Indoor Air Quality


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Indoor Air Quality and Sick Buildings

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Indoor Air Quality

  1. 1. INDOOR AIR QUALITY <ul><li>PRESENTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Taylor </li></ul>
  2. 2. UNDERSTANDING IAQ <ul><li>HEALTH EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSATIVE AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL METHODOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sick Building Syndrome Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a situation in which occupants of a building experience acute health effects that seem to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone, or may be widespread throughout the building. Frequently, problems result when a building is operated or maintained in a manner that is inconsistent with its original design or prescribed operating procedures. Sometimes indoor air problems are a result of poor building design or occupant activities.
  4. 4. HEALTH EFFECTS MAY INCLUDE <ul><li>EYE, NOSE, OR THROAT IRRITATION </li></ul><ul><li>HEADACHES </li></ul><ul><li>FATIGUE </li></ul><ul><li>IRRITABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>DRY SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>NASAL CONGESTION </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFICULTY BREATHING </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE BLEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>NAUSEA </li></ul><ul><li>ASTHMA </li></ul><ul><li>ALLERGY </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Asthma <ul><li>Asthma afflicts about 20 million Americans, including 6.3 million children.  Since 1980, the biggest growth in asthma cases has been in children under five.  In 2000 there were nearly 2 million emergency room visits and nearly half a million hospitalizations due to asthma, at a cost of almost $2 billion, and causing 14 million school days missed each year </li></ul>May is Asthma Awareness Month  
  6. 6. Molds Molds are part of the natural environment. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air. Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture. 
  7. 7. Indoor Air Quality for Schools Twenty percent of the U.S. population, nearly 55 million people, spend their days in our elementary and secondary schools. In the mid-1990s, studies show that 1 in 5 of our nation's 110,000 schools reported unsatisfactory indoor air quality, and 1 in 4 schools reported ventilation -- which impacts indoor air quality -- as unsatisfactory. Students are at greater risk because of the hours spent in school facilities and because children are especially susceptible to pollutants
  8. 8. CAUSATIVE AGENTS CONTINUED <ul><li>ASBESTOS </li></ul><ul><li>CHRYSOTILE </li></ul><ul><li>AMOSITE </li></ul><ul><li>CROCIDOLITE </li></ul><ul><li>FIBERGLASS </li></ul><ul><li>INORGANIC DUSTS </li></ul><ul><li>METALLIC DUSTS </li></ul><ul><li>LEAD </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC DUSTS </li></ul><ul><li>PAPER DUSTS </li></ul><ul><li>POLLEN </li></ul><ul><li>WATER VAPOR </li></ul><ul><li>TOBACCO SMOKE COMPONENTS </li></ul>
  9. 9. CAUSATIVE AGENTS <ul><li>INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANT TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>COMBUSTION PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICS & BIOAEROSOLS </li></ul><ul><li>RADIONUCLIDES </li></ul><ul><li>ODORS </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDES OF NITROGEN (NOX) </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDES OF SULFUR (SOX) </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON’S (PAH) </li></ul>
  10. 10. CAUSATIVE AGENTS SOURCES <ul><li>COMBUSTION PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>KEROSENE HEATERS </li></ul><ul><li>LOADI </li></ul><ul><li>WOOD STOVES / UNVENTED GAS STOVES </li></ul><ul><li>NEARBY TRAFFIC </li></ul><ul><li>VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES </li></ul><ul><li>ADHESIVES & CAULKING COMPOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>CARPETING & DRAPERY </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICLE BOARD </li></ul><ul><li>VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES </li></ul><ul><li>FLOOR & WALL COVERINGS </li></ul><ul><li>PAINTS, VARNISHES AND STAINS </li></ul><ul><li>UPHOLSTERY </li></ul>
  11. 11. CAUSATIVE SOURCES CONTINUED <ul><li>TOBACCO SMOKE </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS </li></ul><ul><li>OUTDOOR AIR </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTS & PLANT PARTS </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>HVAC SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>COOLING TOWERS </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANS/ANIMALS </li></ul><ul><li>STAGNANT WATER RESERVOIRS </li></ul><ul><li>HUMIDIFIERS </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING MATERIALS </li></ul>
  12. 12. Green Building Green Building - Do your buildings create a healthy environment for their occupants?  The building industry is increasingly focused on making its buildings greener , which includes using healthier, less polluting and more resource-efficient practices. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) refers to the quality of the air and environment inside buildings, based on pollutant concentrations and conditions that can affect the health, comfort and performance of occupants -- including temperature, relative humidity, light, sound and other factors.  Good IEQ is an essential component of any building, especially a green building
  13. 13. RESOURCES The Building Air Quality, developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings. This guidance provides information on factors affecting indoor air quality; describes how to develop an IAQ profile of building conditions and create an IAQ management plan; describes investigative strategies to identify causes of IAQ problems; and provides criteria for assessing alternative mitigation strategies, determining whether a problem has been resolved, and deciding whether to consult outside technical specialists. Other topics included in the guide are key problem causing factors; air quality sampling; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; moisture problems; and additional sources of information. The order form is available from EPA Document Reference Number 402-F-91-102 , December 1991.