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Industrial Ergonomics

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Industrial Ergonomics and how tp apply them to your work

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Industrial Ergonomics

  1. 1. Ergonomics Industrial
  2. 2. Session Objectives <ul><li>You will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the principles of ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries <ul><ul><li>1.8 million MSD injuries each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000 MSD injuries require Medical Treatment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Ergonomics? <ul><ul><li>Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce MSDs Caused by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe work practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPE </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Are MSDs? <ul><li>Injuries to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons—Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal discs </li></ul></ul>Image Credit: National Institutes of Health/NIAMS
  6. 6. MSD Characteristics <ul><ul><li>Occur from a single event or many small injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May Take weeks, months, or years to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after permanent injury has occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing causes may occur at home and work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Less strength for gripping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less range of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of muscle function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to do everyday tasks </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. MSD Symptoms <ul><ul><li>Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow and knee joints—pain, swelling, stiffness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MSD Symptoms (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Hands and wrists— swelling, numb, loss of strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbs—pain at the base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet and toes—numb, stiff, burning sensation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Outward Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Swelling or inflammation of joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorously shaking hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massaging hands, wrists, or arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cradling arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff back </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Common MSDs <ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low back pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger finger </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Risk Factors that Lead to MSDs <ul><ul><li>Repetitive motions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful exertions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward postures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact stress (pressure points) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrations </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Repetitive Motion <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration and speed of repetitious movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of muscles involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising and lowering the arm over and over again </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Forceful Exertions <ul><ul><li>Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type and duration of the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly turning a screwdriver while pushing at the same time </li></ul></ul>Image Credit: OSHA
  15. 15. Awkward Postures <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force the body must maintain to hold the position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding fixed positions (static loading) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Contact Stress <ul><ul><li>Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grip strength required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wresting wrists on the keyboard while typing </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Vibration <ul><ul><li>Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools without vibration dampening device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor power tool maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged use of a grinder </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What’s Wrong Here?
  19. 19. Ergonomics Management <ul><ul><li>Job assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSD reporting and response system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSD intervention and control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards <ul><ul><li>Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devise a control strategy with your input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Control Methods <ul><ul><li>Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How to Protect Yourself <ul><ul><li>Change positions often, take stretch breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain neutral posture whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use material handling aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report MSD symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Key Points to Remember <ul><ul><li>Recognize MSD signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take steps to control MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in the Ergonomics Program </li></ul></ul>

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