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Quality control of Dairy
industry
Milk Quality
• Microbiological quality
• Milk Composition
• Milk Somatic Cell Count
• Antibiotic Residues
The quicker, modernized way of making low-fat and skim milks is to place the
whole milk into a machine called a centrifugal separator, which spins some or
all of the fat globules out of the milk. This occurs before the milk is
homogenized, a process which reduces all the milk particles to the same size
so that natural separation doesn’t occur anymore.
Federal law mandates that most skim milk has to be fortified with vitamin A
and sometimes vitamin D.
This is due to the fact that even though whole milk naturally has a fair amount
of both, the vitamins are fat soluble and thus lost when the milk fat is removed
during the skimming process.
Milk solids in the form of dried milk are also added since they contain proteins
that help thicken the watery consistency of skim milk
Microbiological Quality
• Direct method:
• SPC (Standard plate count)
• CC (Coliform Count (CC)
• LPC (Lab Pasteurized Count)
• PI (preliminary incubation)
• Indirect method: (Methylene blue reduction test)
• Somatic cell count Leukocytes (white blood cells)and cells
from the udder secretory tissue (epithelial cells) “gold standard”
The somatic cell count (SCC) is a main
indicator of milk quality. The majority of
somatic cells are leukocytes (white blood cells)
– which become present in increasing
numbers in milk usually as an immune
response to a mastitis-causing pathogen – and
a small number of epithelial cells (milk
producing cells) which are shed from the
inside of the udder as a result of infection.
SCC is quantified as the number of cells per ml
of milk. In general terms:
•
An individual cow SCC of 100,000 or less
indicates an uninfected cow, where there are
no significant production losses due to
subclinical mastitis.
https://www.entomoljournal.com/archives/2017/vol5issue6/P
artA/5-5-141-212.pdf
Somatic cell counts –
Using the magic 200,000
cells/ml cut-point to
diagnose subclinical
mastitis
Quality Concerns in Dairy Processing
• Processors must contend with the following problems on a daily basis
• High bacterial loads in raw milk are reducing product shelf life
• High bacterial counts in raw milk are a direct cause of reduced quality in
dairy products
• Antibiotic residues prevent efficient yogurt and cheese production
• Antibiotic and pesticide residues do not meet regional trade standards and
thereby restrict export trade
• A lack of cold chain in collection systems reduces quality
• A lack of cold chain at retail reduces distribution efficiency and causes
products to spoil quickly
• Consumers have inaccurate perceptions about poor milk quality, even
• with processed products.
Clean Milk Production at Farm level
• Clean milk production results in milk that
• Is safe for hum an consumption and free from disease
producing microorganisms
• Has a high keeping quality
• Has a high commercial value
• Can be transported over long distances
• Is a high quality base product for processing, resulting in high
quality products.
Contamination and Control Measures at
Farm Level
• Contamination of milk can occur at the following levels
• Animal shed and environment
• The Animal , its health and management
• Milker and milking routine
• Milking equipment
• Storage and transport
Quality Measures In Milk Collection
Systems Animal Shed
• The animal shed is one of the main sources of contamination.
Mud, urine and feed residues should regularly be rem oved
from the shed.
• The shed should have proper drainage, sufficient light and
ventilation.
• In very wet areas, sprinkling slaked lime over the surface will
help to dry it out quickly.
• The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention.
• The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and
disinfected with one-percent bleaching pow der solution.
Animal Health Care
• Milk from diseased animals should be kept separate and disposed of
safely.
• Animals suffering from any contagious disease, including mastitis,
should be segregated from the healthy ones.
• The skin of the animal provides a large surface for possible
contamination.
• Long hairs on the flanks, hind legs, tail and udder should be clipped
at frequent intervals.
• If washing of animals is not practiced regularly as is observed in
most cases, at least grooming of the animals should be done to keep
the hair and dust away from milk.
• The udder is the part of the animal nearest to the milk and needs to
be washed before each milking, and dried with a clean cloth or towel.
Somatic Cells to Counter Infection
• These germs make it to colonize the teat end and enter the
udder Germs Blood with Nutrients & WBC Cows are exposed to
mastitis causing bacteria in pens or in the milking parlour WBC
sent to fight the germs WBC (somatic cells) are sent to the
Germs ascend to the healthy infected tissue to fight the germs
alveolus of the gland to thereby, they become a component
establish infection in the milk of mastitic cows
Milking
• In the case of hand milking, the danger
• Dirty milking equipment is one of contamination coming from
the the main sources of infection of milker is higher as
compared with milk. machine milking.
• About 15 minutes before milking,
• Feeding roughage at the time of milking should be avoided…..
equipment should be rinsed with a sanitizing solution. In this
way, dust and contamination will be removed.
• If the calves are suckling, the calf should be allowed to suckle
at the beginning of the milking.
Milking
• Milking equipment should also be thoroughly cleaned after use because
any milk residues in the The udders and teats should be washed
equipment will allow and massaged for at least 30 seconds
microorganisms to grow rapidly. and dried prior to milking.
• The utensils and equipment used
• The milk should be drawn directly into during milking should be of the pail
as fast as possible. standard quality. The utensils and equipment should
not have any
• After milking, the teats can be dipped or joints or open seams and should
be sprayed with a gentle antiseptic free from dents, rust etc. solution.
• Should be stored in such a manner
• Care should taken that traces of and location to prevent chemicals used
for cleaning should not contamination from flies, insects be present. dust,
dirt, rodents etc.
Quality Measures in Production Systems
• Intensive Animal Management Practices
• Vaccination against notifiable diseases
• Veterinary care to control mastitis and other diseases
• Proper breeding to improve/ maintain genetics
• Proper feeds that are free of pesticide residues
• Animal holding areas and milking parlors that do not prom ote
the spread of diseases
• Proper milking procedures
Quality Measures at Collection Point
• Creating a record keeping system that documents each mem
ber/ supplier
• Testing each batch received (no matter how small) and
recording the results by member
• Using multiple tests, such as cryoscopy and/ or lactometer for
adulteration, titratable acidity test for bacteria load, and mastitis
detection
• Rejecting milk that falls below specified standards
• Taking corrective action w hen a member repeatedly delivers
milk below quality standards.
Quality Management Systems
• Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) ISO 9000 & ISO
22000
• Enable organizations to
• Demonstrates ability to control food safety hazards
• Demonstrates compliance to statutory & regulatory requirements
• Evaluate assess and meet customers requirements
• Communicates food safety information throughout food chain
• Enables evaluation and updation of the system
• Includes outsourced processes
• Ensures food is safe at the time for human consumption
Storage and Transport
• Before storage, it is best to filter the milk with a clean cloth in order to
remove large particles that might have entered the milk. The cloth
should be thoroughly cleaned after use and left to dry in the sun.
Heat, light and violent movement can all cause breakdown of certain
components in the milk. Milk should therefore be cooled as quickly
as possible. In case chilling is not feasible, preservatives like
lactoperoxidase can be added to prolong the time before the milk
gets spoiled.
• Milk should be stored in clean containers with a lid and kept in a cool
and shady place where the danger of contamination is minimal.
• Milk should be transported in clean containers, transport time should
be kept to an absolute minimum and violent movement of the milk
should be avoided as milk fat can soon turn rancid in the presence of
oxygen.
Support Services
• Milk Producers Organizations (MPOs) should provide “Support- Services”
to increase clean milk production.
• An effective and well trained animal health service should be available at
all times to look after the health of animals, arrangements should be made
for regular vaccination and checking against contagious diseases by the
qualified veterinarians. Veterinary first aid should be readily available
around the clock at village level.
• To avoid spoilage, milk collection centers should be set up at locations that
are easily accessible to the producers.
• Since such programmes benefit all and sundry - may it be manufacturer,
employee, supplier, custom packer, distributor, retailer, consumer,
regulatory authorities and the nation as a whole, they deserve a national
generic promotion campaign to create an awareness amongst the public at
large.
Conclusion
• Raw milk quality control at the village level is a very challenging
task and has to be taken up considering the long term
perspective for making dairy products acceptable in the
international arena.
• Providing a safe, high-quality and nutritious dairy product to the
consumer is need of the hour although challenging because all
aspects of the production chain, from the farm to the consumer,
must be considered.
Quality control of Dairy industry.pdf

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Quality control of Dairy industry.pdf

  • 1. Quality control of Dairy industry
  • 2. Milk Quality • Microbiological quality • Milk Composition • Milk Somatic Cell Count • Antibiotic Residues
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  • 8. The quicker, modernized way of making low-fat and skim milks is to place the whole milk into a machine called a centrifugal separator, which spins some or all of the fat globules out of the milk. This occurs before the milk is homogenized, a process which reduces all the milk particles to the same size so that natural separation doesn’t occur anymore. Federal law mandates that most skim milk has to be fortified with vitamin A and sometimes vitamin D. This is due to the fact that even though whole milk naturally has a fair amount of both, the vitamins are fat soluble and thus lost when the milk fat is removed during the skimming process. Milk solids in the form of dried milk are also added since they contain proteins that help thicken the watery consistency of skim milk
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  • 44. Microbiological Quality • Direct method: • SPC (Standard plate count) • CC (Coliform Count (CC) • LPC (Lab Pasteurized Count) • PI (preliminary incubation) • Indirect method: (Methylene blue reduction test) • Somatic cell count Leukocytes (white blood cells)and cells from the udder secretory tissue (epithelial cells) “gold standard”
  • 45. The somatic cell count (SCC) is a main indicator of milk quality. The majority of somatic cells are leukocytes (white blood cells) – which become present in increasing numbers in milk usually as an immune response to a mastitis-causing pathogen – and a small number of epithelial cells (milk producing cells) which are shed from the inside of the udder as a result of infection. SCC is quantified as the number of cells per ml of milk. In general terms: • An individual cow SCC of 100,000 or less indicates an uninfected cow, where there are no significant production losses due to subclinical mastitis.
  • 47. Somatic cell counts – Using the magic 200,000 cells/ml cut-point to diagnose subclinical mastitis
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  • 49. Quality Concerns in Dairy Processing • Processors must contend with the following problems on a daily basis • High bacterial loads in raw milk are reducing product shelf life • High bacterial counts in raw milk are a direct cause of reduced quality in dairy products • Antibiotic residues prevent efficient yogurt and cheese production • Antibiotic and pesticide residues do not meet regional trade standards and thereby restrict export trade • A lack of cold chain in collection systems reduces quality • A lack of cold chain at retail reduces distribution efficiency and causes products to spoil quickly • Consumers have inaccurate perceptions about poor milk quality, even • with processed products.
  • 50. Clean Milk Production at Farm level • Clean milk production results in milk that • Is safe for hum an consumption and free from disease producing microorganisms • Has a high keeping quality • Has a high commercial value • Can be transported over long distances • Is a high quality base product for processing, resulting in high quality products.
  • 51. Contamination and Control Measures at Farm Level • Contamination of milk can occur at the following levels • Animal shed and environment • The Animal , its health and management • Milker and milking routine • Milking equipment • Storage and transport
  • 52. Quality Measures In Milk Collection Systems Animal Shed • The animal shed is one of the main sources of contamination. Mud, urine and feed residues should regularly be rem oved from the shed. • The shed should have proper drainage, sufficient light and ventilation. • In very wet areas, sprinkling slaked lime over the surface will help to dry it out quickly. • The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention. • The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfected with one-percent bleaching pow der solution.
  • 53. Animal Health Care • Milk from diseased animals should be kept separate and disposed of safely. • Animals suffering from any contagious disease, including mastitis, should be segregated from the healthy ones. • The skin of the animal provides a large surface for possible contamination. • Long hairs on the flanks, hind legs, tail and udder should be clipped at frequent intervals. • If washing of animals is not practiced regularly as is observed in most cases, at least grooming of the animals should be done to keep the hair and dust away from milk. • The udder is the part of the animal nearest to the milk and needs to be washed before each milking, and dried with a clean cloth or towel.
  • 54. Somatic Cells to Counter Infection • These germs make it to colonize the teat end and enter the udder Germs Blood with Nutrients & WBC Cows are exposed to mastitis causing bacteria in pens or in the milking parlour WBC sent to fight the germs WBC (somatic cells) are sent to the Germs ascend to the healthy infected tissue to fight the germs alveolus of the gland to thereby, they become a component establish infection in the milk of mastitic cows
  • 55. Milking • In the case of hand milking, the danger • Dirty milking equipment is one of contamination coming from the the main sources of infection of milker is higher as compared with milk. machine milking. • About 15 minutes before milking, • Feeding roughage at the time of milking should be avoided….. equipment should be rinsed with a sanitizing solution. In this way, dust and contamination will be removed. • If the calves are suckling, the calf should be allowed to suckle at the beginning of the milking.
  • 56. Milking • Milking equipment should also be thoroughly cleaned after use because any milk residues in the The udders and teats should be washed equipment will allow and massaged for at least 30 seconds microorganisms to grow rapidly. and dried prior to milking. • The utensils and equipment used • The milk should be drawn directly into during milking should be of the pail as fast as possible. standard quality. The utensils and equipment should not have any • After milking, the teats can be dipped or joints or open seams and should be sprayed with a gentle antiseptic free from dents, rust etc. solution. • Should be stored in such a manner • Care should taken that traces of and location to prevent chemicals used for cleaning should not contamination from flies, insects be present. dust, dirt, rodents etc.
  • 57. Quality Measures in Production Systems • Intensive Animal Management Practices • Vaccination against notifiable diseases • Veterinary care to control mastitis and other diseases • Proper breeding to improve/ maintain genetics • Proper feeds that are free of pesticide residues • Animal holding areas and milking parlors that do not prom ote the spread of diseases • Proper milking procedures
  • 58. Quality Measures at Collection Point • Creating a record keeping system that documents each mem ber/ supplier • Testing each batch received (no matter how small) and recording the results by member • Using multiple tests, such as cryoscopy and/ or lactometer for adulteration, titratable acidity test for bacteria load, and mastitis detection • Rejecting milk that falls below specified standards • Taking corrective action w hen a member repeatedly delivers milk below quality standards.
  • 59. Quality Management Systems • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) ISO 9000 & ISO 22000 • Enable organizations to • Demonstrates ability to control food safety hazards • Demonstrates compliance to statutory & regulatory requirements • Evaluate assess and meet customers requirements • Communicates food safety information throughout food chain • Enables evaluation and updation of the system • Includes outsourced processes • Ensures food is safe at the time for human consumption
  • 60. Storage and Transport • Before storage, it is best to filter the milk with a clean cloth in order to remove large particles that might have entered the milk. The cloth should be thoroughly cleaned after use and left to dry in the sun. Heat, light and violent movement can all cause breakdown of certain components in the milk. Milk should therefore be cooled as quickly as possible. In case chilling is not feasible, preservatives like lactoperoxidase can be added to prolong the time before the milk gets spoiled. • Milk should be stored in clean containers with a lid and kept in a cool and shady place where the danger of contamination is minimal. • Milk should be transported in clean containers, transport time should be kept to an absolute minimum and violent movement of the milk should be avoided as milk fat can soon turn rancid in the presence of oxygen.
  • 61. Support Services • Milk Producers Organizations (MPOs) should provide “Support- Services” to increase clean milk production. • An effective and well trained animal health service should be available at all times to look after the health of animals, arrangements should be made for regular vaccination and checking against contagious diseases by the qualified veterinarians. Veterinary first aid should be readily available around the clock at village level. • To avoid spoilage, milk collection centers should be set up at locations that are easily accessible to the producers. • Since such programmes benefit all and sundry - may it be manufacturer, employee, supplier, custom packer, distributor, retailer, consumer, regulatory authorities and the nation as a whole, they deserve a national generic promotion campaign to create an awareness amongst the public at large.
  • 62. Conclusion • Raw milk quality control at the village level is a very challenging task and has to be taken up considering the long term perspective for making dairy products acceptable in the international arena. • Providing a safe, high-quality and nutritious dairy product to the consumer is need of the hour although challenging because all aspects of the production chain, from the farm to the consumer, must be considered.