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Project Team Management
Dr. Huy Nguyen
• Effective team characteristics;
• Reasons to join teams;
• Team development;
• Keys to managing people;
• Managing project teams;
• Project team conflict;
• Project team pitfalls.
Project Team Management
2
• What is a team?
– Team is a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to
achieve a given set of objectives or goals.
• What is teamwork?
– Teamwork is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are
familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization.
• What is team-building?
– Team-building is high interaction among group members to increase trust
and openness;
– Team building activities include physical challenges and psychological
preference indicator tools.
Effective Team Characteristics
3
• The involvement of a project manager in team work:
– Supervisor: Serving as the appointed head of a formal work unit;
– Facilitator: Serving as the peer leader and networking hub for a special
task force;
– Participant: Serving as a helpful, contributing member of a project team;
– Coach: Serving as the external convenor or sponsor of a problem-solving
team staffed by others.
Effective Team Characteristics
4
• Project team size:
– Performance of a team is based on balance of members carrying out roles
and meeting social and emotional needs;
– Members help team to manage problems in reducing costs and improving
the performance;
– Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best;
– There are problems to encounter as size increases;
– Some issues relating to team size:
• It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group;
• Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team;
• People end up with less commitment to the team goals;
• It requires more centralized decision making;
• There is lesser feeling as being part of team.
Effective Team Characteristics
5
• Project team size:
– Group intercommunication formula:
• n(n − 1) / 2;
– Assigning more members to a project running behind schedule will make it
even later, due to the time required for the new members to learn about the
project, as well as the increased communication overhead.
– Examples:
• 5 members  5(5−1)/2 = 10 channels of communication;
• 10 members  10(10−1)/2 = 45 channels of communication;
• 50 members  50(50−1)/2 = 1225 channels of communication.
Effective Team Characteristics
6
• Common characteristics of an effective team:
– Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes;
– Accurate effective 2-way communication;
– Leadership is shared and participation encouraged;
– Effective decision making and problem solving;
– Team identity and cohesiveness;
– Diverse backgrounds and experience;
– Cooperation and collaboration;
– Team members share a common identity.
Effective Team Characteristics
7
• Common characteristics of an effective team:
Effective Team Characteristics
8
• Individual reasons:
– Security;
– Status;
– Self-esteem;
– Affiliation;
– Power;
– Goal achievement.
• Organizational reasons:
– Improving performance;
– Reducing costs;
– Increasing benefit;
– Completing common tasks (missions, goals, strategies);
– Exploiting experience and skills of members.
Reasons to Join Teams
9
• Project teams usually come together for a project and then disband.
• 5 states model of team development:
Team Development
10
• Implications in 5 stages model for team development:
– A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping the group
evolve quickly to the performing phase;
– This model provides a framework for the group to understand its own
development;
– It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes to the
level of productivity.
• Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of group
development.
Team Development
11
• Punctuated Equilibrium Model:
– There are natural transition points during the life of teams in which the
group is receptive to change and that such a moment naturally occurs at
the scheduled midpoint of a project;
– By imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to create
multiple transition points for natural group development.
Team Development
12
• Punctuated Equilibrium Model:
Team Development
13
• Training:
– The main goal of team development is to help people work together more
effectively to improve project performance;
– Training can help people understand themselves and each other, and
understand how to work better in teams.
Team Development
14
• Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Project Management:
• People in technology fields have a tendency to I, N, T instead of E, S, F.
Team Development
Extrovert Introvert
Sensation Intuition
Thinking Feeling
Judgement Perception
E
S
T
J
I
N
F
P
N
P
me
E
T
15
• What is your suitability to project work according to MBTI?
Team Development
16
• What is your suitability to project work according to MBTI?
– Most suited for project leadership:
• 100 percent: INTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, ESTJ;
• 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ.
– Best suited as followers:
• 100 percent: INFJ, ISFJ;
• 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ, ESFJ.
– Not suited for project work:
• 100 percent: INFP, ISFP, ESFP, ISTP;
• 50 percent: ENFP, ESTP.
Team Development
17
Responsiveness
Assertiveness
Ask Tell
People
Task
• Social styles profile:
– People are perceived as
behaving primarily in one
of four zones (drivers,
expressive, analytical,
amiable), based on their
assertiveness and
responsiveness.
– People on opposite
corners (drivers and
amiable, analytical and
expressive) may have
difficulty getting along.
Team Development
Analytical Driver
Amiable Expressive
18
• Reward and recognition systems:
– Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork;
– Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals;
– Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet
project goals and develop human resources;
– Recognize individual performance?
• Letters of commendation;
• Public recognition for outstanding work;
• Desirable job assignments;
• Increased personal flexibility.
Team Development
19
• Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and
thought to the field of managing people at work.
• Important areas related to project management include:
– Motivation;
– Influence and power;
– Effectiveness.
Keys to Managing People
20
• Motivation:
– Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own
enjoyment, eg. read, gardening…
– Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to
avoid a penalty, eg. homework…
– Motivation theorists:
• Maslow’s hierarch of needs;
• Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene;
• McClelland’s acquired-needs;
• McGregor’s X and Y.
Keys to Managing People
21
• Influence and power:
– Thamhain and Wilemon’s 9 influence bases available to project managers
to deal with workers and how those approaches relate to project success:
• Authority - the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders;
• Assignment - the ability to influence a worker’s later work assignments;
• Budget - the ability to authorize others’ use of discretionary funds;
• Promotion - the ability to improve a worker’s position;
• Money - the ability to increase a worker’s pay and benefits;
• Penalty - the ability to dispense or cause punishment;
• Work challenge - the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker’s
enjoyment of doing a particular task, which taps an intrinsic motivational
factor;
• Expertise - the special knowledge that others deem important;
• Friendship - the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between
the project manager and others.
Keys to Managing People
22
• Effectiveness:
– Steven Covey’s 7 habits that project managers need in order to improve effectiveness
on projects:
• Be proactive - the ability to be proactive, anticipate and plan for problems and inevitable
changes on projects;
• Begin with the end in mind - focus on their values, what to accomplish, and how to be
remembered through a mission statement;
• Put first things first - a time management system and matrix to help to prioritize time,
spend more time doing things that are important, but not urgent. Project managers need to
spend a lot of time developing the project plan;
• Think win/win - several paradigms of interdependence, with think win/win being the best
choice in most situations. Parties in potential conflict work together to develop new
solutions that make them all winners;
• Seek first to understand then to be understood - empathic listening is listening with the
intent to understand, is even more powerful than active listening because we forget our
personal interests and focus on truly understanding the others;
• Synergize - creat collaborative products that are much better than a collection of individual
efforts;
• Sharpen the saw - renew ourself physically, spiritually, mentally and socially.
Keys to Managing People
23
• Project managers must lead their teams in performing various project
activities.
• After assessing team performance and related information, the project
manager must decide:
– If changes should be requested to the project;
– If corrective or preventive actions should be recommended;
– If updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational
process assets.
• Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teams include:
– Observation and conversation;
– Project performance appraisals;
– Conflict management;
– Issue logs.
Managing Project Teams
24
• Develop your team:
– Be patient and kind with your team;
– Fix the problem instead of blaming people;
– Establish regular, effective meetings;
– Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stages;
– Limit the size of work teams to five to twelve members;
– Plan some social activities to help project team members and other
stakeholders;
– Stress team identity;
– Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other;
– Take additional actions to work with virtual team members.
Managing Project Teams
25
• Know the conditions favorable for development of high performing teams:
– Voluntary team membership;
– Continuous service on the team;
– Full-time assignment to the team;
– An organization culture of cooperation and trust;
– Members report only to the project manager;
– Functional areas are represented on the team;
– The project has a compelling objective;
– Members are in speaking distance of each other.
Managing Project Teams
26
• Meeting:
– A brief diversion into management and meetings;
– Normally, we use company time to call a meeting for:
• See people, feel important, impress colleagues, draw charts, form
subcommittees, make meaningless recommendations.
– Conducting project meetings:
• Managing subsequent meetings;
• Establishing ground rules;
• Planning decisions;
• Tracking decisions;
• Managing change decisions;
• Relationship decisions.
– Information about a meeting:
• Time, date, place, who must be there, meeting goals, agenda, expected
outcome, preparation required.
Managing Project Teams
27
• Recruiting project members:
– Factors affecting recruiting;
– Importance of the project management structure used to complete the
project.
– How to recruit?
• Ask for volunteers.
– Who to recruit?
• Problem-solving ability;
• Availability;
• Technological expertise;
• Credibility;
• Political connections;
• Ambition, initiative, and energy.
Managing Project Teams
28
• Recruiting Project Members:
– Create a high performance project team:
• Establish a team identity:
– Effective use of meetings;
– Co-location of team members;
– Creation of project team name;
– Team rituals.
Managing Project Teams
Recruit team members Superior performance
Conduct project meetings
Establish team identity
Create a shared vision
Build a reward system
Manage decision making
Manage conflict
Rejuvenate the project team
29
• Requirements for an effective project vision:
Managing Project Teams
30
• Orchestrating the decision-making process:
– Problem identification;
– Generating alternatives;
– Reaching a decision;
– Follow-up.
• Rejuvenating the project team:
– Informal techniques:
• Institute new rituals;
• Take an off-site break as a team from the project;
• View an inspiration message or movie;
• Have the project sponsor give a pep talk.
– Formal techniques:
• Team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues
affecting performance;
• Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience
to promote social development of the team.
Managing Project Teams
31
• Challenges of managing virtual teams:
– Developing trust:
• Exchange of social information;
• Set clear roles for each team member.
– Developing effective patterns of communication:
• Include face-to-face if at all possible;
• Keep team members informed on how the overall project is going;
• Don’t let team members vanish;
• Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays;
• Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts.
Managing Project Teams
32
• Encouraging functional conflict:
– Encourage dissent by asking tough questions;
– Bring in people with different points of view;
– Designate someone to be a devil’s advocate;
– Ask the team to consider an alternative.
• Managing dysfunctional conflict:
– Mediate the conflict;
– Arbitrate the conflict;
– Control the conflict;
– Accept the conflict;
– Eliminate the conflict.
Project Teams Conflict
33
Project Teams Pitfalls
Groupthink
Bureaucratic
Bypass syndrome
Team spirit becomes
Team infatuation
Going native
34
Thank You
Next topic:
Leadership in Project Management
35

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Topic 14 - Project Team Management.pdf

  • 2. • Effective team characteristics; • Reasons to join teams; • Team development; • Keys to managing people; • Managing project teams; • Project team conflict; • Project team pitfalls. Project Team Management 2
  • 3. • What is a team? – Team is a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve a given set of objectives or goals. • What is teamwork? – Teamwork is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization. • What is team-building? – Team-building is high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness; – Team building activities include physical challenges and psychological preference indicator tools. Effective Team Characteristics 3
  • 4. • The involvement of a project manager in team work: – Supervisor: Serving as the appointed head of a formal work unit; – Facilitator: Serving as the peer leader and networking hub for a special task force; – Participant: Serving as a helpful, contributing member of a project team; – Coach: Serving as the external convenor or sponsor of a problem-solving team staffed by others. Effective Team Characteristics 4
  • 5. • Project team size: – Performance of a team is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meeting social and emotional needs; – Members help team to manage problems in reducing costs and improving the performance; – Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best; – There are problems to encounter as size increases; – Some issues relating to team size: • It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group; • Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team; • People end up with less commitment to the team goals; • It requires more centralized decision making; • There is lesser feeling as being part of team. Effective Team Characteristics 5
  • 6. • Project team size: – Group intercommunication formula: • n(n − 1) / 2; – Assigning more members to a project running behind schedule will make it even later, due to the time required for the new members to learn about the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. – Examples: • 5 members  5(5−1)/2 = 10 channels of communication; • 10 members  10(10−1)/2 = 45 channels of communication; • 50 members  50(50−1)/2 = 1225 channels of communication. Effective Team Characteristics 6
  • 7. • Common characteristics of an effective team: – Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes; – Accurate effective 2-way communication; – Leadership is shared and participation encouraged; – Effective decision making and problem solving; – Team identity and cohesiveness; – Diverse backgrounds and experience; – Cooperation and collaboration; – Team members share a common identity. Effective Team Characteristics 7
  • 8. • Common characteristics of an effective team: Effective Team Characteristics 8
  • 9. • Individual reasons: – Security; – Status; – Self-esteem; – Affiliation; – Power; – Goal achievement. • Organizational reasons: – Improving performance; – Reducing costs; – Increasing benefit; – Completing common tasks (missions, goals, strategies); – Exploiting experience and skills of members. Reasons to Join Teams 9
  • 10. • Project teams usually come together for a project and then disband. • 5 states model of team development: Team Development 10
  • 11. • Implications in 5 stages model for team development: – A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping the group evolve quickly to the performing phase; – This model provides a framework for the group to understand its own development; – It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes to the level of productivity. • Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of group development. Team Development 11
  • 12. • Punctuated Equilibrium Model: – There are natural transition points during the life of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such a moment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a project; – By imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to create multiple transition points for natural group development. Team Development 12
  • 13. • Punctuated Equilibrium Model: Team Development 13
  • 14. • Training: – The main goal of team development is to help people work together more effectively to improve project performance; – Training can help people understand themselves and each other, and understand how to work better in teams. Team Development 14
  • 15. • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Project Management: • People in technology fields have a tendency to I, N, T instead of E, S, F. Team Development Extrovert Introvert Sensation Intuition Thinking Feeling Judgement Perception E S T J I N F P N P me E T 15
  • 16. • What is your suitability to project work according to MBTI? Team Development 16
  • 17. • What is your suitability to project work according to MBTI? – Most suited for project leadership: • 100 percent: INTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, ESTJ; • 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ. – Best suited as followers: • 100 percent: INFJ, ISFJ; • 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ, ESFJ. – Not suited for project work: • 100 percent: INFP, ISFP, ESFP, ISTP; • 50 percent: ENFP, ESTP. Team Development 17
  • 18. Responsiveness Assertiveness Ask Tell People Task • Social styles profile: – People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones (drivers, expressive, analytical, amiable), based on their assertiveness and responsiveness. – People on opposite corners (drivers and amiable, analytical and expressive) may have difficulty getting along. Team Development Analytical Driver Amiable Expressive 18
  • 19. • Reward and recognition systems: – Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork; – Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals; – Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources; – Recognize individual performance? • Letters of commendation; • Public recognition for outstanding work; • Desirable job assignments; • Increased personal flexibility. Team Development 19
  • 20. • Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work. • Important areas related to project management include: – Motivation; – Influence and power; – Effectiveness. Keys to Managing People 20
  • 21. • Motivation: – Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment, eg. read, gardening… – Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty, eg. homework… – Motivation theorists: • Maslow’s hierarch of needs; • Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene; • McClelland’s acquired-needs; • McGregor’s X and Y. Keys to Managing People 21
  • 22. • Influence and power: – Thamhain and Wilemon’s 9 influence bases available to project managers to deal with workers and how those approaches relate to project success: • Authority - the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders; • Assignment - the ability to influence a worker’s later work assignments; • Budget - the ability to authorize others’ use of discretionary funds; • Promotion - the ability to improve a worker’s position; • Money - the ability to increase a worker’s pay and benefits; • Penalty - the ability to dispense or cause punishment; • Work challenge - the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker’s enjoyment of doing a particular task, which taps an intrinsic motivational factor; • Expertise - the special knowledge that others deem important; • Friendship - the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others. Keys to Managing People 22
  • 23. • Effectiveness: – Steven Covey’s 7 habits that project managers need in order to improve effectiveness on projects: • Be proactive - the ability to be proactive, anticipate and plan for problems and inevitable changes on projects; • Begin with the end in mind - focus on their values, what to accomplish, and how to be remembered through a mission statement; • Put first things first - a time management system and matrix to help to prioritize time, spend more time doing things that are important, but not urgent. Project managers need to spend a lot of time developing the project plan; • Think win/win - several paradigms of interdependence, with think win/win being the best choice in most situations. Parties in potential conflict work together to develop new solutions that make them all winners; • Seek first to understand then to be understood - empathic listening is listening with the intent to understand, is even more powerful than active listening because we forget our personal interests and focus on truly understanding the others; • Synergize - creat collaborative products that are much better than a collection of individual efforts; • Sharpen the saw - renew ourself physically, spiritually, mentally and socially. Keys to Managing People 23
  • 24. • Project managers must lead their teams in performing various project activities. • After assessing team performance and related information, the project manager must decide: – If changes should be requested to the project; – If corrective or preventive actions should be recommended; – If updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational process assets. • Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teams include: – Observation and conversation; – Project performance appraisals; – Conflict management; – Issue logs. Managing Project Teams 24
  • 25. • Develop your team: – Be patient and kind with your team; – Fix the problem instead of blaming people; – Establish regular, effective meetings; – Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stages; – Limit the size of work teams to five to twelve members; – Plan some social activities to help project team members and other stakeholders; – Stress team identity; – Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other; – Take additional actions to work with virtual team members. Managing Project Teams 25
  • 26. • Know the conditions favorable for development of high performing teams: – Voluntary team membership; – Continuous service on the team; – Full-time assignment to the team; – An organization culture of cooperation and trust; – Members report only to the project manager; – Functional areas are represented on the team; – The project has a compelling objective; – Members are in speaking distance of each other. Managing Project Teams 26
  • 27. • Meeting: – A brief diversion into management and meetings; – Normally, we use company time to call a meeting for: • See people, feel important, impress colleagues, draw charts, form subcommittees, make meaningless recommendations. – Conducting project meetings: • Managing subsequent meetings; • Establishing ground rules; • Planning decisions; • Tracking decisions; • Managing change decisions; • Relationship decisions. – Information about a meeting: • Time, date, place, who must be there, meeting goals, agenda, expected outcome, preparation required. Managing Project Teams 27
  • 28. • Recruiting project members: – Factors affecting recruiting; – Importance of the project management structure used to complete the project. – How to recruit? • Ask for volunteers. – Who to recruit? • Problem-solving ability; • Availability; • Technological expertise; • Credibility; • Political connections; • Ambition, initiative, and energy. Managing Project Teams 28
  • 29. • Recruiting Project Members: – Create a high performance project team: • Establish a team identity: – Effective use of meetings; – Co-location of team members; – Creation of project team name; – Team rituals. Managing Project Teams Recruit team members Superior performance Conduct project meetings Establish team identity Create a shared vision Build a reward system Manage decision making Manage conflict Rejuvenate the project team 29
  • 30. • Requirements for an effective project vision: Managing Project Teams 30
  • 31. • Orchestrating the decision-making process: – Problem identification; – Generating alternatives; – Reaching a decision; – Follow-up. • Rejuvenating the project team: – Informal techniques: • Institute new rituals; • Take an off-site break as a team from the project; • View an inspiration message or movie; • Have the project sponsor give a pep talk. – Formal techniques: • Team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance; • Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team. Managing Project Teams 31
  • 32. • Challenges of managing virtual teams: – Developing trust: • Exchange of social information; • Set clear roles for each team member. – Developing effective patterns of communication: • Include face-to-face if at all possible; • Keep team members informed on how the overall project is going; • Don’t let team members vanish; • Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays; • Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts. Managing Project Teams 32
  • 33. • Encouraging functional conflict: – Encourage dissent by asking tough questions; – Bring in people with different points of view; – Designate someone to be a devil’s advocate; – Ask the team to consider an alternative. • Managing dysfunctional conflict: – Mediate the conflict; – Arbitrate the conflict; – Control the conflict; – Accept the conflict; – Eliminate the conflict. Project Teams Conflict 33
  • 34. Project Teams Pitfalls Groupthink Bureaucratic Bypass syndrome Team spirit becomes Team infatuation Going native 34
  • 35. Thank You Next topic: Leadership in Project Management 35