Edited version for hyejeoung kim's part


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Edited version for hyejeoung kim's part

  1. 1. Special Considerations for Teaching Listening and Speaking<br />Group 3<br />Jeanne KrauseJonathan KunzCarmela LemonHyeJeoung Kim<br />
  2. 2. Student Interviews/Role playing<br />Set up a time to personally interview students about their previous formal instruction experiences<br />Role play “What if……?” scenarios that examine how we might communicate wants, needs, or address them in the classroom<br />
  3. 3. Use Technology to demonstrate what an active learning classroom full of students should look like……<br /><ul><li> You tube videos
  4. 4. Skype/videoconferencing with others
  5. 5. Short movies display student engagement</li></ul>All of these examples are indirect ways of showing students what is acceptable and the varied ways of communicating in a community of learners without telling them directly.<br />
  6. 6. What environment allows for an attitude of active learning to take place?<br />Allow for an environment of rich language to be heard and spoken by the teacher and peers<br />Give students many authentic opportunities to communicate and show the benefits of using such language<br />Openly discuss the personal, educational, and vocational benefits of the language they are pursuing as a reminder of purpose<br />Allow for a balanced amount of classroom participation that is unbiased by using tools to call upon students randomly so no one student dominates the discourse<br />When students do use their learned language skills, be mindful to give positive, yet instructional feedback<br />
  7. 7. Inclusivity<br />Students who feel included are more apt to speak out<br />Use multicultural texts<br />
  8. 8. Represent Each Culture<br />
  9. 9. Individualality<br />Each student wants to know his/her voice will be heard<br />
  10. 10. Make the classroom safe for all students<br />
  11. 11. Encourage Collaboration<br />Students blend their voices and create projects<br />Reader’s theater<br />
  12. 12. Include Laughter<br />
  13. 13. Enjoy the likenesses and celebrate the diversity<br />Students are more apt to speak out and/or listen to each other when they feel a “part of”<br />
  14. 14. American Classrooms<br />No longer a melting pot; now a giant buffet table to which each student brings a tasty story to tell<br />Some will like what you bring; others will not<br />
  15. 15. Overview for the above section<br />Students who feel included are more willing to speak out<br />Students who feel safe in their learning environment are more willing to listen and respond<br />Students are naturally curious about different cultures, so let each culture be represented<br />Encourage students to collaborate and learn together in a safe, positive environment.<br />
  16. 16. Why teaching pronunciation is a special consideration?<br />Pronunciation is an integral part of ESL/EFL in that it affects learners’ communicative competence and performance.<br />In spite of the role of pronunciation in Language Learning, it’s been overlooked by teachers, the curriculum/syllabus designers.<br />We as teachers need to ascertain a level or variety and the aspects of ESL pronunciation that has close connection with other areas (listening, learners’ reading and spelling).<br />
  17. 17. 4 Specific Considerations in Teaching Pronunciation<br />The absence or exclusion of ESL/EFL pronunciation from the curriculum, syllabus and classroom activities<br />The lack of materials which have pronunciation components and lessons or pronunciation tips<br />Teachers do not have formal and adequate training in English phonetics and phonology as well as ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching.<br />The lack of useful strategies or techniques for teaching ESL/EFL pronunciation <br />
  18. 18. What should be taught in a pronunciation class? <br /><ul><li>The level, variety or accent of ESL pronunciation</li></ul> As English become international language, the goal of learning pronunciation is not to get native-speaker like accents but to develop intelligible, communicable pronunciation.<br /><ul><li>The aspects, components or features of ESL pronunciation</li></ul> ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching should cover both the segmentals and the suprasegmentals as well as the training of the speech organs.<br />
  19. 19. Teaching approaches in pronunciation<br />Bottom-up approach starts the articulation of individual sounds or phonemes and works up towards stress, rhythm, tone and intonation (segmentals -> suprasegmentals)<br />Top-down or research approach begins with patterns of intonation and bring s separate sounds or phonemes into sharper focus. This is more effective in teaching ESL pronunciation (suprasegmentals -> segmentals)<br />
  20. 20. 5 Tips for teaching pronunciation in classroom <br />Utilization of known sounds<br /> Teachers help learners compare the sounds of the target language with those of learners mother tongue.<br />Communication activities<br /> Teachers design communicative tasks affording to learners’ linguistic level in order to practice particular sounds that learners don’t use when they speak mother tongue. <br />
  21. 21. Written versions of oral presentations<br /> Teachers give strategies for analyzing the written materials of learners’ oral presentation.<br />Tutorial sessions and self-study<br /> Teachers make tutorial sessions to give learners a diagnostic analysis of each learner’s spoken English and design individualized program for each learner. <br />Computer-assisted language learning<br /> Teachers exploit CALL to help learners become more autonomous. Learners can study at his/her own pace and Teachers can monitor learners’ weak point and strong point in ESL pronunciation with making learners build profiles.<br />
  22. 22. Colloquialisms, Idioms, & Slang<br />Whazzup? How’s it going? Sup, Dawg?<br />As taken from the Supplementary readings, these colloquialism are not meant to dumb down speaking, however are not used in what is known as Formal Speaking.<br />According to “Making Sense of English: An Introduction to American Slang, Colloquialisms and Idioms” by Shelley Motz, many international students master the English language. However, they have trouble understanding some conversations.<br />
  23. 23. The reason is (ESL) or English as a Second Language. According to the article, “ESL classes cannot adequately prepare these students for the everyday use of slangs, <br />idioms, and<br /> colloquialisms.”<br />
  24. 24. Slang<br />What is Slang?<br />According to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, slang is “very informal usage in vocabulary and idiom that is characteristically more metaphorical, playful, elliptical, vivid and ephemeral than ordinary language”.<br />
  25. 25. Idioms<br />An idiom is an expression “whose meaning is not<br />predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent<br />elements…or from the general grammatical rules of a<br />language”.<br />As Mark Algren, Language Specialist at the Applied English Center of the University of Kansas, observed sports idioms are among the most common in everyday speech in the US.<br />What are some of the sports idioms you are likely to hear? What do they mean?<br />
  26. 26. Examples of Idioms<br />Drop the ball: make an error or mistake<br />Get your feet wet: start a new project cautiously<br />Know the score: know the facts about something in particular<br />Out in left field: offbeat or unusual<br />Team player: someone who <br />works well with others to achieve <br />a goal<br />
  27. 27. Colloquialism<br />What is a Colloquialism?<br />A colloquialism is “characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing”. Colloquialisms often reflect regional characteristics; a phrase that is commonly understood in the South, for example, may not be recognized in other parts of the US.<br />
  28. 28. Helping Students<br />According to the article, it’s recommended that students, especially international students keep a vocabulary log. This would be essential and beneficial for students to write down certain phrases or words they don’t quite understand.<br />Also keep track of how many times they hear the expressions used in order to understand what conditions they are used.<br />
  29. 29. Final Considerations…<br />“Respect the language of one’s students, and they will appreciate yours as well”<br />