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W6 lecture notes

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TEACHING GRAMMAR
ELT METHODOLOGY 2
CONTRIBUTORS: GROUP 3

Published in: Education
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W6 lecture notes

  1. 1. HCMC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION Faculty of Foreign Languages ELT METHODOLOGY 2 Nguyễn Thị Ly Hươn Phạm Thị Xuân Nữ Đỗ Trần Bích Ngọc Nguyễn Văn Hiếu Huỳnh Thị Thúy Nga Teacher: Tran Thi Nhu Trang, M.A. Contributors: GROUP 3 TEACHING GRAMMAR
  2. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 OVERVIEW ABOUT GRAMMAR WAYS OF PRESENTING GRAMMAR DISCOVERING GRAMMAR TYPES OF GRAMMAR PRACTICE GRAMMAR BOOKS & GAMES
  3. 3. OVERVIEW ABOUT GRAMMAR WHAT IS GRAMMAR?
  4. 4. Definition of grammar Grammar may be defined as the rules of a language, governing the way in which words are put together to convey meaning in different contexts. Grammar is generally a thought to be set of rules specifying the correct ordering of words at the sentence level Grammar can be defined as the rules by which words change their forms and are combined in other senses
  5. 5. Definition of grammar Grammar may be defined as the rules of a language, governing the way in which words are put together to convey meaning in different contexts. Grammar is generally a thought to be set of rules specifying the correct ordering of words at the sentence level Grammar can be defined as the rules by which words change their forms and are combined in other senses Chitravelu; Sithamparam & The Soo Choon, 2005 Nunan, 2003 Oxford dictionary
  6. 6. GRAMMAR IN GENERAL GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES EXAMPLE(S)
  7. 7. I. INTRODUCING GRAMMAR
  8. 8. Principles for teaching grammatical structures • Teach structures implicitly: Give examples of structure. -> Students discover the meaning.
  9. 9. Principles for teaching grammatical structures • Present a structure orally the written form + explanation
  10. 10. Principles for teaching grammatical structures • Give explanation, use visual aids and avoid the use of special terms.
  11. 11. Principles for teaching grammatical structures • Link the form to meaning in the context. • Give positive feedback and emphasize communication rather than just grammatical accuracy
  12. 12. Principles for teaching grammatical structures • Go from controlled practice to freer communication
  13. 13. DIFFERENT WAYS OF PRESENTING GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES
  14. 14. What to focus on when presenting a new structure? •Form •Usage •Meaning
  15. 15. The use of PPP, TTT and TBL in teaching grammar • PPP approach (Presentation – Practice – Production): Individual language items (for example, the past continuous) are presented by the teacher  practised in the form of spoken and written exercises (often pattern drills)  used by the learners in less controlled speaking or writing activities
  16. 16. The use of PPP, TTT and TBL in teaching grammar • TTT approach (Test-Teach-Test): production stage comes first and the learners are "thrown in at the deep end" and required to perform a particular task (a role play, for example)  teacher deals with some of the grammatical or lexical problems that arose in the first stage  learners are required either to perform the initial task again or to perform a similar task
  17. 17. The use of PPP, TTT and TBL in teaching grammar • TBL approach (Task-based learning): –Pre-task activity: an introduction to topic and task –Task cycle: Task > Planning > Report –Language Focus and Feedback
  18. 18. Two common approaches to teach grammar Deductive grammar teaching Inductive grammar teaching
  19. 19. DIFFERENT WAYS OF PRESENTING GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES Presenting grammatical structures implicitly Presenting grammatical structures explicitly
  20. 20. Presenting grammatical structures implicitly Ex: He opens the door. -> The door is opened. Or The door is opened by him.
  21. 21. Presenting grammatical structures explicitly Doing action Receiving action
  22. 22. Discovering grammar
  23. 23. Self-direct discovery DISCOVERING GRAMMAR Teacher explanation Guided discovery
  24. 24. 1. Self- direct discovery • Example: Students decide they want to learn about reported speech. They go to the library or learning center and find out more. No help from the teachers.
  25. 25. 2. Explanation • Example: You lecture about the construction of conditional sentences. Teacher directly explains about: + How to use conditional sentences. + Structure of conditional sentences in some.
  26. 26. 3. Guided discovery • Example: Students discuss interpretation of timelines on the board and try to make example sentences for them. You intervence when answers seem elusive and at one point explain the difference between two tenses .
  27. 27. Teacher- centred Controllers Resource Controllers Participants Tutor Listeners Participants Student- centered TYPES ROLES EXPLANATION GUIDED DISCOVERY SELF-DIRECT DISCOVERY TEACHER STUDENT
  28. 28. II. GRAMMAR PRACTICE
  29. 29. Types of Grammar Practice 02 01 DRILLS EXERCISES Controlled practice Free oral practice Dialogues
  30. 30. Drills A technique which emphasis on repeating structural pattern through oral practice
  31. 31. Kinds of Drills True sentences Substitution drills Repetition drills Transformation drills B E A, C D, F
  32. 32. Repetition drills Ex: Teacher: It’s cold outside. Students: It’s cold outside. Teacher: It’s warm outside. Students: It’s warm outside.  The teacher models and the students repeat it. 1
  33. 33. Substitution drills Ex: Teacher: She is a worker. Teacher: doctor Students: She is a doctor.  Students change one or some words while maintaining the same basic structure in response to a cue from the teacher. 2
  34. 34. 3 Transformation drills Ex: Teacher: I like ice cream. NEGATIVE Students: I don’t like ice cream. Teacher: I like ice cream. QUESTION Students: Do you like ice cream? Teacher: Peter gave me money. PASSIVE Students: I was given money by Peter.  Students transform a sentence of one kind into another form based on information given.
  35. 35. 4 True sentences  Students give real information in their answers Ex: Teacher: What are you going to do after school? Students: I’m going to play football. Teacher: And tonight? Students: I’m going to watch TV.
  36. 36. EXERCISES The exercises are designed to help students become more familiar with the use of grammatical points in English.
  37. 37. EXERCISES
  38. 38. EXERCISES
  39. 39. EXERCISES
  40. 40. EXERCISES
  41. 41. EXERCISES
  42. 42. EXERCISES Omission Multiple choices Matching Rewriting Replace- ment Reordering Gap-filling
  43. 43. Free oral practice (Communication)
  44. 44. Controlled practice or free oral practice - Teacher gives topic and students use their own ideas to express their opinions. - Dialogues are available from teacher and students practise. FREE ORAL PRACTICE CONTROLLED PRACTICE
  45. 45. Grammar games
  46. 46. Grammar games - Ask the right question - Putting sentences back together again - One question behind
  47. 47. Grammar games - Split sentences - Grammar quiz - Memory test - Picture dictation - Miming an action…
  48. 48. Procedures for teaching a new structure + Set the situation (use pictures, realia or create a situation) + Give the model and ask the class to repeat in chorus + Ask individual students to repeat the model sentence + Write the sentence on the board + Elicit the form, usage and meaning of the structure + Contrast structures if necessary + Ask the class to copy + Give other situations and ask ss to give examples + Give ss activities for practising
  49. 49. Grammar books How to choose a good grammar book?
  50. 50. Grammar books Clarity Simplicity Relevance
  51. 51. REFERENCES • Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. 4th edition. Pearson Education. • Luu Quy Khuong. (2006). A practical course for teaching English as a foreign language. University of Danang. • Scrivener, J. (2005). Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English Language Teachers. 2nd edition. Macmillan Education. • Ur, P. (1999). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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