Some exchange of views in “Learn2work”. A tool for transition from school to work www.vanschoolnaarwerk.org Harrie van den Brand Luuk den Hartog Marianne Middendorf
situations effects performance invisible visible Working with competences in schools for teachers and pupils. Competences come to the surface in performances and the effectiveness of performances. competence acting Implicit knowledge Explicit knowledge Iceberg metaphor
<ul><li>A competence as "the ability to perform activities to the standards required in employment using an appropriate mix of knowledge , skill and attitude ". All three aspects must be present if someone has to be effective in the workplace. To improve competences you need to increase not only your knowledge but also your understanding of how that knowledge can be applied and your skills in applying it. </li></ul>What is competence in employment ?
<ul><li>Handelungskompetenz ist alle Fähigkeiten, Fertigkeiten, Denkmethoden und Wissenbestände des handlungs- und reaktionsfähig machen und sich in der erfolgreichen Bewältigung konkreter Arbeitsanforderungen zeigen. Wichtig dabei ist, dass dies selbsorganisiert, aufgabengemäß, zielgerichtet, situationsbedingt und verantwortungsbewusst geschieht (Kauffeld et. al. 2002). Dabei stellt die Selbsorganisation einen zentralen Aspekt der beruflichen Handelungskompetenz dar (vgl. Sonntag & Schmidt-Rathjens 2004; Erpenbeck & Rosenstiel 2003; Arnold & Schlüsser 2001). </li></ul>What is competence in employment ?
<ul><li>Theoretical evidence in theory of constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Describing the meeting of students, assessors and employers as basic information </li></ul><ul><li>Learning theories must be explored </li></ul><ul><li>Advising theories must be explored </li></ul><ul><li>A report of good practice, portfolio and work experience besides </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation is against context </li></ul><ul><li>Using the instrument is saying: “I want to teach you something, take part in your development”. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a framework to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Educational aspects must be explored </li></ul><ul><li>The student has to adapt to the structure and the culture </li></ul><ul><li>The company has to feed the learning possibilities </li></ul>Evidence Learn2Work?
<ul><li>Collect data by observing and communicating and looking for evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>We have directly and indirectly evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit knowledge can’t become explicit only by talking </li></ul><ul><li>A balance between personal ambition and the focus on the demands of a job, a task </li></ul><ul><li>Pré knowledge has to be awakened in situations, relations. (social constructivism) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: IQ, motivation, pré knowledge </li></ul>How do we discover implicit competences ?
<ul><li>In the literature about learning in companies Nonaka & Takeuchi published ideas about learning in companies. In the book “A knowledge creating company” (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H., 2003) the conversion of knowledge is described shortly in chapter 3.4. Within the transition from school to work, it is right to orient further on this subject and the operation of the knowledge spiral. What experience the students who transit from school to work? The conversion of knowledge exists of different levels, two levels seems interesting for trainees, socialisation and internalization. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Socialization: exchange of tacit knowledge among members that create common mental models and abilities. Socialization transfers tacit knowledge most frequently through the medium of shared experience. Apprentices learn by observation and imitation of the expert’s behaviour, as well as children, in ancient societies and, less frequently, nowadays. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization: is the process of adding to explicit knowledge (principles, procedures, methodologies) tacit new knowledge (in the form of sensations, memories, images) through experimenting in various ways, as through real life experience, simulation of limit situations or simulation through the usage of software” (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H., 2003, p. 74) </li></ul>How do we discover implicit competences ?
<ul><li>Socialization is often reality in work placement practice. Internalization is going on in the transfer trainees have to make from practice in the school to real world learning. </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean to work placement and the trainees? What does it mean to guiding and the coaches? To socialize is a process in which experiences are exchanged. Someone may get knowledge, direct from others without language. Students cooperate with their tutors and learn a profession by observing, imitation and practice. During a “Training on the job” almost the same principle is used. It is not useful to simply transfer information if this is disconnected from the combined feelings and specific context in which the cooperative experiences are embedded (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H., 2003, p. 75). </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization is created if explicit knowledge becomes part of personal knowledge and has a lot to do with “learning by doing”. If via explicit knowledge (documents, stories and manuals) knowledge is transferred into personal knowledge than this knowledge becomes valuable “capital goods” (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 2003, p. 82). </li></ul>How do we discover implicit competences ?