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  30. 30. T H E B O M B A Y C I T Y 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  31. 31. Bombay “The City Of Dreams Cinema and Culture  Bombay appears to many as a ‘Mayapuri’-a city of dreams.  Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants and their problems and real life pressures.  Bombay film industry  Harish Chandra S B shot a scene of wrestling match in Bombay’s Hanging gardens and it became India’s first movie.  In 1913-the film “Raja Harishchandra” was directed by Dadasaheb Phalke, which became India’s first full length feature film. A shot from – Raja Harishchandra Dhundiraj Govind Phalke 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  32. 32. Asiatic Town Hall – the then Asiatic Town Hall – present view Regal Cinema Hall, one among the oldest 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  33. 33.  In 1925 Bombay became first film capital.  Most of the people in the industry were migrants from Lahore, Calcutta, Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry.  Bombay film industry contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a mixture of dreams and reality, of slums and bungalows. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  34. 34. Cities and challenges to the Environment  Harm to natural features due to more demand for space by factories, housing and other institutions.  Noise, air and water pollution.  More use of coal in homes and industries lead to black smoke, which further caused harmful pollution and other hazards.  Factory owners and steam engine owners did not want to spend on technologies to improve their machines which produced a lot of smoke and harmful chemicals.  This resulted in polluting the surroundings, rivers and environment. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  35. 35. Aamchi Mumbai – Present Bombay Congested Living – A view of Mumbai Railway Station Platform between two local trainsCongested Living – A view of Mumbai Railway Station Platform between two local trains The Slums of MumbaiThe Slums of Mumbai The Slums of Mumbai – Dharavi Slum OverviewThe Slums of Mumbai – Dharavi Slum Overview 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  36. 36. Polluted Mumbai – A Dead body found floating in the riverPolluted Mumbai – A Dead body found floating in the river Ranked No. 9 in the world list of polluted cities - MumbaiRanked No. 9 in the world list of polluted cities - Mumbai Make way in garbageMake way in garbage Caught in the traffic jam… Caught in the traffic jam… The 7 islands now… Mumbai an aerial viewThe 7 islands now… Mumbai an aerial view Ganesh Nimarjan – who says Mumbai is crowded?9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  37. 37. Questions and Answers 1) State in brief, How did “The city of Calcutta “ both amazed and confused the Gods? 2) Discuss the characteristics of ‘Ancient cities’. 3) Describe the rise and expansion of the city of London. 4) How did industrialization changed the form of urbanization in the modern period ? 5) Describe the rise and expansion of the city of London. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  38. 38. 6) As London grew, ‘crime flourished’ justify the statement. 7) Why did better-off London city dwellers continue to demand for housing for the poor? 8) What were the various steps taken to clean up London ? 9) What do you understand by the ‘ Garden City’? Who developed this system ? 10) Why did people called underground railway ‘the iron monster’? 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  39. 39. 11) What were the source of leisure for London city life ? 12) How did Bombay come under the British control ? 13) What is Chawl? How were the disputes settled in the chawls ? 14) How did Bombay city expand ? 15) Why is Bombay referred to as a mayapuri or mayanagri ? 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  40. 40. ACTIVITY 1) Imagine what would be life without industrialization. Describe in your own words? 2) Collect information about the employment opportunities in film industry. 3) Collect pictures about the impact of Industrialization. Display it in an album. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  41. 41. 9/25/2012 By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)
  42. 42. A Project By : N.HYMAVATHY, PGT History JNV Bangalore (U) A Project By : N.HYMAVATHY, PGT History JNV Bangalore (U) By: N.Hymavathy, PGT History JNV Bang (U)

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