Industrial Ergonomics


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Industrial Ergonomics and how tp apply them to your work

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  • Slide Show Notes Welcome to our training session on ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in industrial work areas. This session will look at some of the basic principles of ergonomics so that you can use a commonsense approach to working safely.
  • Industrial Ergonomics

    1. 1. Ergonomics Industrial
    2. 2. Session Objectives <ul><li>You will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the principles of ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries <ul><ul><li>1.8 million MSD injuries each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000 MSD injuries require Medical Treatment </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What Is Ergonomics? <ul><ul><li>Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce MSDs Caused by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe work practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPE </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What Are MSDs? <ul><li>Injuries to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons—Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal discs </li></ul></ul>Image Credit: National Institutes of Health/NIAMS
    6. 6. MSD Characteristics <ul><ul><li>Occur from a single event or many small injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May Take weeks, months, or years to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after permanent injury has occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing causes may occur at home and work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. General Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Less strength for gripping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less range of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of muscle function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to do everyday tasks </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. MSD Symptoms <ul><ul><li>Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow and knee joints—pain, swelling, stiffness </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. MSD Symptoms (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Hands and wrists— swelling, numb, loss of strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbs—pain at the base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet and toes—numb, stiff, burning sensation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Outward Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Swelling or inflammation of joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorously shaking hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massaging hands, wrists, or arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cradling arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff back </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Common MSDs <ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low back pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger finger </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Risk Factors that Lead to MSDs <ul><ul><li>Repetitive motions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful exertions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward postures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact stress (pressure points) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrations </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Repetitive Motion <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration and speed of repetitious movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of muscles involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising and lowering the arm over and over again </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Forceful Exertions <ul><ul><li>Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type and duration of the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly turning a screwdriver while pushing at the same time </li></ul></ul>Image Credit: OSHA
    15. 15. Awkward Postures <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force the body must maintain to hold the position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding fixed positions (static loading) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Contact Stress <ul><ul><li>Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grip strength required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wresting wrists on the keyboard while typing </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Vibration <ul><ul><li>Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools without vibration dampening device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor power tool maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged use of a grinder </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. What’s Wrong Here?
    19. 19. Ergonomics Management <ul><ul><li>Job assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSD reporting and response system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSD intervention and control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards <ul><ul><li>Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devise a control strategy with your input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Control Methods <ul><ul><li>Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. How to Protect Yourself <ul><ul><li>Change positions often, take stretch breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain neutral posture whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use material handling aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report MSD symptoms </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Key Points to Remember <ul><ul><li>Recognize MSD signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take steps to control MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in the Ergonomics Program </li></ul></ul>