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Topic 6 - Project Integration Management.pdf

Project Integration

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Project Integration Management
Dr. Huy Nguyen
Project Management Framework
2
Process Groups & Knowledge Areas Mapping
Knowledge
Areas
Process Groups
Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing
Integration
Develop Project
Charter
Develop Project Management Plan
Direct and Manage Project Work
Manage Project Knowledge
Monitor and Control Project Work
Perform Integrated Change Control
Close Project or Phase
Scope
Plan Scope Management
Collect Requirements
Define Scope
Create WBS
Validate Scope
Control Scope
Schedule
Plan Schedule Management
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Control Schedule
Cost
Plan Cost Management
Estimate Costs
Determine Budget
Control Costs
Quality Plan Quality Management Manage Quality Control Quality
Resource
Plan Resource Management
Estimate Activity Resources
Acquire Resources
Develop Team
Manage Team
Control Resources
Communications Plan Communications Management Manage Communications Monitor Communications
Risk
Plan Risk Management
Identify Risks
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Plan Risk Responses
Implement Risk Responses Monitor Risks
Procurement Plan Procurement Management Conduct Procurements Control Procurements
Stakeholder Identify Stakeholders Plan Stakeholder Engagement Manage Stakeholder Engagement Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
3
Project Integration Management
Knowledge
Area
Process Groups
Initiating Planning Executing
Monitoring &
Controlling
Closing
Integration
• Develop
Project
Charter
• Develop
Project
Management
Plan
• Direct and
Manage Project
Work
• Manage Project
Knowledge
• Monitor and Control
Project Work
• Perform Integrated
Change Control
• Close
Project or
Phase
Enter phase/
Start project
Exit phase/
End project
Initiating
Processes
Closing
Processes
Planning
Processes
Executing
Processes
Monitoring &
Controlling Processes
4
Project Integration Management
• Processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the
various processes and project management activities within the Project
Management Process Groups.
• Whereas other knowledge areas may be managed by specialists, Project
Integration Management cannot be delegated or transferred. It must be
managed by project manager as ultimate responsibility to combine the results
in all the other knowledge areas and has the overall view of the project.
• Key activities in Project Integration Management:
– Making choices about resource allocation;
– Making trade-offs among competing demands;
– Examining any alternatives;
– Tailoring the processes to meet the objectives;
– Managing the interdependencies among the project management
knowledge areas.
5
Key Concepts
• Project Integration Management is about:
– Ensuring that the deliverable due dates of the product, service, or result;
project life cycle; and the benefits management plan are aligned;
– Providing a project management plan to achieve the project objectives;
– Ensuring the creation and the use of the appropriate knowledge to and from
the project as necessary;
– Managing the performance and changes of the activities in the project
management plan;
– Making integrated decisions regarding key changes impacting the project;
– Measuring and monitoring the project’s progress and taking appropriate
action to meet project objectives;
– Collecting data on the results achieved, analyzing the data to obtain
information, and communicating this information to relevant stakeholders;
– Completing all the work of the project and formally closing each phase,
contract, and the project as a whole; and
– Managing phase transitions when necessary.
6
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Topic 6 - Project Integration Management.pdf

  • 3. Process Groups & Knowledge Areas Mapping Knowledge Areas Process Groups Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing Integration Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Plan Direct and Manage Project Work Manage Project Knowledge Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Close Project or Phase Scope Plan Scope Management Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Validate Scope Control Scope Schedule Plan Schedule Management Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule Cost Plan Cost Management Estimate Costs Determine Budget Control Costs Quality Plan Quality Management Manage Quality Control Quality Resource Plan Resource Management Estimate Activity Resources Acquire Resources Develop Team Manage Team Control Resources Communications Plan Communications Management Manage Communications Monitor Communications Risk Plan Risk Management Identify Risks Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses Implement Risk Responses Monitor Risks Procurement Plan Procurement Management Conduct Procurements Control Procurements Stakeholder Identify Stakeholders Plan Stakeholder Engagement Manage Stakeholder Engagement Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 3
  • 4. Project Integration Management Knowledge Area Process Groups Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing Integration • Develop Project Charter • Develop Project Management Plan • Direct and Manage Project Work • Manage Project Knowledge • Monitor and Control Project Work • Perform Integrated Change Control • Close Project or Phase Enter phase/ Start project Exit phase/ End project Initiating Processes Closing Processes Planning Processes Executing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes 4
  • 5. Project Integration Management • Processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. • Whereas other knowledge areas may be managed by specialists, Project Integration Management cannot be delegated or transferred. It must be managed by project manager as ultimate responsibility to combine the results in all the other knowledge areas and has the overall view of the project. • Key activities in Project Integration Management: – Making choices about resource allocation; – Making trade-offs among competing demands; – Examining any alternatives; – Tailoring the processes to meet the objectives; – Managing the interdependencies among the project management knowledge areas. 5
  • 6. Key Concepts • Project Integration Management is about: – Ensuring that the deliverable due dates of the product, service, or result; project life cycle; and the benefits management plan are aligned; – Providing a project management plan to achieve the project objectives; – Ensuring the creation and the use of the appropriate knowledge to and from the project as necessary; – Managing the performance and changes of the activities in the project management plan; – Making integrated decisions regarding key changes impacting the project; – Measuring and monitoring the project’s progress and taking appropriate action to meet project objectives; – Collecting data on the results achieved, analyzing the data to obtain information, and communicating this information to relevant stakeholders; – Completing all the work of the project and formally closing each phase, contract, and the project as a whole; and – Managing phase transitions when necessary. 6
  • 7. Trends and Emerging Practices • Evolving trends in integration processes include but are not limited to: – Use of automated tools; – Use of visual management tools; – Project knowledge management; – Expanding the project manager’s responsibilities; – Hybrid methodologies. 7
  • 8. Tailoring Considerations • Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to: – Project life cycle; – Development life cycle; – Management approaches; – Knowledge management; – Change; – Governance; – Lessons learned; – Benefits. • Considerations for agile or adaptive environments: – Iterative vs. agile approaches; – Building a collaborative decision-making environment and ensuring the team has the ability to respond to changes (broad skills) rather than controlling the detailed product planning and delivery (narrow specialization). 8
  • 9. 1 - Develop Project Charter • Process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities; • Provide a direct link between the project and the strategic objectives of the organization. Inputs 1.Business documents • Business case • Benefits management plan 2.Agreements 3.Enterprise environmental factors 4.Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1.Expert judgment 2.Data gathering • Brainstorming • Focus groups • Interviews 3.Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Facilitation • Meeting management 4.Meetings Outputs 1.Project charter 2.Assumption log 9
  • 10. 1 - Develop Project Charter 10
  • 11. Develop Project Charter (Inputs) • Projects are authorized by someone external to the project (such as sponsor, PMO, portfolio steering committee or authorized representative) due to internal business needs or external influences that creating a needs analysis, feasibility study, business case, agreements…. • Project charter establishes a partnership between the performing and requesting organizations, and can be created by them or delegated to project manager in collaboration with the initiating entity. • Business case: Provide the necessary information from business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment. • Agreements: Contracts, memorandums of understanding (MOUs), service level agreements (SLA), letters of agreement, letters of intent, verbal agreements, email, or other written agreements. 11
  • 12. Develop Project Charter (Tools & Techniques, Outputs) • Expert judgment includes: • Assumption log: High-level strategic and operational assumptions and constraints. • Project charter includes: – Project purpose; – Measurable project objectives and related success criteria; – High-level requirements and high-level project description, boundaries, and key deliverables; – Overall project risk; – Summary milestone schedule; – Preapproved financial resources; – Key stakeholder list; – Project approval requirements; – Project exit criteria; – Assigned project manager, responsibility, and authority level; and – Name and authority of the sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter. – Other units within organization; – Consultants; – Stakeholders including customer or sponsor; – Subject matter experts (SME); – Project management office (PMO); – Industry groups; – Professional & technical association. 12
  • 13. 2 - Develop Project Management Plan • Process of defining, preparing, coordinating and consolidating all plan components into an integrated project management plan. Inputs 1.Project charter 2.Outputs from other processes 3.Enterprise environmental factors 4.Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1.Expert judgment 2.Data gathering • Brainstorming • Checklists • Focus groups • Interviews 3.Interpersonal and team skills • Conflict management • Facilitation • Meeting management 4.Meetings Outputs 1.Project management plan 13
  • 14. 2 - Develop Project Management Plan 14
  • 15. Project Management Plan (Outputs) • Describe how the project will be executed, monitored, controlled, and closed; • Integrate and consolidate all of the subsidiary plans and baselines, and other information necessary from the planning processes to manage the project;  The strategy for managing the project and the processes in each knowledge area. • Project management plan mostly includes: – Scope, requirements, schedule, cost, quality, resource, communications, risk, procurement management plan, and stakeholder engagement plan; – Change, configuration management plan, and performance measurement baseline; – Project lifecycle, development approach and management reviews; – Process improvement plan; – Baselines in scope, schedule and cost. • How to handle a problem on a project? – Look at your management plan to see how you planned to handle such a problem; – Through Perform Integrated Change Control process and reviewed by Change Control Board. 15
  • 17. Baseline for Performance Measurement • The project management plan contains scope, schedule, and cost baselines, against which the project manager will need to report project performance. • Baselines created during planning: – Scope baseline: The project scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and WBS dictionary; – Schedule baseline: The agreed-upon schedule, including the start and stop times; – Cost baseline: The time-phased cost budget. • Deviations from baselines are often due to incomplete risk identification and risk management. 17
  • 18. Change Management Plan • Describes how changes will be managed and controlled; • Covers for the project as whole; • May include: – Change control procedures (how and who); – The approval levels for authorizing changes; – The creation of a change control board to approve changes; – A plan outlining how changes will be managed and controlled; – Who should attend meetings regarding changes; – Tools to use to track and control changes. 18
  • 19. Configuration Management Plan • Defines how you will manage changes to the deliverables and the resulting documentation, including which organizational tools you will use; • Also covers for the project as whole; • May include: – Configuration control procedures (how and who); – The approval levels for authorizing changed configurations; – The creation of a configuration control board to approve changed configurations; – A plan outlining how configurations will be managed and controlled; – Who should attend meetings regarding configurations; – Tools to use to track and control configurations. 19
  • 20. 3 - Direct & Manage Project Work • Process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives. Inputs 1. Project management plan 2. Project documents • Change log • Lesson learned register • Milestone list • Project communications • Project schedule • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk register • Risk report 3. Approved change requests 4. Enterprise environmental factors 5. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Project management information system 3. Meetings Outputs 1. Deliverables 2. Work performance data 3. Issue log 4. Change requests 5. Project management plan updates • Any components 6. Project document updates • Activity list • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Requirements documentation • Risk register • Stakeholder register 7. Organizational process assets updates 20
  • 21. 3 - Direct & Manage Project Work 21
  • 22. Activities • Direct and Manage Project Work activities include, but are not limited to: – Perform activities to accomplish project objectives; – Create project deliverables to meet the planned project work; – Provide, train, and manage the team members assigned to the project; – Obtain, manage, and use resources including materials, tools, equipment, and facilities; – Implement the planned methods and standards; – Establish and manage project communication channels, both external and internal to the project team; – Generate work performance data, such as cost, schedule, technical and quality progress, and status to facilitate forecasting; – Issue change requests and implement approved changes into the project’s scope, plans, and environment; – Manage risks and implement risk response activities; – Manage sellers and suppliers; – Manage stakeholders and their engagement; – Collect and document lessons learned and implement approved process improvement activities. 22
  • 23. Implementation of Approved Changes • Corrective action: – An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan; • Preventive action: – An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan; • Defect repair: – An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component • Updates: – Changes to formally controlled project documents, plans, etc., to reflect modified or additional ideas or content. 23
  • 24. 4 - Manage Project Knowledge • Process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project’s objectives and contribute to organizational learning; • Produce or improve the project outcomes, and knowledge created by the project is available to support organizational operations and future projects or phases. Inputs 1.Project management plan 2.Project documents • Lessons learned register • Project team assignments • Resource breakdown structure • Source selection criteria • Stakeholder register 3.Deliverables 4.Enterprise environmental factors 5.Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1.Expert judgment 2.Knowledge management 3.Information management 4.Interpersonal and team skills • Active listening • Facilitation • Leadership • Networking • Political awareness Outputs 1.Lesson learned register 2.Project management plan updates • Any component 3.Organizational process assets updates 24
  • 25. 4 - Manage Project Knowledge 25
  • 26. Knowledge and Knowledge Management • Types of knowledge: – Explicit: Can be readily codified using words, pictures, and numbers; – Implicit or tacit: Personal and difficult to express, such as beliefs, insights, experience, and “know-how”. • Knowledge management: – Making sure the skills, experience, and expertise of the project team and other stakeholders are used before, during, and after the project; – Creating an atmosphere of trust so that people are motivated to share their knowledge; – Using a mixture of knowledge management tools and techniques (interactions between people) and information management tools and techniques. 26
  • 27. Knowledge Management (Tools and Techniques) • Knowledge management supports creating new knowledge, sharing tacit knowledge and integrating the knowledge of diverse team members by using tools and techniques: – Networking, including informal social interaction, online social networking, and online forums for starting knowledge-sharing conversations with specialists; – Communities of practice and special interest groups; – Meetings, including virtual meetings where participants can interact using communications technology; – Work shadowing and reverse shadowing; – Discussion forums such as focus groups; – Knowledge-sharing events such as seminars and conferences; – Workshops, including problem-solving sessions and learning reviews designed to identify lessons learned; – Storytelling; – Creativity and ideas management techniques; – Knowledge fairs and cafés; and – Training that involves interaction between learners. 27
  • 28. Information Management (Tools and Techniques) • Information management supports creating and sharing simple, unambiguous, codified explicit knowledge by using tools and techniques: – Methods for codifying explicit knowledge; – Lessons learned register; – Library services; – Information gathering; – Project management information system (PMIS). 28
  • 29. 5 - Monitor & Control Project Work • Process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. Inputs 1. Project management plan 2. Project documents • Assumption log • Basis of estimates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Milestone list • Quality reports • Risk register • Risk report • Schedule forecasts 3. Work performance information 4. Agreements 5. Enterprise environmental factors 6. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis • Earned value analysis • Root cause analysis • Trend analysis • Variance analysis 3. Decision making 4. Meetings Outputs 1. Work performance reports 2. Change requests • Corrective action; • Preventive action; • Defect repair. 3. Project management plan updates • Any component 4. Project documents updates • Cost forecasts • Issue log • Lessons learned register • Risk register • Schedule forecasts 29
  • 30. 5 - Monitor & Control Project Work 30
  • 31. Activities • Monitor and Control Project Work process is concerned with: – Comparing actual project performance against the project management plan; – Assessing performance periodically to determine whether any corrective or preventive actions are indicated, and then recommending those actions as necessary; – Checking the status of individual project risks; – Maintaining an accurate, timely information base concerning the project’s product(s) and their associated documentation through project completion; – Providing information to support status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting; – Providing forecasts to update current cost and current schedule information; – Monitoring implementation of approved changes as they occur; – Providing appropriate reporting on project progress and status to program management when the project is part of an overall program; and – Ensuring that the project stays aligned with the business needs. 31
  • 32. 6 - Perform Integrated Change Control • Process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating the decisions. Inputs 1. Project management plan • Cost baseline • Scope baseline • Schedule baseline • Configuration management plan • Change management plan 2. Project documents • Basis of estimates • Requirements traceability matrix • Risk report 3. Work performance reports 4. Change requests 5. Enterprise environmental factors 6. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Change control tools 3. Data analysis • Alternatives analysis • Cost-benefit analysis 4. Decision making • Voting • Autocratic decision making • Multicriteria decision making 5. Meetings Outputs 1. Approved change requests 2. Project management plan updates • Any component 3. Project documents updates • Change log 32
  • 33. 6 - Perform Integrated Change Control 33
  • 34. Activities • Configuration management activities include: – Configuration identification: • Identification and selection of a configuration item to provide the basis for which the product configuration is defined and verified, products and documents are labeled, changes are managed, and accountability is maintained. – Configuration status accounting: • Information is recorded and reported as to when appropriate data about the configuration item should be provided; • Include a listing of approved configuration identification, status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of approved changes. – Configuration verification and audit: • Ensure the composition of a project’s configuration items is correct and that corresponding changes are registered, assessed, approved, tracked, and correctly implemented. 34
  • 35. Activities • Change management activities include: – Changes identification: • Identification and selection of a change item for processes or project documents. – Changes documentation: • Documenting the change into a proper change request. – Changes decision: • Reviewing the changes; approving, rejecting, deferring, or making any other decision about changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines. – Changes tracking: • Verifying that the changes are registered, assessed, approved, and tracked and communicating final results to stakeholders. 35
  • 36. 7 - Close Project or Phase • Process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase. Inputs 1. Project charter 2. Project management plan • All components 3. Project documents • Assumption, change log, basis of estimates • Issue log, lessons learned register • Project communications, milestone list • Quality control measurements and reports • Requirements documentation • Risk register and risk report 4. Accepted deliverables 5. Business documents • Business case, benefits management plan 6. Agreements 7. Procurement documentation 8. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Expert judgment 2. Data analysis • Document analysis • Regression analysis • Trend analysis • Variance analysis 3. Meetings Outputs 1. Project documents updates • Lesson learned register 2. Final product, service or result transition 3. Final report 4. Organizational process assets updates 36
  • 37. 7 - Close Project or Phase 37
  • 38. Activities • Closure of Project or Phase includes actions and activities necessary to: – Satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project; – Completion of the contractual agreements applicable to the project or project phase; – Collect project or phase records, audit project success or failure, manage knowledge sharing and transfer, identify lessons learned and archive project information for future use by the organization; – Transfer the project’s products, services, or results to the next phase or to production and/or operations; – Collecting any suggestions for improving or updating the policies and procedures of the organization, and sending them to the appropriate organizational unit; – Measuring stakeholder satisfaction. 38
  • 39. Thank You Next topic: Project Scope Management 39